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2019–20 Australian bushfire season - Wikipedia

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					<h1 id="section_0">2019–20 Australian bushfire season</h1>
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<p>The <b>2019–20 Australian bushfire season</b><sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">[a]</a></sup> began with several serious uncontrolled fires in June 2019.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">[12]</a></sup> Hundreds of fires have been or still are burning, mainly in the southeast of the country.
</p><table class="infobox vevent" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" class="summary" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;background-color: sandybrown;">2019–20 Australian bushfire season</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/File:2019-12-07_East_Australian_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" class="image"><img alt="2019-12-07 East Australian Fires Aqua MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/2019-12-07_East_Australian_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png/220px-2019-12-07_East_Australian_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="368" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="1806"></a><div><a href="/wiki/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a> satellite imagery on 7 December 2019, overlaid with markers showing bushfires across the east coast of Australia</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Location</th><td class="location"><a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a> (nationwide)</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background-color: sandybrown;">Statistics</th></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Date(s)</th><td>June 2019 – ongoing</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Burned area</th><td>Approximately 18,636,079 hectares (46,050,750 acres)<sup id="cite_ref-:2_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:2-1">[1]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Cause</th><td>Started fires
<ul><li>Accident<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">[2]</a></sup></li>
<li>Alleged <a href="/wiki/Arson" title="Arson">arson</a><sup id="cite_ref-arson1_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-arson1-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-arson2_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-arson2-4">[4]</a></sup></li>
<li>Lightning strikes<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup></li></ul><p><br>
Enhanced fires
</p>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Drought" title="Drought">Drought</a><sup id="cite_ref-BOM71_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BOM71-6">[6]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Global_warming" title="Global warming">Global warming</a><sup id="cite_ref-BBC1612020_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC1612020-7">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-lucas2007_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lucas2007-8">[8]</a></sup></li>
<li>Positive <a href="/wiki/Indian_Ocean_Dipole" title="Indian Ocean Dipole">Indian Ocean Dipole</a><sup id="cite_ref-BOM71_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BOM71-6">[6]</a></sup></li>
<li>Record-breaking <a href="/wiki/Heat" title="Heat">heat</a><sup id="cite_ref-BOM71_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BOM71-6">[6]</a></sup></li></ul></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Buildings destroyed</th><td>9,352+
<ul><li>3,500 homes<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup></li>
<li>5,852 outbuildings<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">[10]</a></sup></li></ul></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Fatalities</th><td>34<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">[11]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background-color: sandybrown;">Season</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><div style="float: left;">← <a href="/wiki/2018%E2%80%9319_Australian_bushfire_season" title="2018–19 Australian bushfire season">Previous season</a></div>
<div style="float: right;"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2020%E2%80%9321_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="2020–21 Australian bushfire season (page does not exist)">Next season</a> →</div></td></tr></tbody></table><p>As of 14 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, fires this season have burnt an estimated 18.6 million <a href="/wiki/Hectare" title="Hectare">hectares</a> (46 million <a href="/wiki/Acre" title="Acre">acres</a>; 186,000 <a href="/wiki/Square_kilometre" title="Square kilometre">square kilometres</a>; 72,000 <a href="/wiki/Square_mile" title="Square mile">square miles</a>),<sup id="cite_ref-:2_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:2-1">[1]</a></sup> destroyed over 5,900 buildings (including 2,779 homes)<sup id="cite_ref-:14_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:14-14">[13]</a></sup> and killed at least 34 people.<sup id="cite_ref-Reuters20200114_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Reuters20200114-15">[14]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-abc2020014vic_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-abc2020014vic-16">[15]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[16]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[17]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SMH20200124_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH20200124-19">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-fn1_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fn1-20">[b]</a></sup> An estimated one <a href="/wiki/1,000,000,000" title="1,000,000,000">billion</a> animals have been killed and some endangered species may be driven to extinction.<sup id="cite_ref-:8_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:8-21">[19]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-:4_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:4-22">[20]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-:7_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:7-23">[21]</a></sup> Air quality has dropped to hazardous levels.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">[22]</a></sup> The cost of dealing with the bushfires is expected to exceed the <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>4.4 billion of the <a href="/wiki/Black_Saturday_bushfires" title="Black Saturday bushfires">2009 Black Saturday fires</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">[23]</a></sup> and tourism sector revenues have fallen more than <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>1 billion.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">[24]</a></sup> By 7 January 2020, the smoke had moved approximately 11,000 kilometres (6,800 mi) across the South Pacific Ocean to <a href="/wiki/Chile" title="Chile">Chile</a> and <a href="/wiki/Argentina" title="Argentina">Argentina</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-auto3_27-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto3-27">[25]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto4_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto4-28">[26]</a></sup> As of 2 January 2020, <a href="/wiki/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a> estimated that 306 million tonnes (337 million short tons) of CO<sub>2</sub> was emitted.<sup id="cite_ref-auto5_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto5-29">[27]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto7_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto7-30">[28]</a></sup></p><p>From September 2019, fires heavily impacted various <a href="/wiki/Regions_of_New_South_Wales" title="Regions of New South Wales">regions of the state of New South Wales</a>. In <a href="/wiki/East_Gippsland" title="East Gippsland">eastern</a> and <a href="/wiki/North_East_Victoria" title="North East Victoria">north-eastern</a> <a href="/wiki/Victoria_(Australia)" title="Victoria (Australia)">Victoria</a> large areas of forest burnt out of control for four weeks before the fires emerged from the forests in late December. Multiple <a href="/wiki/State_of_emergency" title="State of emergency">states of emergency</a> were declared across <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales" title="New South Wales">New South Wales</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">[29]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">[31]</a></sup> Victoria,<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">[32]</a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Australian Capital Territory">Australian Capital Territory</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">[33]</a></sup> Reinforcements from all over Australia were called in to assist fighting the fires and relieve exhausted local crews in New South Wales. The <a href="/wiki/Australian_Defence_Force" title="Australian Defence Force">Australian Defence Force</a> was mobilised to provide air support to the firefighting effort and to provide manpower and logistical support.<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">[35]</a></sup> Firefighters and equipment from <a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a>, <a href="/wiki/Singapore" title="Singapore">Singapore</a>, <a href="/wiki/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a> and the <a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>, among others, helped fight the fires, especially in New South Wales.<sup id="cite_ref-SGP_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SGP-38">[36]</a></sup></p><p>As of 23 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, an <a href="/wiki/Aerial_firefighting" title="Aerial firefighting">air tanker</a><sup id="cite_ref-smh20200123_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-smh20200123-39">[37]</a></sup> and two helicopters<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40">[38]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">[39]</a></sup> have crashed during firefighting operations, the air tanker crash resulting in the deaths of the three crew. Two fire trucks were caught in fatal incidents caused directly by fire conditions, killing three fire fighters.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">[40]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43">[41]</a></sup></p><p>There has been considerable debate regarding the underlying cause of the intensity and scale of the fires, including the role of fire management practices and <a href="/wiki/Climate_change" class="mw-redirect" title="Climate change">climate change</a>, which has attracted significant international attention. Politicians visiting fire impacted areas have received negative responses, in particular Prime Minister <a href="/wiki/Scott_Morrison" title="Scott Morrison">Scott Morrison</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-news9cobargo_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-news9cobargo-44">[42]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-abc1cobargo_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-abc1cobargo-45">[43]</a></sup>  An estimated <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>500 million was donated by the public at large, international organisations, public figures and celebrities for <a href="/wiki/Aid" title="Aid">victim relief</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wildlife_rehabilitation" title="Wildlife rehabilitation">wildlife recovery</a>. Convoys of <a href="/wiki/Food_drive" title="Food drive">donated food</a>, clothing and livestock feed were sent to affected areas.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none"><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul><li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Overview"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Overview</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Fire_potential"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Fire potential</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Regions_affected"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Regions affected</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#New_South_Wales"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">New South Wales</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-5"><a href="#North_Coast"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">North Coast</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-6"><a href="#Mid_North_Coast"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Mid North Coast</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#Hunter"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Hunter</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-8"><a href="#Blue_Mountains_and_Hawkesbury"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-9"><a href="#Sydney"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Sydney</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-10"><a href="#Southern_Highlands"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.6</span> <span class="toctext">Southern Highlands</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-11"><a href="#South_Coast"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.7</span> <span class="toctext">South Coast</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-12"><a href="#Riverina"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.8</span> <span class="toctext">Riverina</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-13"><a href="#Snowy_Mountains"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.9</span> <span class="toctext">Snowy Mountains</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Victoria"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Victoria</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Queensland"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Queensland</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#South_Australia"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">South Australia</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Western_Australia"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">Western Australia</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Tasmania"><span class="tocnumber">3.6</span> <span class="toctext">Tasmania</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Australian_Capital_Territory"><span class="tocnumber">3.7</span> <span class="toctext">Australian Capital Territory</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Northern_Territory"><span class="tocnumber">3.8</span> <span class="toctext">Northern Territory</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a href="#Precedents"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Precedents</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a href="#Environmental_effects"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Environmental effects</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#Ecological_effects"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Ecological effects</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a href="#Archaeological_effects"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Archaeological effects</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#Domestic_response"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Domestic response</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#New_South_Wales_2"><span class="tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">New South Wales</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Commonwealth"><span class="tocnumber">8.2</span> <span class="toctext">Commonwealth</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-28"><a href="#Military"><span class="tocnumber">8.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Military</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a href="#Community_organisations"><span class="tocnumber">8.3</span> <span class="toctext">Community organisations</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#International_response"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">International response</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-31"><a href="#International_aid"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">International aid</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32"><a href="#Causes"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Causes</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-33"><a href="#Ignition"><span class="tocnumber">10.1</span> <span class="toctext">Ignition</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-34"><a href="#Drought_and_temperature"><span class="tocnumber">10.2</span> <span class="toctext">Drought and temperature</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-35"><a href="#Climate_change"><span class="tocnumber">10.3</span> <span class="toctext">Climate change</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-36"><a href="#Disputed_causes"><span class="tocnumber">10.4</span> <span class="toctext">Disputed causes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-37"><a href="#Disinformation_and_contested_reporting"><span class="tocnumber">10.5</span> <span class="toctext">Disinformation and contested reporting</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-38"><a href="#Political_response"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Political response</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-39"><a href="#Criticism"><span class="tocnumber">11.1</span> <span class="toctext">Criticism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-40"><a href="#Royal_commission_and_other_inquiries"><span class="tocnumber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Royal commission and other inquiries</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-41"><a href="#Other_names"><span class="tocnumber">11.3</span> <span class="toctext">Other names</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-42"><a href="#Donations"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Donations</span></a>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-43"><a href="#Scams_and_fraud"><span class="tocnumber">12.1</span> <span class="toctext">Scams and fraud</span></a></li>
</ul></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-44"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-45"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-46"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">15</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-47"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">16</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul></div>

</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(1)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Overview">Overview</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Overview" data-section="1" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-1 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-1">
<p>From September 2019, fires heavily impacted various <a href="/wiki/Regions_of_New_South_Wales" title="Regions of New South Wales">regions of the state of New South Wales</a>, such as the <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_North_Coast" title="New South Wales North Coast">North Coast</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mid_North_Coast" title="Mid North Coast">Mid North Coast</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Hunter_Region" title="Hunter Region">Hunter Region</a>, the <a href="/wiki/City_of_Hawkesbury" title="City of Hawkesbury">Hawkesbury</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Wollondilly" class="mw-redirect" title="Wollondilly">Wollondilly</a> in <a href="/wiki/Sydney" title="Sydney">Sydney</a>'s far west, the <a href="/wiki/Blue_Mountains_(New_South_Wales)" title="Blue Mountains (New South Wales)">Blue Mountains</a>, <a href="/wiki/Illawarra" title="Illawarra">Illawarra</a> and the <a href="/wiki/South_Coast_(New_South_Wales)" title="South Coast (New South Wales)">South Coast</a>, <a href="/wiki/Riverina" title="Riverina">Riverina</a> and <a href="/wiki/Snowy_Mountains" title="Snowy Mountains">Snowy Mountains</a> with more than 100 fires burnt across the state. In <a href="/wiki/East_Gippsland" title="East Gippsland">eastern</a> and <a href="/wiki/North_East_Victoria" title="North East Victoria">north-eastern</a> <a href="/wiki/Victoria_(Australia)" title="Victoria (Australia)">Victoria</a>, large areas of forest burnt out of control for four weeks before the fires emerged from the forests in late December, taking lives, threatening many towns and isolating <a href="/wiki/Corryong" title="Corryong">Corryong</a> and <a href="/wiki/Mallacoota" class="mw-redirect" title="Mallacoota">Mallacoota</a>. A <a href="/wiki/Disaster_area" title="Disaster area">state of disaster</a> was declared for <a href="/wiki/East_Gippsland" title="East Gippsland">East Gippsland</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Guardian-46">[44]</a></sup> Significant fires occurred in the <a href="/wiki/Adelaide_Hills" title="Adelaide Hills">Adelaide Hills</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kangaroo_Island" title="Kangaroo Island">Kangaroo Island</a> in <a href="/wiki/South_Australia" title="South Australia">South Australia</a> and parts of the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Australian Capital Territory">ACT</a>. Moderately affected areas were <a href="/wiki/South_East_Queensland" title="South East Queensland">south-eastern</a> <a href="/wiki/Queensland" title="Queensland">Queensland</a> and areas of <a href="/wiki/South_West_(Western_Australia)" title="South West (Western Australia)">south-western</a> <a href="/wiki/Western_Australia" title="Western Australia">Western Australia</a>, with a few areas in <a href="/wiki/Tasmania" title="Tasmania">Tasmania</a> being mildly impacted.
</p><p>On 12 November 2019, catastrophic fire danger was declared in the <a href="/wiki/Greater_Western_Sydney" title="Greater Western Sydney">Greater Sydney</a> region for the first time since the introduction of this level in 2009 and a total fire ban was in place for seven regions of New South Wales, including Greater Sydney.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">[45]</a></sup> The Illawarra and Greater Hunter areas also experienced catastrophic fire dangers, and so did other parts of the state, including the already fire ravaged parts of northern New South Wales.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">[46]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/List_of_political_controversies_in_Australia" title="List of political controversies in Australia">political ramifications</a> of the fire season have been significant. A decision by the <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Government" class="mw-redirect" title="New South Wales Government">New South Wales Government</a> to cut funding to fire services based on budget estimates, as well as a <a href="/wiki/Vacation#Regional_meaning" title="Vacation">holiday</a> taken by <a href="/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Australia" title="Prime Minister of Australia">Australian Prime Minister</a> <a href="/wiki/Scott_Morrison" title="Scott Morrison">Scott Morrison</a>, during a period in which two volunteer firefighters died, and his perceived apathy towards the situation, resulted in controversy.
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:252px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bushfire_smoke_over_the_Sydney_Opera_House_and_Harbour_Bridge_in_December_2019.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Bushfire_smoke_over_the_Sydney_Opera_House_and_Harbour_Bridge_in_December_2019.jpg/250px-Bushfire_smoke_over_the_Sydney_Opera_House_and_Harbour_Bridge_in_December_2019.jpg" decoding="async" width="250" height="150" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="3354" data-file-height="2008"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 250px;height: 150px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Bushfire_smoke_over_the_Sydney_Opera_House_and_Harbour_Bridge_in_December_2019.jpg/250px-Bushfire_smoke_over_the_Sydney_Opera_House_and_Harbour_Bridge_in_December_2019.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="250" data-height="150" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bushfire_smoke_over_the_Sydney_Opera_House_and_Harbour_Bridge_in_December_2019.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Bushfire smoke over the <a href="/wiki/Sydney_Opera_House" title="Sydney Opera House">Sydney Opera House</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sydney_Harbour_Bridge" title="Sydney Harbour Bridge">Sydney Harbour Bridge</a> on 29 December</div></div></div>
<p>As of 14 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, 18.626 million hectares (46.03 million acres) was burnt or is burning across all <a href="/wiki/States_and_territories_of_Australia" title="States and territories of Australia">Australian states and territories</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> Ecologists from <a href="/wiki/The_University_of_Sydney" class="mw-redirect" title="The University of Sydney">The University of Sydney</a> estimated 480 million mammals, birds, and reptiles were lost since September with concerns that entire species of plants and animals may have been wiped out by bushfire,<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">[48]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">[49]</a></sup> later expanded to more than a billion.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_52-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-52">[50]</a></sup></p><p>Since the start of the season, the ongoing bushfires have destroyed 2,176 homes, as well as 48 facilities and more than 2,000 outbuildings in New South Wales alone.<sup id="cite_ref-guardian8mil_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-guardian8mil-53">[51]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">[52]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">[53]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">[54]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">[55]</a></sup> Twenty-five people were confirmed to have been killed in New South Wales since October. The latest fatality reported was on 23 January 2020 following the death of a man near <a href="/wiki/Moruya,_New_South_Wales" title="Moruya, New South Wales">Moruya</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-SMH20200124_19-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH20200124-19">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">[56]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">[57]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">[58]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">[59]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">[60]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Firefighter_Deaths_20191219_63-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Firefighter_Deaths_20191219-63">[61]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64">[62]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">[63]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66">[64]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-smh20200123_39-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-smh20200123-39">[37]</a></sup></p><p>In New South Wales, the fires burnt through more land than any other blazes in the past 25 years, in addition to being the state's worst bushfire season on record.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">[65]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">[66]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">[67]</a></sup> NSW also experienced the longest continuously burning bushfire complex in Australia's history, having burnt more than 4 million hectares (9,900,000 acres), with 70-metre-high (230 ft) flames being reported.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">[68]</a></sup> In comparison, the <a href="/wiki/2018_California_wildfires" title="2018 California wildfires">2018 California wildfires</a> consumed 800,000 hectares (2,000,000 acres) and the <a href="/wiki/2019_Amazon_rainforest_wildfires" title="2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires">2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires</a> burnt 900,000 hectares (2,200,000 acres) of land.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">[69]</a></sup></p><p>Whereas these bushfires are regarded by the <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Rural_Fire_Service" title="New South Wales Rural Fire Service">NSW Rural Fire Service</a> as the worst bushfire season in memory for that state,<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">[70]</a></sup> the <a href="/wiki/1974-75_Australian_bushfire_season" title="1974-75 Australian bushfire season">1974-75 bushfires</a> were nationally much larger<sup id="cite_ref-fn1_20-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fn1-20">[b]</a></sup> consuming 117 million <a href="/wiki/Hectare" title="Hectare">hectares</a> (290 million <a href="/wiki/Acre" title="Acre">acres</a>; 1,170,000 <a href="/wiki/Square_kilometre" title="Square kilometre">square kilometres</a>; 450,000 <a href="/wiki/Square_mile" title="Square mile">square miles</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-:9_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:9-73">[71]</a></sup> However, due to their lower intensity and remote location, the 1974 fires caused around <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>5 million (approximately <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>36.5 million in 2020<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">[72]</a></sup>) in damages.<sup id="cite_ref-:9_73-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:9-73">[71]</a></sup> In December 2019 the <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Government" class="mw-redirect" title="New South Wales Government">New South Wales Government</a> declared a <a href="/wiki/State_of_emergency" title="State of emergency">state of emergency</a> after record-breaking temperatures and prolonged <a href="/wiki/Drought_in_Australia" title="Drought in Australia">drought</a> exacerbated the bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75">[73]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">[74]</a></sup></p><p>Due to safety concerns and significant public pressure, <a href="/wiki/New_Year%27s_Eve" title="New Year's Eve">New Year's Eve</a> fireworks displays were cancelled across New South Wales including highly popular events at <a href="/wiki/Campbelltown,_New_South_Wales" title="Campbelltown, New South Wales">Campbelltown</a>, <a href="/wiki/Liverpool,_New_South_Wales" title="Liverpool, New South Wales">Liverpool</a>, <a href="/wiki/Parramatta" title="Parramatta">Parramatta</a>, and across Sydney's <a href="/wiki/Northern_Beaches_(Sydney)" class="mw-redirect" title="Northern Beaches (Sydney)">Northern Beaches</a>, and as well in the nation's capital of <a href="/wiki/Canberra" title="Canberra">Canberra</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">[75]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">[76]</a></sup> As temperatures reached 49 °C (120 °F), the <a href="/wiki/Premier_of_New_South_Wales" title="Premier of New South Wales">New South Wales Premier</a> <a href="/wiki/Gladys_Berejiklian" title="Gladys Berejiklian">Gladys Berejiklian</a> called a fresh seven-day state of emergency with effect from 9am on 3 January 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC-2020-01-02_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC-2020-01-02-79">[77]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SBS-2020-01-02_80-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS-2020-01-02-80">[78]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-2020-01-02_81-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-2020-01-02-81">[79]</a></sup></p><p>On 23 January, a <a href="/wiki/Lockheed_C-130_Hercules" title="Lockheed C-130 Hercules">Lockheed C-130 Hercules</a> <a href="/wiki/Air_tanker" class="mw-redirect" title="Air tanker">air tanker</a> crashed at Peak View near <a href="/wiki/Cooma,_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Cooma, New South Wales">Cooma</a> while waterbombing a blaze, resulting in the death of the three American crew members on board.<sup id="cite_ref-smh20200123_39-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-smh20200123-39">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Online_82-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Online-82">[80]</a></sup> It was one of eleven large air tankers brought to Australia for the fire season from Canada and US.<sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83">[81]</a></sup> An investigation is underway by the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Transport_Safety_Bureau" title="Australian Transport Safety Bureau">ATSB</a> to determine the cause of the accident.<sup id="cite_ref-:1_84-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-84">[82]</a></sup> Reaching the crash site proved difficult due to the active bushfires in the area.<sup id="cite_ref-:1_84-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-84">[82]</a></sup> The crash site was located in dense bushland, and spanned approximately 1 kilometre (0.62 mi).<sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85">[83]</a></sup></p><p>On 31 January, the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Australian Capital Territory">Australian Capital Territory</a> declared a state of emergency in areas around <a href="/wiki/Canberra" title="Canberra">Canberra</a><sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86">[84]</a></sup> as several bushfires threatened the city, having burnt 60,000 hectares (150,000 acres).<sup id="cite_ref-87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">[85]</a></sup></p><p>On 7 February it was reported that torrential rain across most of south-east Australia had extinguished a third of extant fires;<sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">[86]</a></sup> with only a small number of uncontrolled fires remaining by 10 February.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup></p>
<table class="wikitable sortable plainrowheaders"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" style="font-weight:bold;" rowspan="2">State / territory
</th>
<th scope="col" style="font-weight:bold;" rowspan="2">Fatalities
</th>
<th scope="col" style="font-weight:bold;" rowspan="2">Homes<br>lost
</th>
<th scope="col" style="font-weight:bold;" colspan="2">Area<br><span style="font-size:85%;">(estimated)</span>
</th>
<th scope="col" style="font-weight:bold;" rowspan="2">Notes
</th></tr><tr><th><a href="/wiki/Hectare" title="Hectare">ha</a></th>
<th><a href="/wiki/Acre" title="Acre">acres</a>
</th></tr><tr><th scope="row">Australian Capital Territory
</th>
<td align="right">1
</td>
<td align="right">0
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">56,688
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">140,080
</td>
<td><small>Area;<sup id="cite_ref-ABC-ACT-area_90-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC-ACT-area-90">[88]</a></sup></small><sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">[89]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-92" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-92">[90]</a></sup> <small>fatality<sup id="cite_ref-94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94">[c]</a></sup></small><sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-95">[92]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">New South Wales
</th>
<td align="right">25
</td>
<td align="right">2,439
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">5,400,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">13,300,000
</td>
<td><small>Area;</small><sup id="cite_ref-:15_96-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:15-96">[93]</a></sup> <small>fatalities;<sup id="cite_ref-SMH20200124_19-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH20200124-19">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-smh20200123_39-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-smh20200123-39">[37]</a></sup> homes</small><sup id="cite_ref-:15_96-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:15-96">[93]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Northern Territory
</th>
<td align="right">0
</td>
<td align="right">5
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">6,800,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">16,800,000
</td>
<td><small>Area, includes mainly scrub fires, which are within the normal range of area burnt by bushfires each year;<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> homes<sup id="cite_ref-wt20200108_97-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wt20200108-97">[94]</a></sup></small>
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Queensland
</th>
<td align="right">0
</td>
<td align="right">48
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">2,500,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">6,180,000
</td>
<td><small>Area, includes scrub fires;<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> homes<sup id="cite_ref-wt20200108_97-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wt20200108-97">[94]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-102" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-102">[d]</a></sup></small>
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">South Australia
</th>
<td align="right">3
</td>
<td align="right">151
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">490,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">1,210,000
</td>
<td><small>Area;<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> fatalities;<sup id="cite_ref-sevennews20200108_103-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sevennews20200108-103">[99]</a></sup> homes (<a href="/wiki/Kangaroo_Island" title="Kangaroo Island">KI</a>:65)<sup id="cite_ref-104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104">[100]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/Adelaide_Hills" title="Adelaide Hills">AH</a>:86)<sup id="cite_ref-105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105">[101]</a></sup></small>
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Tasmania
</th>
<td align="right">0
</td>
<td align="right">2
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">36,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">89,000
</td>
<td><small>Area;<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> homes<sup id="cite_ref-wt20200108_97-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wt20200108-97">[94]</a></sup></small>
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Victoria
</th>
<td align="right">5
</td>
<td align="right">396
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">1,500,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">3,710,000
</td>
<td><small>Area;<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> fatalities;<sup id="cite_ref-abc2020014vic_16-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-abc2020014vic-16">[15]</a></sup> homes<sup id="cite_ref-106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106">[102]</a></sup></small>
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Western Australia
</th>
<td align="right">0
</td>
<td align="right">1
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">2,200,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">5,440,000
</td>
<td><small>Area, includes scrub fires;<sup id="cite_ref-ninenews20200114_49-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ninenews20200114-49">[47]</a></sup> homes<sup id="cite_ref-wt20200108_97-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wt20200108-97">[94]</a></sup></small>
</td></tr><tr class="sortbottom"><th scope="row" style="font-weight:bold;">Total
</th>
<td style="font-weight:bold; text-align:right;">33 <sup id="cite_ref-107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107">[103]</a></sup></td>
<td style="font-weight:bold; text-align:right;">3,500+ <sup id="cite_ref-108" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-108">[104]</a></sup></td>
<td style="text-align:right;">18,736,070
</td>
<td style="text-align:right;">46,300,000
</td>
<td><sup id="cite_ref-109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109">[e]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-fn1_20-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fn1-20">[b]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-guardian107m_113-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-guardian107m-113">[108]</a></sup> <small>Total area estimate as of 13 February 2020; current figure may be more</small>
</td></tr></tbody></table></section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(2)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Fire_potential">Fire potential</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Fire potential" data-section="2" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-2 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-2">
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Garnaut_Climate_Change_Review" title="Garnaut Climate Change Review">Garnaut Climate Change Review</a> of 2008 stated:<sup id="cite_ref-garnaut2008_114-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-garnaut2008-114">[109]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7news20200107_115-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7news20200107-115">[110]</a></sup></p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047036">.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}</style><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>Recent projections of fire weather (Lucas, <i>et al.</i>, 2007)<sup id="cite_ref-lucas2007_8-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lucas2007-8">[8]</a></sup> suggest that fire seasons will start earlier, end slightly later, and generally be more intense. This effect increases over time, but should be directly observable by 2020.
</p></blockquote>
<p>To describe emerging fire trends the study by Lucas and others defined two new fire weather categories, "very extreme" and "catastrophic".
</p><p>The analysis by the <a href="/wiki/Bushfire_and_Natural_Hazards_CRC" title="Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC">Bushfire CRC</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Bureau_of_Meteorology" class="mw-redirect" title="Australian Bureau of Meteorology">Australian Bureau of Meteorology</a>, and <a href="/wiki/CSIRO_Marine_and_Atmospheric_Research" class="mw-redirect" title="CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research">CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research</a> found that the number of "very high" fire danger days generally increases 2–13% by 2020 for the low scenarios (<small>global increase by 0.4 °C (0.72 °F)</small>) and 10–30% for the high scenarios (<small>global increase by 1.0 °C (1.8 °F)</small>). The number of "extreme" fire danger days generally increases 5–25% by 2020 for the low scenarios and 15–65% for the high scenarios.<sup id="cite_ref-lucas2007_8-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lucas2007-8">[8]</a></sup></p><p>In April 2019 a group of former Australian fire services chiefs warned that Australia was not prepared for the upcoming fire season. They called on the next prime minister<sup id="cite_ref-116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-116">[f]</a></sup> to meet the former emergency service leaders "who will outline, unconstrained by their former employers, how climate change risks are rapidly escalating".<sup id="cite_ref-117" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-117">[111]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-118">[112]</a></sup></p><p>In August 2019 the federally funded <a href="/wiki/Bushfire_and_Natural_Hazards_CRC" title="Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC">Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC</a> published a seasonal outlook report which advised of "above normal fire potential" for southern and southeast Queensland, the east coast areas of New South Wales and Victoria, for parts of Western Australia and South Australia.<sup id="cite_ref-119" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-119">[113]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-120" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-120">[114]</a></sup> In December 2019, the Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC updated their advice of "above normal fire potential".<sup id="cite_ref-121" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-121">[115]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(3)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Regions_affected">Regions affected</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Regions affected" data-section="3" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-3 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-3">
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="New_South_Wales">New South Wales</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: New South Wales" data-section="4" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>The NSW statutory Bush Fire Danger Period normally begins on 1 October and continues through until 31 March.<sup id="cite_ref-122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122">[116]</a></sup> In 2019–20, the fire season started early with drought affecting 95 percent of the state and persistent dry and warm conditions across the state.<sup id="cite_ref-RFS_41(2)_123-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RFS_41(2)-123">[117]</a></sup> Twelve <a href="/wiki/Local_government_in_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Local government in New South Wales">local government areas</a> started the Bush Fire Danger Period two months early, on 1 August 2019,<sup id="cite_ref-124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124">[118]</a></sup> and nine more started on 17 August 2019.<sup id="cite_ref-RFS_41(2)_123-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RFS_41(2)-123">[117]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-125" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-125">[119]</a></sup> In the week preceding 10 February 2020, a wide band of heavy rain swept through most of coastal New South Wales, extinguishing a significant number of fires; it left 33 active fires, of which five were uncontrolled, all located in the Bega Valley and Snowy Mountains regions.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126">[120]</a></sup> Between July 2019 and 13 February 2020, the NSW Rural Fire Service reported that 11,264 bush or grass fires burnt 5.4 million hectares (13 million acres), destroyed 2,439 homes, and approximately 24 megalitres (5.3 million imperial gallons; 6.3 million US gallons) of <a href="/wiki/Fire_retardant" title="Fire retardant">fire retardant</a> was used.<sup id="cite_ref-BBC_News_2020-02-14_127-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC_News_2020-02-14-127">[121]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="North_Coast">North Coast</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: North Coast" data-section="5" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>On 6 September 2019, the northern parts of the state experienced extreme fire dangers. Fires included the Long Gully Road fire near <a href="/wiki/Drake,_New_South_Wales" title="Drake, New South Wales">Drake</a> which burnt until the end of October, killing two people and destroying 43 homes;<sup id="cite_ref-128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128">[122]</a></sup> the Mount McKenzie Road fire which burnt across the southern outskirts of <a href="/wiki/Tenterfield,_New_South_Wales" title="Tenterfield, New South Wales">Tenterfield</a>, and severely injured one person, destroyed one home and badly damaged four homes; and the Bees Nest fire near <a href="/wiki/Ebor,_New_South_Wales" title="Ebor, New South Wales">Ebor</a> which burnt until 12 November and destroyed seven homes.<sup id="cite_ref-129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129">[123]</a></sup></p><p>Smaller fires in the area include the Myall Creek Road fire.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Mid_North_Coast">Mid North Coast</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=6" title="Edit section: Mid North Coast" data-section="6" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Port_Macquarie" title="Port Macquarie">Port Macquarie</a>-<a href="/wiki/Hastings_River" title="Hastings River">Hastings</a> area, the first fire was reported at Lindfield Park on 18 July 2019,<sup id="cite_ref-130" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-130">[124]</a></sup> burning in dry <a href="/wiki/Peat_swamp" class="mw-redirect" title="Peat swamp">peat swamp</a> and threatened homes at Sovereign Hills and crossed the <a href="/wiki/Pacific_Highway_(Australia)" title="Pacific Highway (Australia)">Pacific Highway</a> at Sancrox. On 12 February 2020, the fire was declared extinguished after 210 days, having burnt 858 hectares (2,120 acres), of which approximately 400 hectares (990 acres) was underground;<sup id="cite_ref-SMH-Bungard_2020-02-12_131-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH-Bungard_2020-02-12-131">[125]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-132" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-132">[126]</a></sup> near the <a href="/wiki/Port_Macquarie_Airport" title="Port Macquarie Airport">Port Macquarie Airport</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-133" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-133">[127]</a></sup> The peat fire was extinguished after 65 <a href="/wiki/Megalitre" class="mw-redirect" title="Megalitre">megalitres</a> (14 million <a href="/wiki/Imperial_gallon" class="mw-redirect" title="Imperial gallon">imperial gallons</a>; 17 million <a href="/wiki/US_gallon" class="mw-redirect" title="US gallon">US gallons</a>) of reclaimed water were pumped into adjacent wetlands; followed by 260 millimetres (10 in) of rain over five days.<sup id="cite_ref-SMH-Bungard_2020-02-12_131-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH-Bungard_2020-02-12-131">[125]</a></sup> In the Port Macquarie suburb of Crestwood a fire started on 26 October from a dry electrical storm. <a href="/wiki/Aerial_firefighting#Water_bombers" title="Aerial firefighting">Water bombers</a> were delayed the following day in attempts to bring the fire burning in swampland to the south west of Port Macquarie under control. A <a href="/wiki/Back_burn" class="mw-redirect" title="Back burn">back burn</a> on 28 October got away from <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Rural_Fire_Service" title="New South Wales Rural Fire Service">New South Wales Rural Fire Service</a> (NSWRFS) volunteers after a sudden wind change pushing the fire south towards <a href="/wiki/Lake_Cathie" class="mw-redirect" title="Lake Cathie">Lake Cathie</a> and west over <a href="/wiki/Lake_Innes" title="Lake Innes">Lake Innes</a>. Port Macquarie and surrounding areas were blanketed in thick smoke on 29 October with ongoing fire activity over the following week caused the sky to have an orange glow. 
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:AwabaFire2019.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/AwabaFire2019.jpg/220px-AwabaFire2019.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="219" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="1005" data-file-height="999"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 219px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/AwabaFire2019.jpg/220px-AwabaFire2019.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="219" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:AwabaFire2019.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Smoke caused by a fire in <a href="/wiki/Awaba,_New_South_Wales" title="Awaba, New South Wales">Awaba</a></div></div></div>
<p>A fire burnt in wilderness areas on the Carrai Plateau west of <a href="/wiki/Kempsey,_New_South_Wales" title="Kempsey, New South Wales">Kempsey</a>. This fire joined up with the Stockyard Creek fire and together with the Coombes Gap fire and swept east towards Willawarrin, Temagog, Birdwood, Yarras, Bellangary, Kindee and Upper Rollands Plains. Land around <a href="/wiki/Nowendoc" class="mw-redirect" title="Nowendoc">Nowendoc</a> and Yarrowich was also burnt. As of 6 December 2019<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, this fire burnt more than 12,000 hectares (29,653 acres),<sup id="cite_ref-134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134">[128]</a></sup> destroying numerous homes and claiming the lives of three people.<sup id="cite_ref-Argus_tributes_135-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Argus_tributes-135">[129]</a></sup></p><p>North-west of <a href="/wiki/Harrington,_New_South_Wales" title="Harrington, New South Wales">Harrington</a> near the Cattai Wetlands a fire started on 28 October, this fire threatened the towns of Harrington, <a href="/wiki/Crowdy_Head" title="Crowdy Head">Crowdy Head</a> and <a href="/wiki/Johns_River,_New_South_Wales" title="Johns River, New South Wales">Johns River</a> as it burnt north towards Dunbogan. This fire claimed one life at Johns River,<sup id="cite_ref-Argus_tributes_135-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Argus_tributes-135">[129]</a></sup> where it also destroyed homes, and burnt more than 12,000 hectares (29,653 acres).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Family_home_destroyed.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Family_home_destroyed.jpg/220px-Family_home_destroyed.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="4032" data-file-height="3024"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Family_home_destroyed.jpg/220px-Family_home_destroyed.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Family_home_destroyed.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>House destroyed in Hillville, NSW on 12 November 2019</div></div></div><p>
At Hillville, a fire grew large due to hot and windy conditions, resulting in disorder in the nearby town of <a href="/wiki/Taree" title="Taree">Taree</a>, to the north. Buses were called in early to take students home before the fire threat became too dangerous. On 9 November 2019, the fire reached <a href="/wiki/Old_Bar" class="mw-redirect" title="Old Bar">Old Bar</a> and Wallabi Point, threatening many properties. The following two days saw the fire reach <a href="/wiki/Tinonee" class="mw-redirect" title="Tinonee">Tinonee</a> and <a href="/wiki/Taree" title="Taree">Taree</a> South, threatening the Taree Service Centre. Water bombers dropped water on the facility to protect it. The fire briefly turned in the direction of <a href="/wiki/Nabiac" class="mw-redirect" title="Nabiac">Nabiac</a> before wind pushed it towards Failford. Other communities affected included Rainbow Flat, Khappinghat, Kooringhat and <a href="/wiki/Purfleet" title="Purfleet">Purfleet</a>. A spot fire jumped into Ericsson Lane, threatening businesses. It ultimately burnt 31,268 hectares (77,260 acres).<sup id="cite_ref-136" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-136">[130]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-137" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137">[131]</a></sup></p><div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Home_%26_Machinery_Shed_Destroyed.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Home_%26_Machinery_Shed_Destroyed.jpg/220px-Home_%26_Machinery_Shed_Destroyed.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="4032" data-file-height="3024"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Home_%26_Machinery_Shed_Destroyed.jpg/220px-Home_%26_Machinery_Shed_Destroyed.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Home_%26_Machinery_Shed_Destroyed.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The Hillville fire destroyed this house and machinery shed on a farm in Hillville on 14 November 2019</div></div></div>
<p>At Dingo Tops National Park a small fire that started in the vicinity of Rumba Dump Fire Trail burned down the ranges and impacted the small communities of Caparra and Bobin. Fanned by near catastrophic conditions, the fire grew considerably on 8 November 2019 and consumed nearly everything in its path. The small community of Caparra lost fourteen homes in a few hours as the bushfire continued towards the small village of <a href="/wiki/Bobin,_New_South_Wales" title="Bobin, New South Wales">Bobin</a>, where numerous homes and the Bobin Public School were destroyed in the fire.<sup id="cite_ref-138" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-138">[132]</a></sup> Fourteen homes were lost on one street in Bobin. The NSWRFS sent out alerts to people in Killabakh, Upper Lansdowne, Kippaxs, <a href="/wiki/Elands,_New_South_Wales" title="Elands, New South Wales">Elands</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Marlee" title="Marlee">Marlee</a> to monitor conditions.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p><p><a href="/wiki/2019_Rally_Australia" title="2019 Rally Australia">2019 Rally Australia</a>, planned to be the final round of the <a href="/wiki/2019_World_Rally_Championship" title="2019 World Rally Championship">2019 World Rally Championship</a>, was a <a href="/wiki/Auto_racing" title="Auto racing">motor racing</a> event scheduled to be held in <a href="/wiki/Coffs_Harbour" title="Coffs Harbour">Coffs Harbour</a> across 14–17 November.<sup id="cite_ref-139" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-139">[133]</a></sup> A week before the rally was due to begin, the bushfire began to affect the region surrounding Coffs Harbour, with event organisers shortening the event in response to the deteriorating conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-140">[134]</a></sup> With the situation worsening, repeated calls from competitors (most of which were European-based) to cancel the event prevailed with the event cancelled on 12 November.<sup id="cite_ref-141" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-141">[135]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-142" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-142">[136]</a></sup></p><p>In late December 2019, fires started on both sides of the Pacific Highway around the <a href="/wiki/Coopernook,_New_South_Wales" title="Coopernook, New South Wales">Coopernook</a> region. They burnt 278 hectares (687 acres) before they were brought under control.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Hunter">Hunter</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: Hunter" data-section="7" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Hunter_Valley" class="mw-redirect" title="Hunter Valley">Hunter region</a>, the Kerry Ridge fire burnt in the <a href="/wiki/Wollemi_National_Park" title="Wollemi National Park">Wollemi National Park</a>, Nullo Mountain, Coricudgy and Putty state forests in the <a href="/wiki/Mid-Western_Regional_Council" title="Mid-Western Regional Council">Mid-Western Region</a>, <a href="/wiki/Muswellbrook_Shire" title="Muswellbrook Shire">Muswellbrook</a> and <a href="/wiki/Singleton_Council" title="Singleton Council">Singleton</a> local government areas.<sup id="cite_ref-143" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-143">[137]</a></sup> The fire was extinguished on 10 February 2020,<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup> having burnt approximately 191,000 hectares (471,971 acres) over 79 days.<sup id="cite_ref-144" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-144">[138]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Blue_Mountains_and_Hawkesbury">Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=8" title="Edit section: Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury" data-section="8" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Gospers_Mountain_Fire.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Gospers_Mountain_Fire.jpg/220px-Gospers_Mountain_Fire.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="720"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 147px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Gospers_Mountain_Fire.jpg/220px-Gospers_Mountain_Fire.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="147" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Gospers_Mountain_Fire.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Gospers Mountain bushfire in December 2019</div></div></div>
<p>A large fire that was ignited in November at Gospers Mountain in the <a href="/wiki/Wollemi_National_Park" title="Wollemi National Park">Wollemi National Park</a> initially burnt over 496,976 ha (1,228,050 acres) and threatened homes in the <a href="/wiki/City_of_Hawkesbury" title="City of Hawkesbury">Hawkesbury</a> and <a href="/wiki/Lithgow" class="mw-redirect" title="Lithgow">Lithgow</a> areas. The fire was projected to burn towards the <a href="/wiki/Central_Coast_Council_(New_South_Wales)" title="Central Coast Council (New South Wales)">Central Coast</a> and potentially threaten properties in <a href="/wiki/Wisemans_Ferry" title="Wisemans Ferry">Wisemans Ferry</a> and other townships. In an attempt to protect the Blue Mountains from the Gospers Mountain bushfire, firefighters commenced a large backburn on 14 December in the <a href="/wiki/Mount_Wilson,_New_South_Wales" title="Mount Wilson, New South Wales">Mount Wilson</a> and <a href="/wiki/Mount_Irvine,_New_South_Wales" title="Mount Irvine, New South Wales">Mount Irvine</a> areas. Due to heavy fuel loads and erratic weather conditions, the backburn quickly grew out of control, threatening houses in Mount Wilson and Mount Irvine. The fire eventually jumped Mount Irvine Road and on 15 December, under deteriorating conditions, the fire impacted <a href="/wiki/Mount_Tomah" class="mw-redirect" title="Mount Tomah">Mount Tomah</a>, <a href="/wiki/Berambing" class="mw-redirect" title="Berambing">Berambing</a> and <a href="/wiki/Bilpin,_New_South_Wales" title="Bilpin, New South Wales">Bilpin</a>. The fire destroyed numerous houses and buildings in this area, and then jumped the <a href="/wiki/Bells_Line_of_Road" title="Bells Line of Road">Bells Line of Road</a> into the <a href="/wiki/Grose_Valley" title="Grose Valley">Grose Valley</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-145" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-145">[139]</a></sup></p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bells_Line_of_Road_Bushfire_Damage_JAN2020.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Bells_Line_of_Road_Bushfire_Damage_JAN2020.jpg/220px-Bells_Line_of_Road_Bushfire_Damage_JAN2020.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="293" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="3024" data-file-height="4032"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 293px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Bells_Line_of_Road_Bushfire_Damage_JAN2020.jpg/220px-Bells_Line_of_Road_Bushfire_Damage_JAN2020.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="293" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bells_Line_of_Road_Bushfire_Damage_JAN2020.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Damaged road signs along Bells Line of Road</div></div></div>
<p>On 19 December 2019 the Gospers Mountain fire impacted on the Darling Causeway between <a href="/wiki/Mount_Victoria,_New_South_Wales" title="Mount Victoria, New South Wales">Mount Victoria</a> and <a href="/wiki/Bell,_New_South_Wales" title="Bell, New South Wales">Bell</a>, it later jumped the Darling Causeway and impacted the Grose Valley and the fire would be split into two fires: Grose Valley fire and Gospers Mountain fire. On 21 December, a catastrophic day, the Grose Valley fire impacted Mount Victoria, <a href="/wiki/Blackheath,_New_South_Wales" title="Blackheath, New South Wales">Blackheath</a>, Bell, <a href="/wiki/Clarence,_New_South_Wales" title="Clarence, New South Wales">Clarence</a>, Dargan and <a href="/wiki/Bilpin" class="mw-redirect" title="Bilpin">Bilpin</a> with resultant destruction of dozens of homes. On the same days both the Gospers Mountain fire and the Grose Valley fire moved towards <a href="/wiki/Kurrajong,_New_South_Wales" title="Kurrajong, New South Wales">Kurrajong</a>. Back burning operations were put in place to save Kurrajong and surrounds and to save all Blue Mountains towns from <a href="/wiki/Katoomba,_New_South_Wales" title="Katoomba, New South Wales">Katoomba</a> to <a href="/wiki/Winmalee,_New_South_Wales" title="Winmalee, New South Wales">Winmalee</a>.
</p><p>By 15 December 2019, the Gospers Mountain fire had grown to 350,000 hectares (860,000 acres), making it the biggest forest fire in Australian history.<sup id="cite_ref-146" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-146">[140]</a></sup> As of 27 December, the Gospers Mountain fire had burnt over 500,000 hectares (1,200,000 acres);<sup id="cite_ref-147" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-147">[141]</a></sup> and, after burning approximately 512,000 hectares (1,270,000 acres) across the Lithgow, Hawkesbury and Central Coast local government areas, the NSW Rural Fire Service reported the fire as contained on 12 January 2020, stating that the fire was caused by a lightning strike on 26 October.<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_Gosper_148-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_Gosper-148">[142]</a></sup> On 10 February 2020, NSW Rural Fire Service announced a torrential rain event over the preceding week had extinguished the Gospers Mountain fire.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Gosper_149-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Gosper-149">[143]</a></sup></p><p>Smaller fires in the area include the Erskine Creek fire.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Sydney">Sydney</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=9" title="Edit section: Sydney" data-section="9" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Sydney_bushfire_smoke_on_George_St_(49197319478).jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Sydney_bushfire_smoke_on_George_St_%2849197319478%29.jpg/220px-Sydney_bushfire_smoke_on_George_St_%2849197319478%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="4032" data-file-height="3024"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Sydney_bushfire_smoke_on_George_St_%2849197319478%29.jpg/220px-Sydney_bushfire_smoke_on_George_St_%2849197319478%29.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Sydney_bushfire_smoke_on_George_St_(49197319478).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/George_Street,_Sydney" title="George Street, Sydney">George Street</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Sydney_Central_Business_District" class="mw-redirect" title="Sydney Central Business District">Sydney CBD</a> blanketed by smoke in December 2019</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bushfire_in_Prospect_Hill.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Bushfire_in_Prospect_Hill.jpg/220px-Bushfire_in_Prospect_Hill.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="909" data-file-height="682"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Bushfire_in_Prospect_Hill.jpg/220px-Bushfire_in_Prospect_Hill.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bushfire_in_Prospect_Hill.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Bushland in <a href="/wiki/Prospect_Hill_(New_South_Wales)" title="Prospect Hill (New South Wales)">Prospect Hill, Sydney</a> charred after grass fire.</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bushfire_destroys_house.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/Bushfire_destroys_house.jpg/220px-Bushfire_destroys_house.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="1944" data-file-height="1458"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/Bushfire_destroys_house.jpg/220px-Bushfire_destroys_house.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bushfire_destroys_house.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Firefighters work to save a burning house from an out-of-control bushfire in South West Sydney</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Werombi_Bushfire.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Werombi_Bushfire.jpg/220px-Werombi_Bushfire.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1365"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 147px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Werombi_Bushfire.jpg/220px-Werombi_Bushfire.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="147" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Werombi_Bushfire.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Fire crews move in to protect properties from an out-of-control bushfire in South West Sydney</div></div></div>
<p>On 12 November 2019, under Sydney's first ever catastrophic fire conditions, a fire broke out in the <a href="/wiki/Lane_Cove_National_Park" title="Lane Cove National Park">Lane Cove National Park</a> south of <a href="/wiki/Turramurra" title="Turramurra">Turramurra</a>. Under strong winds and extreme heat the fire spread rapidly, growing out of control and impacting the suburban interface across <a href="/wiki/South_Turramurra" title="South Turramurra">South Turramurra</a>. One house caught alight in Lyon Avenue, but was saved by quick responding firefighters. As further crews arrived and worked to protect properties, a C-130 Air Tanker made several fire retardant drops directly over firefighters and houses, saving the rest of the suburb. The fire was ultimately brought under control several hours later, with one firefighter injured suffering a broken arm.<sup id="cite_ref-150" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-150">[144]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-151" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-151">[145]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-152" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-152">[146]</a></sup></p><p>Because of the bushfires occurring in the surrounding regions, the Sydney metropolitan area suffered from dangerous smoky <a href="/wiki/Haze" title="Haze">haze</a> for several days throughout December, with the <a href="/wiki/Air_quality" class="mw-redirect" title="Air quality">air quality</a> being eleven times the <a href="/wiki/Hazard" title="Hazard">hazardous</a> level in some days,<sup id="cite_ref-153" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-153">[147]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-154" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-154">[148]</a></sup> making it even worse than <a href="/wiki/New_Delhi" title="New Delhi">New Delhi</a>'s,<sup id="cite_ref-155" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-155">[149]</a></sup> where it was also compared to "smoking 32 cigarettes" by Associate Professor Brian Oliver, a respiratory diseases scientist at the <a href="/wiki/University_of_Technology_Sydney" title="University of Technology Sydney">University of Technology Sydney</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-156" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-156">[150]</a></sup></p><p>On 10 December 2019 the fire impacted the <a href="/wiki/South-western_Sydney" class="mw-redirect" title="South-western Sydney">south-western</a> Sydney suburbs of <a href="/wiki/Nattai,_New_South_Wales" title="Nattai, New South Wales">Nattai</a> and <a href="/wiki/Oakdale,_New_South_Wales" title="Oakdale, New South Wales">Oakdale</a>, followed by <a href="/wiki/Orangeville,_New_South_Wales" title="Orangeville, New South Wales">Orangeville</a> and <a href="/wiki/Werombi,_New_South_Wales" title="Werombi, New South Wales">Werombi</a>, threatening hundreds of houses and resulting in the destruction of one building. The fire continued to flare up sporadically, coming out of the dense bush and threatening properties in Oakdale and Buxton on 14 and 15 December.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> The fire moved south-east towards the populated areas of the <a href="/wiki/Southern_Highlands_(New_South_Wales)" title="Southern Highlands (New South Wales)">Southern Highlands</a> and impacted the townships of <a href="/wiki/Balmoral,_New_South_Wales_(Southern_Highlands)" title="Balmoral, New South Wales (Southern Highlands)">Balmoral</a>, <a href="/wiki/Buxton,_New_South_Wales" title="Buxton, New South Wales">Buxton</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bargo" class="mw-redirect" title="Bargo">Bargo</a>, <a href="/wiki/Couridjah" class="mw-redirect" title="Couridjah">Couridjah</a> and <a href="/wiki/Tahmoor" class="mw-redirect" title="Tahmoor">Tahmoor</a> in far south-western Sydney. Substantial property losses occurred across these areas, in particular multiple fire trucks were overrun by fire, with several firefighters taken to hospital and two airlifted in critical condition. Later that night, two firefighters were killed when a tree fell onto the road and their tanker rolled, injuring three other crew members. The situation deteriorated on 21 December when the fire changed direction and attacked Balmoral and Buxton once more from the opposite side, with major property losses in both areas.<sup id="cite_ref-157" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-157">[151]</a></sup> On New Year's Eve there were fears of this fire impacting the towns of <a href="/wiki/Mittagong" title="Mittagong">Mittagong</a>, Braemar, and surrounding areas.
</p><p>On 31 December 2019, a grass fire broke out in the sloped woodlands of <a href="/wiki/Prospect_Hill_(New_South_Wales)" title="Prospect Hill (New South Wales)">Prospect Hill</a>, in <a href="/wiki/Western_Sydney" class="mw-redirect" title="Western Sydney">Western Sydney</a>, where it headed north towards <a href="/wiki/Pemulwuy,_New_South_Wales" title="Pemulwuy, New South Wales">Pemulwuy</a> along the <a href="/wiki/Prospect_Highway" title="Prospect Highway">Prospect Highway</a>. The fire impacted a large industrial area and threatened numerous properties before being brought under control by 9:30pm. Approximately 10 hectares (25 acres) and a number of historic <a href="/wiki/Monterey_pine" class="mw-redirect" title="Monterey pine">Monterey pine</a> trees were burnt.<sup id="cite_ref-158" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-158">[152]</a></sup></p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Sydney_New_Year%27s_Eve" title="Sydney New Year's Eve">Sydney City fireworks</a> display was allowed to continue with a special exemption from fire authorities, despite protests.<sup id="cite_ref-159" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-159">[153]</a></sup> Despite warnings from authorities, numerous fires were sparked across Sydney as a result of <a href="/wiki/Consumer_fireworks#Australia" title="Consumer fireworks">illegal fireworks</a>, including a blaze which threatened properties at <a href="/wiki/Cecil_Hills,_New_South_Wales" title="Cecil Hills, New South Wales">Cecil Hills</a> in Sydney's south west.<sup id="cite_ref-160" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-160">[154]</a></sup></p><p>On 4 January 2020, Sydney's western suburb <a href="/wiki/Penrith,_New_South_Wales" title="Penrith, New South Wales">Penrith</a> recorded its hottest day on record at 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) making it the hottest place on Earth at the time.<sup id="cite_ref-161" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-161">[155]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-162" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-162">[156]</a></sup></p><p>On 5 January 2020, a fire broke out in bushland at <a href="/wiki/Voyager_Point,_New_South_Wales" title="Voyager Point, New South Wales">Voyager Point</a> in Sydney's south-west, spreading rapidly under a strong southerly wind and impacting numerous houses in Voyager Point and <a href="/wiki/Hammondville,_New_South_Wales" title="Hammondville, New South Wales">Hammondville</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-163" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-163">[157]</a></sup> As the fire moved north, authorities closed the <a href="/wiki/M5_Motorway_(Sydney)" title="M5 Motorway (Sydney)">M5 Motorway</a> due to smoke conditions and prepared for the fire to impact the New Brighton housing estate. Firefighters on the ground assisted by numerous waterbombing aircraft held the fire south of the motorway and prevented any property losses, containing the fire to 60 hectares (150 acres).<sup id="cite_ref-164" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-164">[158]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Southern_Highlands">Southern Highlands</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=10" title="Edit section: Southern Highlands" data-section="10" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>In late October 2019, a number of fires started in remote bushland near <a href="/wiki/Lake_Burragorang" title="Lake Burragorang">Lake Burragorang</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Kanangra-Boyd_National_Park" title="Kanangra-Boyd National Park">Kanangra-Boyd National Park</a> south-west of Sydney. Due to the extreme isolation of the area and rugged inaccessible terrain, firefighters struggled to contain the fires as they began to spread through the dense bushland. These multiple fires ultimately all merged to become the Green Wattle Creek fire. The fire continued to grow in size and intensity, burning towards the township of <a href="/wiki/Yerranderie" title="Yerranderie">Yerranderie</a>. Firefighters undertook backburning around the town whilst helicopters and fixed wing aircraft worked to control the spread of the fire. The fire passed Yerranderie but continued to burn through the national park towards south-western Sydney. On 5 December under severe weather conditions, the fire jumped the Lake Burragorang and began burning towards populated areas within the <a href="/wiki/Wollondilly_Shire" title="Wollondilly Shire">Wollondilly</a> area.
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Yanderra_Bushfire.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Yanderra_Bushfire.jpg/220px-Yanderra_Bushfire.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1365"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 147px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Yanderra_Bushfire.jpg/220px-Yanderra_Bushfire.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="147" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Yanderra_Bushfire.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Large out-of-control bushfire approaches the New South Wales township of <a href="/wiki/Yanderra" title="Yanderra">Yanderra</a></div></div></div>
<p>On 19 December 2019, the fire continued east towards the <a href="/wiki/Hume_Highway" title="Hume Highway">Hume Highway</a> (resulting in its closure for several hours), impacting the township of <a href="/wiki/Yanderra" title="Yanderra">Yanderra</a>. Over the following days as the fire continued to progress to the south east, both <a href="/wiki/Yerrinbool,_New_South_Wales" title="Yerrinbool, New South Wales">Yerrinbool</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hill_Top,_New_South_Wales" title="Hill Top, New South Wales">Hill Top</a> were threatened by the fire.<sup id="cite_ref-165" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-165">[159]</a></sup></p><p>As well as expanding to the south and east, the fire also spread in a westerly direction, headed towards <a href="/wiki/Oberon,_New_South_Wales" title="Oberon, New South Wales">Oberon</a>. The <a href="/wiki/Oberon_Correctional_Centre" title="Oberon Correctional Centre">Oberon Correctional Centre</a> was evacuated in anticipation of the advancing fire impact along its western flank.<sup id="cite_ref-166" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-166">[160]</a></sup> On 2 January, the fire hit the popular and historic <a href="/wiki/Jenolan_Caves" title="Jenolan Caves">Jenolan Caves</a> area, destroying multiple buildings including the local fire station. The centrepiece of the precinct, <a href="/wiki/Jenolan_Caves_House" title="Jenolan Caves House">Jenolan Caves House</a>, was saved.<sup id="cite_ref-167" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-167">[161]</a></sup> On 10 February 2020, NSW Rural Fire Service announced a torrential rain event over the preceding week had extinguished the Green Wattle Creek fire.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="South_Coast">South Coast</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=11" title="Edit section: South Coast" data-section="11" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Smoke_rises_from_the_Tianjara_fire,_viewed_from_HMAS_Albatross_(2).jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Smoke_rises_from_the_Tianjara_fire%2C_viewed_from_HMAS_Albatross_%282%29.jpg/220px-Smoke_rises_from_the_Tianjara_fire%2C_viewed_from_HMAS_Albatross_%282%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="4032" data-file-height="3024"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Smoke_rises_from_the_Tianjara_fire%2C_viewed_from_HMAS_Albatross_%282%29.jpg/220px-Smoke_rises_from_the_Tianjara_fire%2C_viewed_from_HMAS_Albatross_%282%29.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Smoke_rises_from_the_Tianjara_fire,_viewed_from_HMAS_Albatross_(2).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Smoke rises from the Tianjara fire, viewed from HMAS Albatross.</div></div></div>
<p>On 30 December 2019 weather conditions drastically deteriorated across the south-eastern areas of the state, with major fires breaking out and escalating in the Dampier State Forest, <a href="/wiki/Deua_River" title="Deua River">Deua River</a> Valley, <a href="/wiki/Big_Badja_Hill" title="Big Badja Hill">Badja</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bemboka" title="Bemboka">Bemboka</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wyndham,_New_South_Wales" title="Wyndham, New South Wales">Wyndham</a>, Talmalolma and Ellerslie, hampering firefighters already stretched by the Currowan, <a href="/wiki/Palerang" class="mw-redirect" title="Palerang">Palerang</a> and <a href="/wiki/Clyde_Mountain" title="Clyde Mountain">Clyde Mountain</a> fires.<sup id="cite_ref-168" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-168">[162]</a></sup> As temperatures were forecast to reach 41 °C (106 °F) on the South Coast, Premier Berejiklian declared a seven-day state of emergency on 2 January 2020 with effect from 9<span class="nowrap"> </span>am on the following day, including an unprecedented<sup id="cite_ref-169" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-169">[163]</a></sup> 14,000-square-kilometre (5,400 sq mi) "tourist leave zone" from <a href="/wiki/Nowra,_New_South_Wales" title="Nowra, New South Wales">Nowra</a> to the <a href="/wiki/Black-Allan_Line" title="Black-Allan Line">edge of Victoria's northern border</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC-2020-01-02_79-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC-2020-01-02-79">[77]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SBS-2020-01-02_80-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS-2020-01-02-80">[78]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-2020-01-02_81-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-2020-01-02-81">[79]</a></sup></p><p>A blaze on the South Coast started off at Currowan and travelled up to the coastline after jumping across the <a href="/wiki/Princes_Highway#New_South_Wales" title="Princes Highway">Princes Highway</a>, threatening properties around Termeil. Residents in <a href="/wiki/Bawley_Point" title="Bawley Point">Bawley Point</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kioloa" class="mw-redirect" title="Kioloa">Kioloa</a>, Depot Peach, <a href="/wiki/Pebbly_Beach" class="mw-redirect" title="Pebbly Beach">Pebbly Beach</a>, North Durras and <a href="/wiki/Pretty_Beach" class="mw-redirect" title="Pretty Beach">Pretty Beach</a> were told to either evacuate to <a href="/wiki/Batemans_Bay" title="Batemans Bay">Batemans Bay</a> or <a href="/wiki/Ulladulla" class="mw-redirect" title="Ulladulla">Ulladulla</a> or stay to protect their property. One home was lost.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> As of 2 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, the Currowan fire was burning between Batemans Bay in the south, Nowra in the north, and east of <a href="/wiki/Braidwood,_New_South_Wales" title="Braidwood, New South Wales">Braidwood</a> in the west. The fire had burnt more than 258,000 hectares (640,000 acres) and was out of control. The Currowan fire had merged with the Tianjara fire in the <a href="/wiki/Morton_National_Park" title="Morton National Park">Morton National Park</a> to the south west of Nowra; and the Charleys Forest fire had grown along the fire's western flank; and on the fire's southern flank, the fire had merged with the Clyde Mountain fire.<sup id="cite_ref-170" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-170">[164]</a></sup></p><p>By 26 December 2019, the Clyde Mountain fire was burning on the southern side of the <a href="/wiki/Kings_Highway_(Australia)" title="Kings Highway (Australia)">Kings Highway</a>, into the Buckenbowra and Runnyford areas. Around 4<span class="nowrap"> </span>am on 31 December, the fire had crossed the Princes Highway near <a href="/wiki/Mogo,_New_South_Wales" title="Mogo, New South Wales">Mogo</a>, and the highway was closed between Batemans Bay and <a href="/wiki/Moruya,_New_South_Wales" title="Moruya, New South Wales">Moruya</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-171" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-171">[165]</a></sup> Around 7<span class="nowrap"> </span>am on 31 December, the fire impacted the southern side of Batemans Bay, causing the loss of around ten businesses and damage to many others. The fire also crossed the Princes Highway in the vicinity of Round Hill and impacted the residential suburbs of Catalina, as well as beach suburbs from Sunshine Bay to Broulee. Residents and holiday makers were forced to flee to the beaches.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC-2020-01-02_79-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC-2020-01-02-79">[77]</a></sup> On the 23 January this fire escalated back to emergency level as the blaze roared towards the coastal town of Moruya, a town largely unaffected by bushfires in recent weeks.
</p><p>At nearby <a href="/wiki/Lake_Conjola" title="Lake Conjola">Lake Conjola</a>, numerous homes were lost as the embers jumped across the lake, landing in gutters and lighting up houses. On one street there were only four houses still standing. As of 2 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, at least two people died and a woman was missing.<sup id="cite_ref-172" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-172">[166]</a></sup> Isolated hamlets of <a href="/wiki/Bendalong" title="Bendalong">Bendalong</a> and <a href="/wiki/Manyana,_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Manyana, New South Wales">Manyana</a> and <a href="/wiki/Cunjurong_Point" title="Cunjurong Point">Cunjurong Point</a> were additionally ablaze, with holiday-makers evacuated on 3 January 2020. As of 6 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, all are still without power.<sup id="cite_ref-173" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-173">[167]</a></sup></p><p>As of 5 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, in the <a href="/wiki/Bega_Valley_Shire" title="Bega Valley Shire">Bega Valley Shire</a>, the Border fire that started in north-eastern Victoria was burning north into New South Wales towards the major town of <a href="/wiki/Eden,_New_South_Wales" title="Eden, New South Wales">Eden</a>, and had impacted the settlements of <a href="/wiki/Wonboyn,_New_South_Wales" title="Wonboyn, New South Wales">Wonboyn</a> and surrounding areas including Kiah, Lower Towamba and parts of <a href="/wiki/Boydtown,_New_South_Wales" title="Boydtown, New South Wales">Boydtown</a>. Part of the fire was burning in inaccessible country and continued to head in a north-westerly direction towards <a href="/wiki/Bombala,_New_South_Wales" title="Bombala, New South Wales">Bombala</a> as well as northerly to just south of Nethercote. The fire had burnt more than 60,000 hectares (150,000 acres) and was out of control.<sup id="cite_ref-174" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-174">[168]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-175" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-175">[169]</a></sup> On 2 February 2020 in the Bega Valley, the 177,000-hectare (437,377-acre) Border fire pushed north, while three other bushfires in the south-west had merged into one. Kristy McBain, the Bega Valley shire council mayor, said more than 400 properties and homes had been lost after 34 days of fire activity in the area.<sup id="cite_ref-176" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-176">[170]</a></sup></p><p>On 9 February 2020, NSW Rural Fire Service announced a torrential rain event over the preceding week had extinguished both the Morton and Currowan fires,<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10_89-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian-Cox-2020-02-10-89">[87]</a></sup> with the latter having burnt 499,621 hectares (1,234,590 acres) over 74 days and destroying 312 homes.<sup id="cite_ref-177" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-177">[171]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Riverina">Riverina</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=12" title="Edit section: Riverina" data-section="12" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>On 30 December 2019, the Green Valley fire burning east of <a href="/wiki/Albury" title="Albury">Albury</a> near <a href="/wiki/Talmalmo,_New_South_Wales" title="Talmalmo, New South Wales">Talmalmo</a> (which had started the day prior) developed into an unprecedented fire event for the Snowy Valleys<sup id="cite_ref-178" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-178">[172]</a></sup> as a result of extreme local conditions. The smoke plume rose to an estimated 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) and developed a <a href="/wiki/Cumulonimbus_flammagenitus" title="Cumulonimbus flammagenitus">pyro-cumulonimbus cloud</a>, becoming a <a href="/wiki/Firestorm" title="Firestorm">firestorm</a>. The result was extreme, the wind was described by crews on the ground as in excess of 100 km/h (62 mph), with spot fires starting over 5 km (3.1 mi) ahead of the main fire front.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p><p>Firefighters described what they believed to be a tornado generated by the fire storm, which began flattening trees and flipped a small fire vehicle. The tornado then impacted a crew of firefighters working to protect a property, flipping their tanker over and trapping the crew inside, who were then overrun by fire. One firefighter was killed with multiple others injured, with one airlifted to <a href="/wiki/Melbourne" title="Melbourne">Melbourne</a> and two to Sydney.<sup id="cite_ref-179" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-179">[173]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-180" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-180">[174]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-181" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-181">[175]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-182" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-182">[176]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-183" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-183">[177]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-184" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-184">[178]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Snowy_Mountains">Snowy Mountains</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=13" title="Edit section: Snowy Mountains" data-section="13" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>The Dunns Road fire was believed to have been started by a lightning strike on 28 December in a private pine plantation near Adelong.<sup id="cite_ref-185" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-185">[179]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-186" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-186">[180]</a></sup> In the <a href="/wiki/Snowy_Valleys_Council" title="Snowy Valleys Council">Snowy Valleys local government area</a>, by 2 January 2020 the Dunns Road fire had burnt south of the <a href="/wiki/Snowy_Mountains_Highway" title="Snowy Mountains Highway">Snowy Mountains Highway</a> in the Ellerslie Range near <a href="/wiki/Kunama,_New_South_Wales" title="Kunama, New South Wales">Kunama</a>. Over 130,000 hectares (320,000 acres) was burnt and the fire was out of control. The NSWRFS issued an evacuation order to residents in the <a href="/wiki/Batlow,_New_South_Wales" title="Batlow, New South Wales">Batlow</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wondalga,_New_South_Wales" title="Wondalga, New South Wales">Wondalga</a> areas. Residents and visitors to the <a href="/wiki/Kosciuszko_National_Park" title="Kosciuszko National Park">Kosciuszko National Park</a> were evacuated and the national park was closed. 155 inmates from the <a href="/wiki/Mannus_Correctional_Centre" title="Mannus Correctional Centre">Mannus Correctional Centre</a> near <a href="/wiki/Tumbarumba,_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Tumbarumba, New South Wales">Tumbarumba</a> were evacuated.<sup id="cite_ref-187" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-187">[181]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-188" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-188">[182]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-189" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-189">[183]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-190" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-190">[184]</a></sup></p><p>On 3 January 2020, the Dunns Road fire burnt from <a href="/wiki/Batlow,_New_South_Wales" title="Batlow, New South Wales">Batlow</a> into Kosciuszko National Park, burning much of the northern part of the park. The fire caused significant damage, severely damaging the <a href="/wiki/Selwyn_Snowfields" title="Selwyn Snowfields">Selwyn Snow Resort</a>, destroying structures in the town of <a href="/wiki/Cabramurra,_New_South_Wales" title="Cabramurra, New South Wales">Cabramurra</a> and almost completely destroying the heritage-listed precinct (and birthplace of skiing in Australia) of <a href="/wiki/Kiandra,_New_South_Wales" title="Kiandra, New South Wales">Kiandra</a>. Kiandra's <a href="/wiki/Kiandra_Courthouse" title="Kiandra Courthouse">historic former courthouse</a><sup id="cite_ref-DT_191-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-DT-191">[185]</a></sup> was left with only its walls standing after a fire so hot that the glass and aluminium in the windows melted.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Kosciuszko_192-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Kosciuszko-192">[186]</a></sup> A number of <a href="/wiki/Alpine_hut" class="mw-redirect" title="Alpine hut">high country huts</a>, including Wolgal Hut and Pattinsons Hut near Kiandra, were also feared to have been destroyed.<sup id="cite_ref-193" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-193">[187]</a></sup> By 11 January three fires had merged – the Dunns Road fire, the East Ournie Creek, and the Riverina's Green Valley fire – and had created a 600,000-hectare (1,482,632-acre) "mega-fire", burning south of the Snowy Mountains.<sup id="cite_ref-194" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-194">[188]</a></sup></p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Coulson_Aviation_(N134CG)_Lockheed_EC-130Q_Hercules_departing_HMAS_Albatross.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Coulson_Aviation_%28N134CG%29_Lockheed_EC-130Q_Hercules_departing_HMAS_Albatross.jpg/220px-Coulson_Aviation_%28N134CG%29_Lockheed_EC-130Q_Hercules_departing_HMAS_Albatross.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="3000" data-file-height="2000"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 147px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Coulson_Aviation_%28N134CG%29_Lockheed_EC-130Q_Hercules_departing_HMAS_Albatross.jpg/220px-Coulson_Aviation_%28N134CG%29_Lockheed_EC-130Q_Hercules_departing_HMAS_Albatross.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="147" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Coulson_Aviation_(N134CG)_Lockheed_EC-130Q_Hercules_departing_HMAS_Albatross.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Coulson Aviation Lockheed EC-130Q Hercules N134CG 'Zeus' which crashed on 23 January 2020, seen here at <a href="/wiki/HMAS_Albatross_(air_station)" title="HMAS Albatross (air station)">HMAS <i>Albatross</i></a> in December 2019.</div></div></div>
<p>On 23 January 2020, a <a href="/wiki/Lockheed_C-130_Hercules" title="Lockheed C-130 Hercules">Lockheed C-130 Hercules</a> large air tanker crashed near <a href="/wiki/Cooma,_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Cooma, New South Wales">Cooma</a> while waterbombing a blaze, resulting in the death of the three American crew members on board.<sup id="cite_ref-smh20200123_39-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-smh20200123-39">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Online_82-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Online-82">[80]</a></sup></p><p>On 1 February 2020, emergency warnings were issued for the Orroral fire and the Clear Range fire threatening <a href="/wiki/Bredbo" title="Bredbo">Bredbo</a> north of <a href="/wiki/Cooma,_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Cooma, New South Wales">Cooma</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-195" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-195">[189]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Victoria">Victoria</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=14" title="Edit section: Victoria" data-section="14" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>On 21 November 2019, lightning strikes ignited a series of fires in East Gippsland, initially endangering the communities of <a href="/wiki/Buchan,_Victoria" title="Buchan, Victoria">Buchan</a>, Buchan South and Sunny Point.<sup id="cite_ref-196" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-196">[190]</a></sup> On 20 December, the Marthavale-Barmouth Spur expanded, greatly endangering the community of Tambo Crossing.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:2020-01-04_East_Australian_and_Mallacoota_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/2020-01-04_East_Australian_and_Mallacoota_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png/170px-2020-01-04_East_Australian_and_Mallacoota_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="284" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="1806"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 170px;height: 284px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/2020-01-04_East_Australian_and_Mallacoota_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png/170px-2020-01-04_East_Australian_and_Mallacoota_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" data-alt="" data-width="170" data-height="284" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:2020-01-04_East_Australian_and_Mallacoota_Fires_Aqua_MODIS-VIIRS-LABELS.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a> satellite imagery on 4 January 2020 showing bushfires on southeast coast of Australia</div></div></div>
<p>The first day of two-day cricket tour match between a Victoria XI and <a href="/wiki/New_Zealand_national_cricket_team" title="New Zealand national cricket team">New Zealand</a> in Melbourne was cancelled due to extreme heat conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-197" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-197">[191]</a></sup></p><p>On 30 December 2019, there were three active fires in East Gippsland with a combined area of more than 130,000 hectares (320,000 acres), and another in the north-east of the state near <a href="/wiki/Walwa,_Victoria" title="Walwa, Victoria">Walwa</a> heading south-east towards <a href="/wiki/Cudgewa,_Victoria" title="Cudgewa, Victoria">Cudgewa</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> An evacuation warning was issued for the East Gippsland town of <a href="/wiki/Goongerah,_Victoria" title="Goongerah, Victoria">Goongerah</a>, which is surrounded by high-value old growth forests, as well as Cudgewa.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> On the same day, a fire broke out in the Plenty Gorge Parklands, situated in Melbourne's northern suburbs between <a href="/wiki/Bundoora,_Victoria" title="Bundoora, Victoria">Bundoora</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mill_Park,_Victoria" title="Mill Park, Victoria">Mill Park</a>, <a href="/wiki/South_Morang,_Victoria" title="South Morang, Victoria">South Morang</a>, <a href="/wiki/Greensborough,_Victoria" title="Greensborough, Victoria">Greensborough</a> and <a href="/wiki/Plenty,_Victoria" title="Plenty, Victoria">Plenty</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-198" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-198">[192]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-199" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-199">[193]</a></sup></p><p>Fires reached the town of <a href="/wiki/Mallacoota,_Victoria" title="Mallacoota, Victoria">Mallacoota</a> by around 8 am AEDT on 31 December 2019. At 11 am AEDT 31 December, fires had begun to approach the vacation town of <a href="/wiki/Lakes_Entrance,_Victoria" title="Lakes Entrance, Victoria">Lakes Entrance</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-200" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-200">[194]</a></sup> Despite the recommendation that large portions of East Gippsland be evacuated, approximately 30,000 holiday makers chose to remain in the region. Approximately 4,000 people, including 3,000 tourists, remained in Mallacoota as the fire began making its closest approach to the town, cutting off roads in the process; Mallacoota had not been issued with an evacuation warning on 29 December.<sup id="cite_ref-201" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-201">[195]</a></sup><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"><span title="The material near this tag failed verification of its source citation(s). (January 2020)">failed verification</span></a></i>]</sup> On 3 January, approximately 1,160 people from Mallacoota were evacuated on naval vessels <a href="/wiki/Her_Majesty%27s_Australian_Ship" title="Her Majesty's Australian Ship">HMAS</a> <a href="/wiki/HMAS_Choules" title="HMAS Choules"><i>Choules</i></a> and <i><a href="/wiki/MV_Sycamore" title="MV Sycamore">MV Sycamore</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-202" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-202">[196]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-203" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-203">[197]</a></sup></p><p>On 2 January 2020 at 11 pm AEDT, Victorian Premier <a href="/wiki/Daniel_Andrews" title="Daniel Andrews">Daniel Andrews</a> declared a state of disaster under the provisions of the <i>Victorian Emergency Management Act</i> for the shires of <a href="/wiki/Shire_of_East_Gippsland" title="Shire of East Gippsland">East Gippsland</a>, <a href="/wiki/Shire_of_Mansfield" title="Shire of Mansfield">Mansfield</a>, <a href="/wiki/Shire_of_Wellington" title="Shire of Wellington">Wellington</a>, <a href="/wiki/Rural_City_of_Wangaratta" title="Rural City of Wangaratta">Wangaratta Rural</a>, <a href="/wiki/Shire_of_Towong" title="Shire of Towong">Towong</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Alpine_Shire" title="Alpine Shire">Alpine</a>, and the alpine resorts of <a href="/wiki/Mount_Buller" class="mw-redirect" title="Mount Buller">Mount Buller</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mount_Hotham" title="Mount Hotham">Mount Hotham</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Mount_Stirling" title="Mount Stirling">Mount Stirling</a>. Emergency Management Commissioner <a href="/wiki/Andrew_Crisp" title="Andrew Crisp">Andrew Crisp</a> stated that 780,000 hectares (1,900,000 acres) had burnt including 100,000 hectares (250,000 acres) near Corryong in the state's north-east and that fifty fires were burning.<sup id="cite_ref-204" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-204">[198]</a></sup> On 3 January, Andrews said two people were confirmed dead from the East Gippsland fires.<sup id="cite_ref-205" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-205">[199]</a></sup></p><p>On 6 January 2020, Andrews said that bushfires had burnt through 1.2 million hectares (3 million acres) in Victoria's east and north-east and that 200 homes were confirmed lost.<sup id="cite_ref-auto2_206-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto2-206">[200]</a></sup></p><p>On 13 January 2020, two bushfires were burning at emergency level in Victoria despite milder conditions, one about 8km east of Abbeyard and the other in East Gippsland affecting Tamboon, Tamboon South and Furnel.<sup id="cite_ref-207" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-207">[201]</a></sup></p><p>On 23 January 2020, there were still 12 fires burning in Victoria, the strongest in East Gippsland and the north-east. The Buldah fire in East Gippsland was at watch and act level and the rest were on advice level. Most of the 44 fires sparked by dry lighting were quickly dealt with by firefighters. Heavy rain in the Melbourne region brought little relief to bushfire-affected regions. Andrews said that the rains could bring new dangers for firefighters, including landslides.<sup id="cite_ref-208" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-208">[202]</a></sup></p><p>On 30 and 31 January 2020, very hot weather occurred in Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia that brought high fire danger with several uncontrolled bushfires still burning. An Emergency Warning was issued for Bendoc, Bendoc Upper, and Bendoc North on 30 January.<sup id="cite_ref-209" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-209">[203]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Queensland">Queensland</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=15" title="Edit section: Queensland" data-section="15" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Satellite_image_of_bushfire_smoke_over_Eastern_Australia_(December_2019).jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Satellite_image_of_bushfire_smoke_over_Eastern_Australia_%28December_2019%29.jpg/220px-Satellite_image_of_bushfire_smoke_over_Eastern_Australia_%28December_2019%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="183" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="4142" data-file-height="3447"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 183px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Satellite_image_of_bushfire_smoke_over_Eastern_Australia_%28December_2019%29.jpg/220px-Satellite_image_of_bushfire_smoke_over_Eastern_Australia_%28December_2019%29.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="183" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Satellite_image_of_bushfire_smoke_over_Eastern_Australia_(December_2019).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Satellite image of the smoke from the <a href="/wiki/South_East_Queensland" title="South East Queensland">south-eastern Queensland</a> and <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_North_Coast" title="New South Wales North Coast">northern New South Wales</a> bushfires in November 2019. At the time, the smoke spread eastward and reached <a href="/wiki/Tasman_Sea" title="Tasman Sea">Tasman Sea</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>On 7 September 2019 multiple out of control blazes threatened townships across <a href="/wiki/South_East_Queensland" title="South East Queensland">south-eastern</a> and <a href="/wiki/North_Queensland" title="North Queensland">northern</a> Queensland, destroying eleven houses in <a href="/wiki/Beechmont,_Queensland" title="Beechmont, Queensland">Beechmont</a>, seven houses in <a href="/wiki/Stanthorpe" class="mw-redirect" title="Stanthorpe">Stanthorpe</a>, and one house at <a href="/wiki/Mareeba,_Queensland" class="mw-redirect" title="Mareeba, Queensland">Mareeba</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-210" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-210">[204]</a></sup> On the following day the heritage-listed lodge and cabins at the iconic Australian nature-based <a href="/wiki/Binna_Burra_Cultural_Landscape" title="Binna Burra Cultural Landscape">Binna Burra Lodge</a> were destroyed in the bushfire that consumed residential houses in Beechmont the previous day.<sup id="cite_ref-211" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-211">[205]</a></sup></p><p>A large fire impacted the <a href="/wiki/Peregian_Beach,_Queensland" title="Peregian Beach, Queensland">Peregian Beach</a> area on 9 September, on the <a href="/wiki/Sunshine_Coast,_Queensland" title="Sunshine Coast, Queensland">Sunshine Coast</a>, severely damaging ten houses.<sup id="cite_ref-212" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-212">[206]</a></sup> In December 2019 Peregian Springs and the surrounding areas came under threat by bushfires for the second time in a couple of months. No homes were confirmed lost in this bushfire.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p><p>Due to deteriorating fire conditions and fires threatening homes across the state, on 9 November a State of Fire Emergency was declared across 42 <a href="/wiki/Local_government_in_Queensland" title="Local government in Queensland">local government areas</a> across southern, <a href="/wiki/Central_Queensland" title="Central Queensland">central</a>, northern and <a href="/wiki/Far_North_Queensland" title="Far North Queensland">far-northern</a> Queensland.<sup id="cite_ref-213" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-213">[207]</a></sup> 14 homes were destroyed in the Yeppoon area during mid November 2019.<sup id="cite_ref-214" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-214">[208]</a></sup></p><p>On 11 November a fire started in the <a href="/wiki/Ravensbourne,_Queensland" title="Ravensbourne, Queensland">Ravensbourne</a> area near <a href="/wiki/Toowoomba" title="Toowoomba">Toowoomba</a>, which burnt through over 20,000 hectares (49,000 acres) of bush across several days, destroying six houses.<sup id="cite_ref-215" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-215">[209]</a></sup> At 8 am the air quality in <a href="/wiki/Brisbane" title="Brisbane">Brisbane</a> reached unprecedentedly poor levels (<a href="/wiki/Woolloongabba" title="Woolloongabba">Woolloongabba</a> <a href="/wiki/PM2.5" class="mw-redirect" title="PM2.5">PM2.5</a> 238.8 <a href="/wiki/Microgram" title="Microgram">μg</a>/<a href="/wiki/Cubic_metre" title="Cubic metre">m<sup>3</sup></a>). Queensland's chief health officer, Dr Jeanette Young, urged residents to stay indoors and to not physically exert themselves.<sup id="cite_ref-216" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-216">[210]</a></sup></p><p>On 13 November a water bombing helicopter crashed while fighting the blazes threatening the small community of <a href="/wiki/Pechey,_Queensland" title="Pechey, Queensland">Pechey</a>. While the <a href="/wiki/Bell_214" title="Bell 214">Bell 214</a> helicopter was completely destroyed, the pilot walked away with minor injuries.<sup id="cite_ref-217" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-217">[211]</a></sup></p><p>On 23 November the state of fire emergency was revoked and extended fire bans were put in place in local government areas that were previously affected under this declaration.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p><p>On 6 December a house fire broke out in <a href="/wiki/Bundamba,_Queensland" title="Bundamba, Queensland">Bundamba</a> and quickly spread to nearby bushland and was placed under a watch and act alert by the <a href="/wiki/Queensland_Fire_and_Emergency_Services" title="Queensland Fire and Emergency Services">Queensland Fire and Emergency Services</a> that afternoon. The following day, after worsening conditions, the fire was upgraded to an emergency warning and began to threaten homes in the local community. The fire destroyed a shipping container filled with fireworks, and residents within the 3-square-kilometre (1.2 sq mi) exclusion zone were ordered to evacuate. One home was destroyed.<sup id="cite_ref-218" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-218">[212]</a></sup></p><p>On 8 November a bushfire broke out in forestry to the west of the township of Jimna, causing Queensland Fire and Emergency services to issue a "watch and act" alert. The fire caused the evacuation of the entire town.<sup id="cite_ref-219" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-219">[213]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="South_Australia">South Australia</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=16" title="Edit section: South Australia" data-section="16" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>On 11 November 2019 an emergency bushfire warning was issued for <a href="/wiki/Port_Lincoln" title="Port Lincoln">Port Lincoln</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Eyre_Peninsula" title="Eyre Peninsula">Eyre Peninsula</a>, with an uncontrolled fire traveling towards the town. The <a href="/wiki/South_Australian_Country_Fire_Service" title="South Australian Country Fire Service">South Australian Country Fire Service</a> ordered ten water bombers to the area to assist 26 ground crews at the scene. <a href="/wiki/SA_Power_Networks" title="SA Power Networks">SA Power Networks</a> disconnected power to the town.<sup id="cite_ref-220" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-220">[214]</a></sup></p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:2020-01-03_Kangaroo_Island_Fire_Aqua_MODIS-LABELS.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/2020-01-03_Kangaroo_Island_Fire_Aqua_MODIS-LABELS.png/220px-2020-01-03_Kangaroo_Island_Fire_Aqua_MODIS-LABELS.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="186" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="915"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 186px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/2020-01-03_Kangaroo_Island_Fire_Aqua_MODIS-LABELS.png/220px-2020-01-03_Kangaroo_Island_Fire_Aqua_MODIS-LABELS.png" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="186" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:2020-01-03_Kangaroo_Island_Fire_Aqua_MODIS-LABELS.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a> satellite imagery on 3 January 2020 showing bushfires on <a href="/wiki/Kangaroo_Island" title="Kangaroo Island">Kangaroo Island</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>A large fire broke out on <a href="/wiki/Yorke_Peninsula" title="Yorke Peninsula">Yorke Peninsula</a> on 20 November 2019 and threatened the towns of <a href="/wiki/Yorketown,_South_Australia" title="Yorketown, South Australia">Yorketown</a> and <a href="/wiki/Edithburgh,_South_Australia" class="mw-redirect" title="Edithburgh, South Australia">Edithburgh</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-221" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-221">[215]</a></sup> It destroyed at least eleven homes and burnt approximately 5,000 hectares (12,000 acres). The fire was believed to have started from a sparking electrical transformer.<sup id="cite_ref-222" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-222">[216]</a></sup> A <a href="/wiki/Boeing_737" title="Boeing 737">Boeing 737</a> water-bombing aircraft from New South Wales in addition to South Australian <a href="/wiki/Air_Tractor_AT-802" title="Air Tractor AT-802">Air Tractor AT-802s</a> were used to protect the town of Edithburgh.<sup id="cite_ref-223" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-223">[217]</a></sup></p><p>On 20 December fires took hold in the Adelaide Hills, and near <a href="/wiki/Cudlee_Creek,_South_Australia" class="mw-redirect" title="Cudlee Creek, South Australia">Cudlee Creek</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Mount_Lofty_Ranges" title="Mount Lofty Ranges">Mount Lofty Ranges</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-224" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-224">[218]</a></sup> Initial south-easterly winds put the towns of <a href="/wiki/Lobethal" title="Lobethal">Lobethal</a> and <a href="/wiki/Lenswood,_South_Australia" title="Lenswood, South Australia">Lenswood</a> in the line of the fire, and by the next morning the winds had changed to north-north-west, threatening other towns.<sup id="cite_ref-225" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-225">[219]</a></sup> The fires killed one person,<sup id="cite_ref-Dec21ADL_226-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dec21ADL-226">[220]</a></sup> more than 70 houses were destroyed, as well as over 400 outbuildings and 200 cars.<sup id="cite_ref-227" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-227">[221]</a></sup> Fires are<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Dates_and_numbers#Chronological_items" title="Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers"><span title="The time period mentioned near this tag is ambiguous. (January 2020)">when?</span></a></i>]</sup> still burning and the yearly Christmas celebrations at Lobethal were cancelled.<sup id="cite_ref-228" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-228">[222]</a></sup></p><p>Also on 20 December, an out-of-control bushfire took hold near <a href="/wiki/Angle_Vale" title="Angle Vale">Angle Vale</a>, starting from the <a href="/wiki/Northern_Expressway" title="Northern Expressway">Northern Expressway</a> and burning through <a href="/wiki/Buchfelde,_South_Australia" title="Buchfelde, South Australia">Buchfelde</a> and across the <a href="/wiki/Gawler_River_(South_Australia)" title="Gawler River (South Australia)">Gawler River</a>. At 11:07 am <a href="/wiki/Australian_Central_Daylight_Time" class="mw-redirect" title="Australian Central Daylight Time">ACDT</a> the fire was burning under catastrophic weather conditions and an emergency warning was issued for <a href="/wiki/Hillier,_South_Australia" title="Hillier, South Australia">Hillier</a>, <a href="/wiki/Munno_Para_Downs,_South_Australia" title="Munno Para Downs, South Australia">Munno Para Downs</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kudla,_South_Australia" title="Kudla, South Australia">Kudla</a>, <a href="/wiki/Munno_Para_West,_South_Australia" title="Munno Para West, South Australia">Munno Para West</a> and Angle Vale. One house was destroyed.<sup id="cite_ref-229" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-229">[223]</a></sup></p><p>Another emergency warning was issued on 3 January for a fire near <a href="/wiki/Kersbrook,_South_Australia" title="Kersbrook, South Australia">Kersbrook</a>. At its largest extent, the warning area overlapped with areas that a few days earlier had been in warnings for the Cudlee Creek fire. Water bombers delivered 21 loads in just over an hour before darkness fell, and 150 firefighters on 25 trucks plus bulk water carriers and earthmoving equipment limited the advance of the fire to 18 hectares (44 acres).<sup id="cite_ref-230" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-230">[224]</a></sup></p><p>On Kangaroo Island starting in the <a href="/wiki/Flinders_Chase_National_Park" title="Flinders Chase National Park">Flinders Chase National Park</a>, the Ravine bushfire burnt in excess of 15,000 hectares (37,000 acres) and a bushfire emergency warning was issued on 3 January 2020 as the fire advanced towards <a href="/wiki/Vivonne_Bay" class="mw-redirect" title="Vivonne Bay">Vivonne Bay</a> and the town of <a href="/wiki/Parndana,_South_Australia" title="Parndana, South Australia">Parndana</a> was evacuated.<sup id="cite_ref-231" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-231">[225]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-232" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-232">[226]</a></sup> On 4 January it was confirmed at least two people died.<sup id="cite_ref-233" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-233">[227]</a></sup> As of 6 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup> approximately 170,000 hectares (420,000 acres), representing about a third of the island, had been burnt. Fires remained burning out of control, with firefighters working to contain and control fires before potentially hot windy weather scheduled for later in the week. Following fire damage to a water treatment plant, residents were asked to conserve water and some water was carted into island towns. There were concerns for the future of threatened wildlife, such as <a href="/wiki/Glossy_black_cockatoo" title="Glossy black cockatoo">glossy black cockatoos</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kangaroo_Island_dunnart" title="Kangaroo Island dunnart">Kangaroo Island dunnarts</a>, and koalas. Authorities stated that any koalas taken to the mainland for treatment cannot return to the island in case they bring diseases back with them.<sup id="cite_ref-234" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-234">[g]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-235" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-235">[228]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Western_Australia">Western Australia</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=17" title="Edit section: Western Australia" data-section="17" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Australian_bushfires_as_viewed_from_the_ISS.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/15/Australian_bushfires_as_viewed_from_the_ISS.jpg/220px-Australian_bushfires_as_viewed_from_the_ISS.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="124" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="4928" data-file-height="2768"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 124px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/15/Australian_bushfires_as_viewed_from_the_ISS.jpg/220px-Australian_bushfires_as_viewed_from_the_ISS.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="124" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Australian_bushfires_as_viewed_from_the_ISS.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The smoke plume viewed from the <a href="/wiki/International_Space_Station" title="International Space Station">International Space Station</a>, 4 January 2020.</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Smoke_from_bushfires_in_Perth%27s_southern_suburbs,_seen_from_Manning_Park_lookout,_November_2019_01.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Smoke_from_bushfires_in_Perth%27s_southern_suburbs%2C_seen_from_Manning_Park_lookout%2C_November_2019_01.jpg/220px-Smoke_from_bushfires_in_Perth%27s_southern_suburbs%2C_seen_from_Manning_Park_lookout%2C_November_2019_01.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="5152" data-file-height="3864"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Smoke_from_bushfires_in_Perth%27s_southern_suburbs%2C_seen_from_Manning_Park_lookout%2C_November_2019_01.jpg/220px-Smoke_from_bushfires_in_Perth%27s_southern_suburbs%2C_seen_from_Manning_Park_lookout%2C_November_2019_01.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Smoke_from_bushfires_in_Perth%27s_southern_suburbs,_seen_from_Manning_Park_lookout,_November_2019_01.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Smoke from bushfires seen in the sky of Perth in November 2019</div></div></div>
<p>Two bushfires burnt in <a href="/wiki/Geraldton" title="Geraldton">Geraldton</a> on 13 November, damaging homes and small structures.<sup id="cite_ref-236" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-236">[229]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-237" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-237">[230]</a></sup></p><p>A fire broke out in <a href="/wiki/Yanchep" title="Yanchep">Yanchep</a> at 2:11 pm on 11 December, immediately triggering an emergency warning for Yanchep and <a href="/wiki/Two_Rocks" title="Two Rocks">Two Rocks</a>. The fire led to a service station exploding.<sup id="cite_ref-238" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-238">[231]</a></sup> On 12 December, temperatures in excess of 40 °C (104 °F) exacerbated the fire, and the emergency warning area doubled including parts of <a href="/wiki/Guilderton" class="mw-redirect" title="Guilderton">Guilderton</a> and Brenton Bay further north.<sup id="cite_ref-239" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-239">[232]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-240" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-240">[233]</a></sup> On 13 December, increased temperature conditions resulted in the fire burning in excess of 5,000 hectares (12,000 acres), with the fire front over 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) in length. As of 13 December 2019<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, the emergency warning area stretched from Yanchep north to <a href="/wiki/Lancelin" class="mw-redirect" title="Lancelin">Lancelin</a> over 40 km (25 mi) away.<sup id="cite_ref-241" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-241">[234]</a></sup> By 16 December, the fire was considered contained and the alert downgraded to watch and act.<sup id="cite_ref-:3_242-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:3-242">[235]</a></sup> Approximately 13,000 hectares (32,000 acres) were burnt; only two buildings were damaged, both within the first day of the fire starting.<sup id="cite_ref-:3_242-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:3-242">[235]</a></sup></p><p>In December fires in the region around <a href="/wiki/Norseman,_Western_Australia" title="Norseman, Western Australia">Norseman</a> blocked access to the <a href="/wiki/Eyre_Highway" title="Eyre Highway">Eyre Highway</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Nullarbor" class="mw-redirect" title="Nullarbor">Nullarbor</a> and caused the highways of the region to be blocked,<sup id="cite_ref-243" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-243">[236]</a></sup> so as to prevent any recurrence of the 2007 death of truck drivers on the <a href="/wiki/Great_Eastern_Highway" title="Great Eastern Highway">Great Eastern Highway</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-244" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-244">[237]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-245" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-245">[238]</a></sup></p><p>Between 26 December 2019 and 1 January 2020, as a result of a lightning strike,<sup id="cite_ref-Perthnow_Stirling_Range_246-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Perthnow_Stirling_Range-246">[239]</a></sup> a fire tore through 40,000 hectares (99,000 acres) of land in <a href="/wiki/Stirling_Range_National_Park" title="Stirling Range National Park">Stirling Range National Park</a> in the southwest of the state, burning more than half of the park.<sup id="cite_ref-Stirling_Range_ABC_247-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stirling_Range_ABC-247">[240]</a></sup> The pyrocumulus cloud from the fires could be seen 80 km (50 mi) south in <a href="/wiki/Albany,_Western_Australia" title="Albany, Western Australia">Albany</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Stirling_Range_5_Jan_248-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Stirling_Range_5_Jan-248">[241]</a></sup> By New Year's Day 2020 a crew of 200 firefighters brought the fire back to advice level without any loss of life or major property damage (a park ranger hut and hiking tracks were destroyed).<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Stirling_Range_5_Jan_248-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Stirling_Range_5_Jan-248">[241]</a></sup> However, conservationists raised concerns for the potential loss of rare and unique flora and fauna that live in the park, which contains over 1500 such species within its boundaries, including a rare population of <a href="/wiki/Quokka" title="Quokka">quokkas</a> (one of few in mainland Western Australia).<sup id="cite_ref-Stirling_Range_ABC_247-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stirling_Range_ABC-247">[240]</a></sup> A local politician, firefighters, farmers and tourism operators called on Western Australian Emergency Minister <a href="/wiki/Fran_Logan" title="Fran Logan">Fran Logan</a> to invest in local firefighting assets for the area in order to make sure the tourist destination was properly protected.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Stirling_Range_5_Jan_248-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Stirling_Range_5_Jan-248">[241]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Tasmania">Tasmania</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=18" title="Edit section: Tasmania" data-section="18" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>In late October 2019, four bushfires were burning near <a href="/wiki/Scamander,_Tasmania" title="Scamander, Tasmania">Scamander</a>, Elderslie and Lachlan. Emergency warnings were issued at Lulworth, Bothwell and Lachlan. A large fire near <a href="/wiki/Swansea,_Tasmania" title="Swansea, Tasmania">Swansea</a> also burnt over 4,000 hectares (9,900 acres). Lighting strikes subsequently started multiple fires in <a href="/wiki/Southwest_Tasmania" class="mw-redirect" title="Southwest Tasmania">Southwest Tasmania</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-249" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-249">[242]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-250" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-250">[243]</a></sup> On 20 December 2019, a fire was started in the north east, which spread to 15,000 hectares (37,000 acres) and destroyed one home; a man was charged with starting the fire.<sup id="cite_ref-251" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-251">[244]</a></sup></p><p>Two fires continued to burn in January 2020. A fire in the Fingal Valley, in north-eastern Tasmania, started on 29 December, and a fire at Pelham, north of Hobart, started on 30 December. As of 16 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup> the Fingal fire had burnt over 20,000 hectares (49,000 acres) and the Pelham fire over 2,100 hectares (5,200 acres).<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_6th_January_252-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_6th_January-252">[245]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_17th_January_253-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_17th_January-253">[246]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Australian_Capital_Territory">Australian Capital Territory</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=19" title="Edit section: Australian Capital Territory" data-section="19" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Orroral_Valley_Fire_viewed_from_Tuggeranong_January_2020.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Orroral_Valley_Fire_viewed_from_Tuggeranong_January_2020.jpg/220px-Orroral_Valley_Fire_viewed_from_Tuggeranong_January_2020.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="3716" data-file-height="2790"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 165px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Orroral_Valley_Fire_viewed_from_Tuggeranong_January_2020.jpg/220px-Orroral_Valley_Fire_viewed_from_Tuggeranong_January_2020.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="165" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Orroral_Valley_Fire_viewed_from_Tuggeranong_January_2020.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The Orroral Valley Fire viewed from <a href="/wiki/Tuggeranong" title="Tuggeranong">Tuggeranong</a> in southern Canberra</div></div></div>
<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Australian Capital Territory">Australian Capital Territory</a> (ACT), the national capital <a href="/wiki/Canberra" title="Canberra">Canberra</a> was blanketed by thick bushfire smoke on New Year's Day from bushfires burning nearby in New South Wales. That day the air quality in the capital was the worst of any city in the world, at around 23 times the threshold to be considered hazardous. Conditions continued the next day, and <a href="/wiki/Australia_Post" title="Australia Post">Australia Post</a> stopped postal deliveries in the ACT to keep workers safe from smoke.<sup id="cite_ref-254" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-254">[247]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-255" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-255">[248]</a></sup> The first death directly linked to the poor air quality was also recorded on 2 January. An elderly women had been travelling from Brisbane to Canberra by plane, when she exited the plane onto the smoke-flooded tarmac, she suffered respiratory distress and then died.<sup id="cite_ref-newdaily20200102_93-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-newdaily20200102-93">[91]</a></sup> On 2 January 2020, the ACT declared a state of alert;<sup id="cite_ref-256" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-256">[249]</a></sup> that was extended on 12 January as the merged Dunns Road fire burnt seven kilometres (four miles) from the Territory's south-west border.<sup id="cite_ref-257" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-257">[250]</a></sup> Smoke from nearby bushfires continued to severely impact Canberra's air quality intermittently throughout January 2020.
</p><p>From at least 6 January 2020 a bushfire near Hospital Hill in the <a href="/wiki/Namadgi_National_Park" title="Namadgi National Park">Namadgi National Park</a> had started; it was extinguished on 9 January.<sup id="cite_ref-258" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-258">[251]</a></sup></p><p>On 22 January 2020 a bushfire started in <span class="nowraplinks"><a href="/wiki/Pialligo,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Pialligo, Australian Capital Territory">Pialligo</a></span> Redwood Forest; it reached emergency level, threatening <span class="nowraplinks"><a href="/wiki/Beard,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Beard, Australian Capital Territory">Beard</a></span> and <span class="nowraplinks"><a href="/wiki/Oaks_Estate,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Oaks Estate, Australian Capital Territory">Oaks Estate</a></span>. The next day a second bushfire started, the Kallaroo Fire, which later during the day merged with the Redwood Forest fire forming the Beard Fire; the fire jumped the <a href="/wiki/Molonglo_River" title="Molonglo River">Molonglo River</a> and threatened the suburbs of <span class="nowraplinks"><a href="/wiki/Beard,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Beard, Australian Capital Territory">Beard</a></span>, <span class="nowraplinks"><a href="/wiki/Harman,_Australian_Capital_Territory" class="mw-redirect" title="Harman, Australian Capital Territory">Harman</a></span> and Oaks Estate as it burnt 424 hectares (1,050 acres). <a href="/wiki/Canberra_Airport" title="Canberra Airport">Canberra Airport</a> was closed for a day.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC-ACT-area_90-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC-ACT-area-90">[88]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-259" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-259">[252]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-260" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-260">[253]</a></sup> The fire destroyed one facility, four outbuildings, and three vehicles.<sup id="cite_ref-261" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-261">[254]</a></sup></p><p>On 27 January 2020 a bushfire in the Orroral Valley in the Namadgi National Park started. ACT Emergency Services Minister <a href="/wiki/Mick_Gentleman" title="Mick Gentleman">Mick Gentleman</a> reported, on behalf of the <a href="/wiki/Department_of_Defence_(Australia)" title="Department of Defence (Australia)">Department of Defence</a>, that the fire had been started by a landing light on a Defence helicopter, while it was conducting routine aerial reconnaissance and ground clearance work to support local firefighters.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_28_Jan_Bushfire_Canberra_262-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_28_Jan_Bushfire_Canberra-262">[255]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-263" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-263">[256]</a></sup> By the morning of 28 January the fire had grown to 2,575 hectares (6,360 acres) and was 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the town of <a href="/wiki/Tharwa,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Tharwa, Australian Capital Territory">Tharwa</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-264" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-264">[257]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-265" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-265">[258]</a></sup> An emergency warning was declared for Tharwa and the southern suburbs of Canberra — particularly <a href="/wiki/Banks,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Banks, Australian Capital Territory">Banks</a>, <a href="/wiki/Gordon,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Gordon, Australian Capital Territory">Gordon</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Conder,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Conder, Australian Capital Territory">Conder</a> — just after 1:30pm AEST on 28 January. <a href="/wiki/Chief_Minister_of_the_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory">Chief Minister</a> <a href="/wiki/Andrew_Barr" title="Andrew Barr">Andrew Barr</a> described the fire as the biggest threat to Canberra since the <a href="/wiki/2003_Canberra_bushfires" title="2003 Canberra bushfires">2003 Canberra bushfires</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-CT_28_Jan_Fire_Emergency_266-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CT_28_Jan_Fire_Emergency-266">[259]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_28_Jan_Bushfire_Canberra_262-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_28_Jan_Bushfire_Canberra-262">[255]</a></sup> At midday on 31 January, Barr declared a state of emergency for the ACT, the first time such action had occurred since the 2003 fires.<sup id="cite_ref-jan31cbr_267-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-jan31cbr-267">[260]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Northern_Territory">Northern Territory</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=20" title="Edit section: Northern Territory" data-section="20" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Northern_Territory" title="Northern Territory">Northern Territory</a> went through a relatively average annual bushfire season with respect to area of land burnt, in comparison to the scale of bushfires witnessed in other areas of Australia. Despite this, approximately 6.8 million hectares (17 million acres) was burnt, an area which contributed significantly to the total area burnt by bushfires in the nation. Five homes were lost to bushfires in the Territory.<sup id="cite_ref-268" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-268">[261]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(4)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Precedents">Precedents</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=21" title="Edit section: Precedents" data-section="21" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-4 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-4">
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Bushfires_in_Australia" title="Bushfires in Australia">Bushfires in Australia</a></div>
<p>While the full extent of the current bushfires is yet to be measured, there have been a number of large scale bushfires recorded in Australian history. The widespread <a href="/wiki/Black_Friday_bushfires" title="Black Friday bushfires">1938-9 fires</a> in Victoria, NSW, South Australia and the ACT similarly gained international headlines when the fires entered the Sydney suburbs,<sup id="cite_ref-269" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-269">[262]</a></sup> as did the <a href="/wiki/1994_eastern_seaboard_fires" title="1994 eastern seaboard fires">1994 eastern seaboard fires</a>. The 1851 <a href="/wiki/Black_Thursday_bushfires" title="Black Thursday bushfires">Black Thursday bushfires</a> shocked colonial Australia with their ferocity, burning a quarter of what is now Victoria (around 5 million hectares (12 million acres)).<sup id="cite_ref-270" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-270">[263]</a></sup> Lesser known is that about 117 million hectares (290 million acres), or 15 per cent of Australia's land mass, experienced fire in the summer of 1974–5. NSW was again badly affected, and three people killed, however the fires were mainly in sparsely populated inland areas.<sup id="cite_ref-271" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-271">[264]</a></sup> The five most deadly blazes were: <a href="/wiki/Black_Saturday_bushfires" title="Black Saturday bushfires">Black Saturday</a> 2009 in Victoria (173 people killed, 2000 homes lost); <a href="/wiki/Ash_Wednesday_bushfires" title="Ash Wednesday bushfires">Ash Wednesday</a> 1983 in Victoria and South Australia (75 dead, nearly 1900 homes); <a href="/wiki/Black_Friday_bushfires" title="Black Friday bushfires">Black Friday</a> 1939 in Victoria (71 dead, 650 houses destroyed), <a href="/wiki/1967_Tasmanian_fires" title="1967 Tasmanian fires">Black Tuesday</a> 1967 in Tasmania (62 people and almost 1300 homes); and the <a href="/wiki/1925-26_Victorian_bushfire_season" class="mw-redirect" title="1925-26 Victorian bushfire season">Gippsland fires and Black Sunday</a> of 1926 in Victoria (60 people killed over a two-month period.<sup id="cite_ref-auto_272-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto-272">[265]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(5)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Environmental_effects">Environmental effects</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=22" title="Edit section: Environmental effects" data-section="22" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-5 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-5">
<p>In mid-December 2019, a <a href="/wiki/Goddard_Space_Flight_Center" title="Goddard Space Flight Center">NASA</a> analysis revealed that since 1 August, the New South Wales and Queensland bushfires had emitted 250 million tonnes (280 million short tons) of <a href="/wiki/Carbon_dioxide" title="Carbon dioxide">carbon dioxide</a> (CO<sub>2</sub>).<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian2019-12-13a_273-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian2019-12-13a-273">[266]</a></sup> As of 2 January 2020, NASA estimated that 306 million tonnes (337 million short tons) of CO<sub>2</sub> had been emitted.<sup id="cite_ref-auto5_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto5-29">[27]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto7_30-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto7-30">[28]</a></sup> By comparison, in 2018, Australia's total carbon emissions were equivalent to 535 million tonnes (590 million short tons) of CO<sub>2</sub>.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian2019-12-13a_273-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian2019-12-13a-273">[266]</a></sup> While the carbon emitted by the fires would normally be reabsorbed by forest regrowth, this would take decades and might not happen at all if prolonged drought has damaged the ability of forests to fully regrow.<sup id="cite_ref-Guardian2019-12-13a_273-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Guardian2019-12-13a-273">[266]</a></sup></p><p>In December 2019, the <a href="/wiki/Air_quality_index#Australia" title="Air quality index">air quality index</a> (AQI) around <a href="/wiki/Rozelle" title="Rozelle">Rozelle</a>, a west suburb of Sydney, hit 2,552 or more than 12 times the hazardous level of 200.<sup id="cite_ref-274" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-274">[267]</a></sup> The level of fine particle matters, known and measured globally as PM2.5, around Sydney was also measured at 734 <a href="/wiki/Microgram" title="Microgram">micrograms</a> (0.01133 <a href="/wiki/Grain_(unit)" title="Grain (unit)">gr</a>) or the equivalent of 37 cigarettes.<sup id="cite_ref-275" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-275">[268]</a></sup> On 1 January 2020, the AQI around <a href="/wiki/Monash,_Australian_Capital_Territory" title="Monash, Australian Capital Territory">Monash</a>, a suburb of Canberra, was measured at 4,650, or more than 23 times hazardous level and peaked at 7,700.<sup id="cite_ref-276" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-276">[269]</a></sup></p><p>On New Year's Day 2020 in <a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a>, a blanket of smoke from the Australian fires covered the whole <a href="/wiki/South_Island" title="South Island">South Island</a>, giving the sky an orange-yellow haze. People in <a href="/wiki/Dunedin" title="Dunedin">Dunedin</a> reported smelling smoke in the air.<sup id="cite_ref-Stuff_NYD_277-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stuff_NYD-277">[270]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/MetService" title="MetService">MetService</a> stated that the smoke would not have any adverse affects on the weather or temperature in the country.<sup id="cite_ref-Stuff_NYD_277-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stuff_NYD-277">[270]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-RNZ_NYD_278-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RNZ_NYD-278">[271]</a></sup> The smoke moved over the <a href="/wiki/North_Island" title="North Island">North Island</a> the following day, but began breaking up and was not as intense as it was over the South Island the previous day; meanwhile, wind from the South Pacific Ocean dissipated the smoke over the South Island.<sup id="cite_ref-279" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-279">[272]</a></sup> The smoke affected glaciers in the country, giving a brown tint to the snow.<sup id="cite_ref-280" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-280">[273]</a></sup> On 5 January 2020, more smoke wafted over the North Island, turning the sky in <a href="/wiki/Auckland" title="Auckland">Auckland</a> orange.<sup id="cite_ref-281" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-281">[274]</a></sup> By 7 January 2020, the smoke was carried approximately 11,000 kilometres (6,800 mi) across the South Pacific Ocean to <a href="/wiki/Chile" title="Chile">Chile</a>, <a href="/wiki/Argentina" title="Argentina">Argentina</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-auto3_27-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto3-27">[25]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto4_28-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto4-28">[26]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Brazil" title="Brazil">Brazil</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Uruguay" title="Uruguay">Uruguay</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-282" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-282">[275]</a></sup></p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r923042769/mw-parser-output/.tmulti">.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{margin:1px;float:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader{clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:left;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption-center{text-align:center;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center{text-align:center}@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{justify-content:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:center}}</style><div class="thumb tmulti tnone center"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:592px;max-width:592px"><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:268px;max-width:268px"><div class="thumbimage" style="border:none;;height:179px;overflow:hidden"><a href="/wiki/File:2019-12-01-2020-01-02-Aqua-AIRS-CO-DAY-NIGHT-COMPOSITE.gif" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/2019-12-01-2020-01-02-Aqua-AIRS-CO-DAY-NIGHT-COMPOSITE.gif/266px-2019-12-01-2020-01-02-Aqua-AIRS-CO-DAY-NIGHT-COMPOSITE.gif" decoding="async" width="266" height="180" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="729"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 266px;height: 180px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/2019-12-01-2020-01-02-Aqua-AIRS-CO-DAY-NIGHT-COMPOSITE.gif/266px-2019-12-01-2020-01-02-Aqua-AIRS-CO-DAY-NIGHT-COMPOSITE.gif" data-alt="" data-width="266" data-height="180"> </span></a></div><div class="thumbcaption"><a href="/wiki/Carbon_Monoxide" class="mw-redirect" title="Carbon Monoxide">CO</a> emitted by 2019-20 south-east bushfire captured by <a href="/wiki/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a> <a href="/wiki/Aqua_(satellite)" title="Aqua (satellite)">Aqua</a> <a href="/wiki/Atmospheric_infrared_sounder" title="Atmospheric infrared sounder">AIRS</a> instrument</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="width:320px;max-width:320px"><div class="thumbimage" style="border:none;;height:179px;overflow:hidden"><a href="/wiki/File:Smoke_cloud_over_New_Zealand,_1_January_2020.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a8/Smoke_cloud_over_New_Zealand%2C_1_January_2020.jpg/318px-Smoke_cloud_over_New_Zealand%2C_1_January_2020.jpg" decoding="async" width="318" height="179" data-file-width="710" data-file-height="400"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 318px;height: 179px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a8/Smoke_cloud_over_New_Zealand%2C_1_January_2020.jpg/318px-Smoke_cloud_over_New_Zealand%2C_1_January_2020.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="318" data-height="179"> </span></a></div><div class="thumbcaption">Smoke cloud covering the South Island of New Zealand on 1 January 2020; landmasses outlined in blue</div></div></div></div></div>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(6)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Ecological_effects">Ecological effects</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=23" title="Edit section: Ecological effects" data-section="23" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-6 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-6">
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Extinction_risk_from_global_warming" title="Extinction risk from global warming">Extinction risk from global warming</a></div>
<p>Prof. Chris Dickman, a <a href="/wiki/List_of_fellows_of_the_Australian_Academy_of_Science" title="List of fellows of the Australian Academy of Science">fellow of the Australian Academy of Science</a> from the <a href="/wiki/University_of_Sydney" title="University of Sydney">University of Sydney</a>, estimated on 8 January 2020 that more than one billion animals were killed by bushfires in Australia; while more than 800 million animals perished in New South Wales. The estimate was based on a 2007 <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Fund_for_Nature" title="World Wide Fund for Nature">World Wide Fund for Nature</a> (WWF) report on impacts of land clearing on Australian wildlife in New South Wales that provided estimates of mammal, bird and reptile population density in the region. Dickman's calculation had been based on highly conservative estimates and the actual mortality would therefore be higher. The figure provided by Dickman included mammals (excluding bats), birds, and reptiles; and did not include frogs, insects, or other invertebrates.<sup id="cite_ref-:8_21-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:8-21">[19]</a></sup> Other estimates, which include animals like bats, amphibians and invertebrates, also put the number killed at over a billion.<sup id="cite_ref-:4_22-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:4-22">[20]</a></sup></p><p>Ecologists feared some <a href="/wiki/Endangered_species" title="Endangered species">endangered species</a> were driven to <a href="/wiki/Extinction" title="Extinction">extinction</a> by the fires.<sup id="cite_ref-:7_23-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:7-23">[21]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-283" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-283">[276]</a></sup> Though bushfires are not uncommon in Australia, they are usually of a lower scale and intensity that only affect small parts of the overall distribution of where species live. Animals that survived a bushfire could still find suitable habitats in the immediate vicinity, which was not the case when an entire distribution is decimated in an intense event. Besides immediate mortality from the fires, there were on-going mortalities after the fires from starvation, lack of shelter, and attacks from predators such as foxes and feral cats that are attracted to fire-affected areas to hunt.<sup id="cite_ref-284" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-284">[277]</a></sup></p><p>On Kangaroo Island, Australia's third-largest island and known as Australia's "Galapagos Island",<sup id="cite_ref-285" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-285">[278]</a></sup> a third of the island was burnt. Large parts of the island are designated as protected areas and host animals such as sea lions, penguins, kangaroos, koalas, <a href="/wiki/Pygmy_possum" title="Pygmy possum">pygmy possums</a>, <a href="/wiki/Southern_brown_bandicoot" title="Southern brown bandicoot">southern brown bandicoots</a>, Ligurian bees, <a href="/wiki/Kangaroo_Island_dunnart" title="Kangaroo Island dunnart">Kangaroo Island dunnarts</a> and various birds including <a href="/wiki/Glossy_black_cockatoo" title="Glossy black cockatoo">glossy black cockatoos</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-:10_286-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:10-286">[279]</a></sup> NASA estimated that the number of dead koalas could be as high as 25,000 or about half the total population of the species on the island.<sup id="cite_ref-287" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-287">[280]</a></sup> A quarter of the beehives of the <a href="/wiki/Italian_bee" title="Italian bee">Ligurian honey bees</a> that inhabited the Island were believed to have been destroyed.<sup id="cite_ref-:10_286-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:10-286">[279]</a></sup> Both the Kangaroo Island dunnart and Kangaroo Island subspecies of the glossy black cockatoo are endangered and are only found on Kangaroo Island. Before the fires, there were fewer than 500 Kangaroo Island dunnarts and about 380 Kangaroo Island glossy black cockatoos.<sup id="cite_ref-288" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-288">[281]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-289" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-289">[282]</a></sup></p><p><a href="/wiki/Bramble_Cay_melomys" title="Bramble Cay melomys">Bramble Cay melomys</a> (<i>Melomys rubicola</i>) became the first known casualty of human-caused climate change in 2015 due to rising sea levels and repeated storm surges; the <a href="/wiki/Greater_stick-nest_rat" title="Greater stick-nest rat">greater stick-nest rat</a> (<i>Leporillus conditor</i>) may be next.<sup id="cite_ref-atlantic_290-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-atlantic-290">[283]</a></sup></p><p>The loss of an estimated 8,000 <a href="/wiki/Koala" title="Koala">koalas</a> (<i>Phascolarctos cinereus</i>) caused concerns. They are considered vulnerable to extinction, though not functionally extinct.<sup id="cite_ref-291" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-291">[284]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(7)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Archaeological_effects">Archaeological effects</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=24" title="Edit section: Archaeological effects" data-section="24" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-7 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-7">
<p>Fire damaged 500 year old <a href="/wiki/Rock_art" title="Rock art">rock art</a> at <a href="/wiki/Anaiwan" class="mw-redirect" title="Anaiwan">Anaiwan</a> in northern <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales" title="New South Wales">New South Wales</a>, with the intense and rapid temperature change of the fires cracking the granite rock. This caused panels of art to fracture and fall off the huge boulders that contain the galleries of art.<sup id="cite_ref-292" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-292">[285]</a></sup></p><p>At the <a href="/wiki/Budj_Bim_heritage_areas" title="Budj Bim heritage areas">Budj Bim heritage areas</a> in <a href="/wiki/Victoria_(Australia)" title="Victoria (Australia)">Victoria</a> the <a href="/wiki/Gunditjmara" class="mw-redirect" title="Gunditjmara">Gunditjmara</a> people reported that when they inspected the site after fires moved across it, they found ancient channels and ponds that were newly visible after the fires burned much of the vegetation off the landscape.<sup id="cite_ref-293" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-293">[286]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-294" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-294">[287]</a></sup></p><p>After fire burnt out a creek on a property at Cobargo, NSW, on New Year's Eve, a <a href="/wiki/Boomerang" title="Boomerang">boomerang</a> carved by stone artefact was found.<sup id="cite_ref-295" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-295">[288]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(8)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Domestic_response">Domestic response</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=25" title="Edit section: Domestic response" data-section="25" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-8 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-8">
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="New_South_Wales_2">New South Wales</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=26" title="Edit section: New South Wales" data-section="26" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Firefighters_-_NSW_Bushfires_2019.jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Firefighters_-_NSW_Bushfires_2019.jpg/200px-Firefighters_-_NSW_Bushfires_2019.jpg" decoding="async" width="200" height="200" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="1080"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 200px;height: 200px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Firefighters_-_NSW_Bushfires_2019.jpg/200px-Firefighters_-_NSW_Bushfires_2019.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="200" data-height="200" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Firefighters_-_NSW_Bushfires_2019.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>NSW RFS firefighters in <a href="/wiki/Manyana,_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Manyana, New South Wales">Manyana</a> having a break</div></div></div>
<p>The two primary firefighting agencies for New South Wales, <a href="/wiki/Fire_and_Rescue_NSW" title="Fire and Rescue NSW">Fire and Rescue NSW</a> and the <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Rural_Fire_Service" title="New South Wales Rural Fire Service">NSW Rural Fire Service</a>, formed the bulk of the primary response to the fires, mobilising thousands of firefighters and several hundred firefighting vehicles. They were heavily supported by the <a href="/wiki/National_Parks_and_Wildlife_Service_(New_South_Wales)" title="National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales)">NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service</a> and the Forestry Corporation of NSW, who hold jurisdiction over national parks and forests across the state. Additional local firefighting resources were also utilised from agencies such as <a href="/wiki/Airservices_Australia" title="Airservices Australia">Air Services Australia</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sydney_Trains" title="Sydney Trains">Sydney Trains</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup></p><p>Numerous interstate agencies deployed firefighting resources into New South Wales, including several hundred firefighters from the <a href="/wiki/Country_Fire_Authority" title="Country Fire Authority">Victorian Country Fire Authority</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-296" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-296">[289]</a></sup> along with crews from the <a href="/wiki/Metropolitan_Fire_Brigade_(Melbourne)" title="Metropolitan Fire Brigade (Melbourne)">Melbourne Metropolitan Fire Brigade</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-297" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-297">[290]</a></sup> the <a href="/wiki/South_Australian_Country_Fire_Service" title="South Australian Country Fire Service">South Australian Country Fire Service</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-:5_298-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:5-298">[291]</a></sup> the <a href="/wiki/South_Australian_Metropolitan_Fire_Service" title="South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service">South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-:5_298-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:5-298">[291]</a></sup> the South Australian Department of Environment and Water,<sup id="cite_ref-:5_298-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:5-298">[291]</a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Queensland_Fire_and_Emergency_Services" title="Queensland Fire and Emergency Services">Queensland Fire and Emergency Service</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-299" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-299">[292]</a></sup></p><p>Despite the substantial loss of property and loss of life, firefighters have so far<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Dates_and_numbers#Chronological_items" title="Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers"><span title="The time period mentioned near this tag is ambiguous. (January 2020)">when?</span></a></i>]</sup> managed to save over 16,000 structures from direct fire impact in addition to countless lives.<sup id="cite_ref-:6_300-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:6-300">[293]</a></sup></p><p>Multiple other New South Wales emergency services assisted in the response, including <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Ambulance" title="New South Wales Ambulance">NSW Ambulance</a> that provided ongoing pre-hospital care to victims of the fires including firefighters, <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Police_Force" title="New South Wales Police Force">NSW Police</a> that worked to ensure public safety was maintained through road closures and evacuations and the <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_State_Emergency_Service" title="New South Wales State Emergency Service">NSW State Emergency Service</a> that assisted with logistical support.<sup id="cite_ref-:6_300-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:6-300">[293]</a></sup> With <a href="/wiki/Brush-tailed_rock-wallaby" title="Brush-tailed rock-wallaby">brush-tailed rock-wallabies</a> and much of the indigenous wildlife population in parts of New South Wales were left without food or water, the <a href="/wiki/National_Parks_and_Wildlife_Service_(New_South_Wales)" title="National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales)">NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service</a> airdropped approximately 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb) vegetables on the known habitats.<sup id="cite_ref-301" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-301">[294]</a></sup> A joint operation by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and NSW Rural Fire Service was mounted to protect the critically endangered <a href="/wiki/Wollemia" title="Wollemia">Wollemia</a> pines growing in Wollemi National Park. Fire retardant was dropped from air tankers, and an irrigation system was installed on the ground by specialist firefighters, who were lowered into the area by <a href="/wiki/Winch" title="Winch">winches</a> from helicopters.<sup id="cite_ref-302" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-302">[295]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-303" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-303">[296]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Commonwealth">Commonwealth</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=27" title="Edit section: Commonwealth" data-section="27" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>On 24 December 2019, the <a href="/wiki/Morrison_Government" title="Morrison Government">Morrison Government</a> announced that volunteer firefighters employed in the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Public_Service" title="Australian Public Service">Commonwealth public service</a> would be offered at least 20 working days paid leave.<sup id="cite_ref-304" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-304">[297]</a></sup> On 29 December 2019, it announced that volunteer firefighters who have been called out for more than 10 days would be able to receive financial compensation.<sup id="cite_ref-305" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-305">[298]</a></sup> On 4 January 2020, it announced that it would lease four waterbombing planes including two long-range <a href="/wiki/McDonnell_Douglas_DC-10" title="McDonnell Douglas DC-10">DC-10s</a> and two medium-range for use by state and territory governments.<sup id="cite_ref-PM4Jan_306-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PM4Jan-306">[299]</a></sup></p><p>On 5 January 2020, the Prime Minister announced the establishment of the <a href="/wiki/National_Bushfire_Recovery_Agency" title="National Bushfire Recovery Agency">National Bushfire Recovery Agency</a>, funded initially with <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>2 billion, under the control of former <a href="/wiki/Australian_Federal_Police" title="Australian Federal Police">Australian Federal Police</a> <a href="/wiki/Police_commissioner" title="Police commissioner">Commissioner</a>, <a href="/wiki/Andrew_Colvin" title="Andrew Colvin">Andrew Colvin</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-307" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-307">[300]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-2020-01-06_ABC_308-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2020-01-06_ABC-308">[301]</a></sup></p>
<h4 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Military">Military</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=28" title="Edit section: Military" data-section="28" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h4>
<p>On 5 December 2019, the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Defence_Force" title="Australian Defence Force">Australian Defence Force</a> (ADF) commenced <i>Operation Bushfire Assist</i> to support state fire services in logistics, planning, capability, and operational support. Activities the ADF has undertaken as part of the Operation have included <a href="/wiki/Royal_Australian_Air_Force" title="Royal Australian Air Force">Air Force</a> aircraft transporting firefighters and their equipment interstate, <a href="/wiki/Australian_Army" title="Australian Army">Army</a> and <a href="/wiki/Royal_Australian_Navy" title="Royal Australian Navy">Navy</a> helicopters transporting firefighters, conducting night fire mapping, impact assessments and search and rescue flights, use of various defence facilities as coordination and information centres and for catering and accommodation for firefighters, liaison between state and federal government services, reloading and refuelling for waterbombing aircraft, deployment of personnel to assess fire damage and severity, and provision of humanitarian supplies.<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup></p><p>On 31 December 2019, the <a href="/wiki/Minister_for_Defence_(Australia)" title="Minister for Defence (Australia)">Defence Minister</a> announced the ADF would provide assistance to East Gippsland, in particular the isolated high-fire-risk town of Mallacoota, deploying helicopters including a <a href="/wiki/Boeing_CH-47_Chinook" title="Boeing CH-47 Chinook">CH-47 Chinook</a> and <a href="/wiki/Alenia_C-27J_Spartan" title="Alenia C-27J Spartan">C-27J Spartan</a> military transport aircraft to be based at <a href="/wiki/RAAF_Base_East_Sale" title="RAAF Base East Sale">RAAF Base East Sale</a> and two naval vessels, <a href="/wiki/HMAS_Choules" title="HMAS Choules">HMAS <i>Choules</i></a> and <a href="/wiki/MV_Sycamore" title="MV Sycamore">MV <i>Sycamore</i></a>, with the vessels also able to assist in south-east New South Wales if required.<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-309" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-309">[302]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-310" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-310">[303]</a></sup> On 1 January 2020, the ADF deployed additional military staff establishing the Victorian Joint Task Force 646 (<a href="/wiki/4th_Brigade_(Australia)" title="4th Brigade (Australia)">Army Reserve 4th Brigade</a>) and the following day the New South Wales Joint Task Force 1110 (<a href="/wiki/5th_Brigade_(Australia)" title="5th Brigade (Australia)">Army Reserve 5th Brigade</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup> On 3 January 2020, HMAS <i>Choules</i> and MV <i>Sycamore</i> evacuated civilians from Mallacoota bound for <a href="/wiki/Westernport" class="mw-redirect" title="Westernport">Westernport</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup></p><p>On 4 January 2020, following a meeting of the <a href="/wiki/National_Security_Committee_(Australia)" title="National Security Committee (Australia)">National Security Committee</a>, the Morrison Government announced a compulsory call-out of <a href="/wiki/Australian_Army_Reserve" title="Australian Army Reserve">Army Reserve</a> brigades to deploy up to 3,000 reserve personnel full-time to assist with in the Operation. Additionally, Defence announced that it would deploy <a href="/wiki/HMAS_Adelaide_(L01)" title="HMAS Adelaide (L01)">HMAS <i>Adelaide</i></a> to support other Navy ships in evacuations and relief, as well additional Chinook helicopters and military transport aircraft to RAAF Base East Sale.<sup id="cite_ref-311" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-311">[304]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-PM4Jan_306-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PM4Jan-306">[299]</a></sup> The same day, Chinook helicopters evacuated civilians from <a href="/wiki/Omeo" title="Omeo">Omeo</a>; and Spartan aircraft evacuated civilians from Mallacoota on 5 January.<sup id="cite_ref-OBA_36-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OBA-36">[34]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Community_organisations">Community organisations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=29" title="Edit section: Community organisations" data-section="29" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>The response of volunteer organisations and charities was also considerable, with <a href="/wiki/NSW_Wildlife_Information_Rescue_and_Education_Service" title="NSW Wildlife Information Rescue and Education Service">WIRES Wildlife Rescue</a> working to rescue and treat injured wildlife,<sup id="cite_ref-312" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-312">[305]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Plymouth_Brethren_Christian_Church" title="Plymouth Brethren Christian Church">Rapid Relief Team Australia</a> raising money for victims, providing meals for firefighters and assisting with two bulk water tankers,<sup id="cite_ref-313" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-313">[306]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Team_Rubicon" title="Team Rubicon">Team Rubicon Australia</a> providing debris removal and helping with the cleanup of fire affected areas,<sup id="cite_ref-314" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-314">[307]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-315" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-315">[308]</a></sup> the Animal Welfare League fundraising and assisting injured animals,<sup id="cite_ref-316" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-316">[309]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-317" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-317">[310]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/St_John_Ambulance_Australia_New_South_Wales" title="St John Ambulance Australia New South Wales">St John Ambulance Australia</a> and <a href="/wiki/Australian_Red_Cross" title="Australian Red Cross">Australian Red Cross</a> providing support at evacuation centres across New South Wales.
</p><p>On 1 December 2019 <a href="/wiki/World_Wildlife_Fund" class="mw-redirect" title="World Wildlife Fund">WWF-Australia</a> launched the “Towards Two Billion Trees” plan to aid the koala bushfire recovery. It aims to stop excessive tree-clearing, protect the existing trees and forests, and restore native habitat that has been lost. The ten-point plan for the next ten years foresees to grow 1.56 billion new trees and save 780 million trees.<sup id="cite_ref-318" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-318">[311]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-319" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-319">[312]</a></sup></p><p>Hundreds of Australian architecture firms offered their services <a href="/wiki/Pro_bono" title="Pro bono">pro bono</a> to communities affected by the bushfires as members of <a href="/w/index.php?title=Architects_Assist&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Architects Assist (page does not exist)">Architects Assist</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-320" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-320">[313]</a></sup> an organisation established by architect <a href="/wiki/Jiri_Lev" title="Jiri Lev">Jiri Lev</a><sup id="cite_ref-321" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-321">[314]</a></sup> on 4 January 2020. As of 26 January 2020<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit">[update]</a></sup> the organisation represented 500 architecture practices and a further 1,400 architecture student and graduate volunteers.<sup id="cite_ref-322" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-322">[315]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(9)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="International_response">International response</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=30" title="Edit section: International response" data-section="30" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-9 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-9">
<p>Political figures from outside Australia including <a href="/wiki/Donald_Trump" title="Donald Trump">Donald Trump</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-323" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-323">[316]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Cory_Booker" title="Cory Booker">Cory Booker</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-celebs_324-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-celebs-324">[317]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Hillary_Clinton" title="Hillary Clinton">Hillary Clinton</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325">[318]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Al_Gore" title="Al Gore">Al Gore</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325">[318]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Bernie_Sanders" title="Bernie Sanders">Bernie Sanders</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325">[318]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Greta_Thunberg" title="Greta Thunberg">Greta Thunberg</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-326" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-326">[319]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-327" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-327">[320]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Elizabeth_Warren" title="Elizabeth Warren">Elizabeth Warren</a><sup id="cite_ref-celebs_324-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-celebs-324">[317]</a></sup> all publicly commented about the fires. People in the entertainment industry such as <a href="/wiki/Tina_Arena" title="Tina Arena">Tina Arena</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-celebs_324-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-celebs-324">[317]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Patricia_Arquette" title="Patricia Arquette">Patricia Arquette</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes-328">[321]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Cate_Blanchett" title="Cate Blanchett">Cate Blanchett</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes-328">[321]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Russell_Crowe" title="Russell Crowe">Russell Crowe</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-329" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-329">[322]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Ellen_DeGeneres" title="Ellen DeGeneres">Ellen DeGeneres</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-330" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-330">[323]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Selena_Gomez" title="Selena Gomez">Selena Gomez</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Yahoo-6Jan2020-331">[324]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Halsey_(singer)" title="Halsey (singer)">Halsey</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325">[318]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Nicole_Kidman" title="Nicole Kidman">Nicole Kidman</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes-328">[321]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Lizzo" title="Lizzo">Lizzo</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Yahoo-6Jan2020-331">[324]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Bette_Midler" title="Bette Midler">Bette Midler</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325">[318]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Pink_(singer)" title="Pink (singer)">Pink</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Yahoo-6Jan2020-331">[324]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Margot_Robbie" title="Margot Robbie">Margot Robbie</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes-328">[321]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Paul_Stanley" title="Paul Stanley">Paul Stanley</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325">[318]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Jay_Park" title="Jay Park">Jay Park</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_bushfire3_332-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_bushfire3-332">[325]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Jonathan_Van_Ness" title="Jonathan Van Ness">Jonathan Van Ness</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Yahoo-6Jan2020-331">[324]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Phoebe_Waller-Bridge" title="Phoebe Waller-Bridge">Phoebe Waller-Bridge</a><sup id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes-328">[321]</a></sup> also made statements about the fires. Some of the aforementioned people have also donated or raised funds.
</p><p>On 4 January 2020, <a href="/wiki/Elizabeth_II" title="Elizabeth II">Queen Elizabeth</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Prince_Philip,_Duke_of_Edinburgh" title="Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh">Duke of Edinburgh</a> sent a message of condolence to <a href="/wiki/Governor-General_of_Australia" title="Governor-General of Australia">Governor-General</a> <a href="/wiki/David_Hurley" title="David Hurley">David Hurley</a>, sending their "<a href="/wiki/Thoughts_and_prayers" title="Thoughts and prayers">thoughts and prayers</a> to all Australians at this difficult time". The Queen indicated in her message that she was "deeply saddened" to hear of the fires and their devastating impact on the country, and expressed her thanks to emergency service workers.<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_Queen_333-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_Queen-333">[326]</a></sup> On 8 January 2020, <a href="/wiki/Charles,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Charles, Prince of Wales">Prince Charles</a> issued a video message expressing his despair at the "appalling horror" of the fires.<sup id="cite_ref-News_Charles_video_334-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-News_Charles_video-334">[327]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Prince_William,_Duke_of_Cambridge" title="Prince William, Duke of Cambridge">Duke</a> and <a href="/wiki/Catherine,_Duchess_of_Cambridge" title="Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge">Duchess of Cambridge</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Prince_Harry,_Duke_of_Sussex" title="Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex">Duke</a> and <a href="/wiki/Meghan,_Duchess_of_Sussex" title="Meghan, Duchess of Sussex">Duchess of Sussex</a> also issued messages to Australia,<sup id="cite_ref-News_Charles_video_334-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-News_Charles_video-334">[327]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Princess_Mary_of_Denmark" class="mw-redirect" title="Princess Mary of Denmark">Princess Mary of Denmark</a>, who is of Australian heritage, published an open letter where she and her husband, <a href="/wiki/Frederik,_Crown_Prince_of_Denmark" title="Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark">Crown Prince Frederik</a>, expressed their condolences to the victims and respect for the firefighters.<sup id="cite_ref-335" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-335">[328]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="International_aid">International aid</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=31" title="Edit section: International aid" data-section="31" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<dl><dt>Canada</dt></dl><p>Four deployments totalling 87 Canadian firefighters were sent through the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre.<sup id="cite_ref-336" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-336">[329]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-337" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-337">[330]</a></sup> It was the first time since 2009 that Canadian personnel were deployed to Australia.<sup id="cite_ref-338" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-338">[331]</a></sup> The Canadian government also sent a <a href="/wiki/Boeing_C-17_Globemaster_III" title="Boeing C-17 Globemaster III">CC-17</a> plane of the <a href="/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Air_Force" title="Royal Canadian Air Force">Royal Canadian Air Force</a> with 15 personnel on 27 January to further aid with transport and provide airlift support.<sup id="cite_ref-339" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-339">[332]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Fiji</dt></dl><p>The government of Fiji deployed the <a href="/wiki/Republic_of_Fiji_Military_Forces" title="Republic of Fiji Military Forces">Fiji Military Forces</a> humanitarian assistance and disaster relief platoon and engineers to assist in the bush fire rehabilitation.<sup id="cite_ref-340" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-340">[333]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>France</dt></dl><p>On 6 January, French President <a href="/wiki/Emmanuel_Macron" title="Emmanuel Macron">Emmanuel Macron</a> stated he could help out with the bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-341" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-341">[334]</a></sup> A team of five French firefighting experts arrived in Australia on 9 January in order to determine possible options for French and European support.<sup id="cite_ref-342" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-342">[335]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Indonesia</dt></dl><p>On 1 February, (Satuan Setingkat Peleton) SST Zeni, an <a href="/wiki/Indonesian_Army" title="Indonesian Army">Army</a> engineering <a href="/wiki/Platoon" title="Platoon">platoon</a> unit, would be dispatched to Australia. A total of 38 personnel, consist of 26 <a href="/wiki/Indonesian_Army_Corps_of_Engineers" title="Indonesian Army Corps of Engineers">army engineers</a>, 6 <a href="/wiki/Indonesian_Marine_Corps" title="Indonesian Marine Corps">Korps Marinir</a> personnel, 4 <a href="/wiki/Indonesian_Air_Force" title="Indonesian Air Force">Air Force</a> facility construction personnel, and 2 <a href="/wiki/Indonesian_National_Armed_Forces" title="Indonesian National Armed Forces">TNI</a> <a href="/w/index.php?title=Indonesian_National_Armed_Forces_Joint_Service_Medical_Department&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Indonesian National Armed Forces Joint Service Medical Department (page does not exist)">Medical Department</a> personnel. The team landed in <a href="/wiki/Royal_Australian_Air_Force" title="Royal Australian Air Force">RAAF</a> <a href="/wiki/RAAF_Base_Richmond" title="RAAF Base Richmond">Base Richmond</a> in <a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales" title="New South Wales">New South Wales</a> on the same day, according to the <a href="/wiki/Embassy_of_Indonesia,_Canberra" title="Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra">Indonesian Embassy</a> on 3 February 2020, the troops will be deployed on the <a href="/wiki/Blue_Mountains_(New_South_Wales)" title="Blue Mountains (New South Wales)">Blue Mountains</a> area.<sup id="cite_ref-343" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-343">[336]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-344" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-344">[337]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-345" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-345">[338]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Japan</dt></dl><p>On 15 January, the Japanese government sent two <a href="/wiki/C-130" class="mw-redirect" title="C-130">C-130</a> aircraft of the <a href="/wiki/JASDF" class="mw-redirect" title="JASDF">JASDF</a>, along with 70 other <a href="/wiki/JSDF" class="mw-redirect" title="JSDF">Self-Defense Force</a> personnel to assist in transport and other efforts in combating the bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-346" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-346">[339]</a></sup> The aircraft left <a href="/wiki/Komaki_Air_Base" class="mw-redirect" title="Komaki Air Base">Komaki Air Base</a> and flew to <a href="/wiki/RAAF_Base_Richmond" title="RAAF Base Richmond">RAAF Base Richmond</a> in New South Wales the next day.
</p>
<dl><dt>Malaysia</dt></dl><p>On 5 January, Malaysia offered its assistance through a statement by <a href="/wiki/Deputy_Prime_Minister_of_Malaysia" title="Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia">Deputy Prime Minister</a> <a href="/wiki/Wan_Azizah_Wan_Ismail" title="Wan Azizah Wan Ismail">Wan Azizah Wan Ismail</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-347" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-347">[340]</a></sup> On 13 January, Malaysia officially deployed over forty firefighters to assist with the bushfires. Twenty others from government agencies would also be involved with the mission.<sup id="cite_ref-348" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-348">[341]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>New Zealand</dt></dl><p>Over fifty New Zealanders were deployed to Australia in both direct fire fighting and support roles.<sup id="cite_ref-349" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-349">[342]</a></sup> In January 2020, New Zealand also deployed elements of the <a href="/wiki/Royal_New_Zealand_Air_Force" title="Royal New Zealand Air Force">Royal New Zealand Air Force</a> and <a href="/wiki/New_Zealand_Army" title="New Zealand Army">New Zealand Army</a> including three NH90 helicopters, two Army combat engineer sections, and a command element.<sup id="cite_ref-350" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-350">[343]</a></sup> A specialist six person animal disaster response team were deployed by non-profit Animal Evac New Zealand<sup id="cite_ref-351" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-351">[344]</a></sup> on 8 January to New South Wales,<sup id="cite_ref-352" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-352">[345]</a></sup> assisting with wildlife rescue and supported by SAFE.<sup id="cite_ref-353" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-353">[346]</a></sup> The team was the first international specialist animal rescuers to arrive<sup id="cite_ref-354" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-354">[347]</a></sup> and included vets, animal management officers as well as animal disaster and technical animal rescue experts. A second team of four arrived on 13 January.<sup id="cite_ref-355" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-355">[348]</a></sup> The teams partnered with local wildlife centres<sup id="cite_ref-356" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-356">[349]</a></sup> to successfully rescue and relocate several injured animals.<sup id="cite_ref-357" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-357">[350]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-358" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-358">[351]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-359" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-359">[352]</a></sup> as well as advising residents in fire danger zones on their animal evacuation plans.<sup id="cite_ref-360" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-360">[353]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Papua New Guinea</dt></dl><p>The Government of Papua New Guinea offered to send 1,000 military and other personnel to Australia to assist with the response to the bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-361" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-361">[354]</a></sup> Australia accepted 100 <a href="/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea_Defence_Force" title="Papua New Guinea Defence Force">Papua New Guinea Defence Force</a> personnel.<sup id="cite_ref-362" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-362">[355]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>The Philippines</dt></dl><p>The Philippine Red Cross pledged to donate $100K to Australia,<sup id="cite_ref-363" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-363">[356]</a></sup> while various Filipino personalities pledged support for the victims of the bush fires.<sup id="cite_ref-364" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-364">[357]</a></sup> The women-led <a href="/wiki/Teduray_people" title="Teduray people">Teduray people</a> of Maguindanao initiated a sacred rain-making ritual for Australian victims, calling on the fire goddess <a href="/wiki/Philippine_mythology" title="Philippine mythology">Frayag Sarif</a>'s intercession to bring rain to the country.<sup id="cite_ref-365" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-365">[358]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Singapore</dt></dl><p>Singapore deployed two <a href="/wiki/Boeing_CH-47_Chinook" title="Boeing CH-47 Chinook">Chinook</a> helicopters and 42 <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Armed_Forces" title="Singapore Armed Forces">Singapore Armed Forces</a> personnel stationed at <a href="/wiki/Oakey_Army_Aviation_Centre" title="Oakey Army Aviation Centre">Oakey Army Aviation Centre</a> to RAAF Base East Sale in Victoria.<sup id="cite_ref-366" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-366">[359]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>United Arab Emirates</dt></dl><p>The United Arab Emirates sent 200 volunteers from the <a href="/wiki/Emirates_Red_Crescent" title="Emirates Red Crescent">Emirates Red Crescent</a> to help fight the fire, including Emirati astronaut <a href="/wiki/Sultan_Al_Neyadi" title="Sultan Al Neyadi">Sultan Al Neyadi</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-367" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-367">[360]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-368" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-368">[361]</a></sup> A Twitter campaign and hashtag #mateshelpmates was launched by the <a href="/wiki/Expo_2020" title="Expo 2020">Dubai Expo 2020</a> aiming to raise donations to help those affected by the fires in Australia.<sup id="cite_ref-369" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-369">[362]</a></sup> To increase awareness, <a href="/wiki/Burj_Khalifa" title="Burj Khalifa">Burj Khalifa</a> in Dubai, the world's tallest tower, lit up in solidarity with Australia.<sup id="cite_ref-370" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-370">[363]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>United States</dt></dl><div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Brian_Stearns_saved_%22Joey%22_in_the_bushfire.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Brian_Stearns_saved_%22Joey%22_in_the_bushfire.png/220px-Brian_Stearns_saved_%22Joey%22_in_the_bushfire.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="223" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="372" data-file-height="377"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 223px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Brian_Stearns_saved_%22Joey%22_in_the_bushfire.png/220px-Brian_Stearns_saved_%22Joey%22_in_the_bushfire.png" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="223" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Brian_Stearns_saved_%22Joey%22_in_the_bushfire.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A <a href="/wiki/Huron%E2%80%93Manistee_National_Forests" title="Huron–Manistee National Forests">Huron–Manistee National Forests</a> employee, on secondment to Australia, holds a kangaroo <a href="/wiki/Joey_(marsupial)" class="mw-redirect" title="Joey (marsupial)">joey</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>Twenty firefighters from the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Department_of_the_Interior" title="United States Department of the Interior">United States Department of the Interior</a> were deployed to Australia to help combat the fires. Fire fighters from other parts of the US also helped with the fires.<sup id="cite_ref-USap_371-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USap-371">[364]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-372" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-372">[365]</a></sup> On 23 January, three US firefighters died in the crash of a <a href="/wiki/C-130" class="mw-redirect" title="C-130">C-130</a> fire fighting aircraft, north east of Cooma in New South Wales.<sup id="cite_ref-373" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-373">[366]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Other countries</dt></dl><p>Several other countries have offered assistance:
</p>
<ul><li>On 7 January, Denmark offered 50 firefighters via the <a href="/wiki/Danish_Emergency_Management_Agency" title="Danish Emergency Management Agency">Danish Emergency Management Agency</a> that were on a standby and could move on a short notice, but it was deemed unnecessary by the Australian Government, which at that point said that they had sufficient material, manpower and organisation to deal with the remaining fires.<sup id="cite_ref-374" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-374">[367]</a></sup></li>
<li>On 6 January 2020, the <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Internal_Affairs_(Romania)" title="Ministry of Internal Affairs (Romania)">Romanian Ministry of Internal Affairs</a> responded to the Civil Protection Mechanism (EUCPM) and prepared 70 firefighters<sup id="cite_ref-375" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-375">[368]</a></sup> to be deployed in Australia through the <a href="/wiki/Directorate-General_for_European_Civil_Protection_and_Humanitarian_Aid_Operations#Emergency_Response_Coordination_Centre_(ERCC)" title="Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations">Emergency Response Coordination Centre</a> (ERCC) of the European Union.<sup id="cite_ref-376" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-376">[369]</a></sup> Australia rejected this, as well as the EU call for more bushfire help.<sup id="cite_ref-377" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-377">[370]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-378" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-378">[371]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Ministers_of_Foreign_Affairs_(Turkey)" title="List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs (Turkey)">Turkish Foreign Minister</a> <a href="/wiki/Mevl%C3%BCt_%C3%87avu%C5%9Fo%C4%9Flu" title="Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu">Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu</a> tweeted that Turkey is ready to provide all required assistance, while Turkey's Melbourne consulate donated $14,500 to <a href="/wiki/Queensland_Fire_and_Emergency_Services" title="Queensland Fire and Emergency Services">Queensland Fire and Emergency Services</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-379" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-379">[372]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-380" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-380">[373]</a></sup></li>
<li>The Foreign Ministry of Ukraine notified Australia that the Ukrainian government is ready to send 200 seasoned firefighters to help fight the fires. Ukraine's Foreign Minister also noted that "The fires in Australia have not left the Ukrainians indifferent."<sup id="cite_ref-381" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-381">[374]</a></sup></li>
<li>Some Pacific nations have also stated that they could send some aid.<sup id="cite_ref-382" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-382">[375]</a></sup></li></ul></section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(10)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Causes">Causes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=32" title="Edit section: Causes" data-section="32" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-10 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-10">
<p>Australia is one of the most fire-prone countries on earth, and bushfires form part of the natural cycle of its landscapes. However, factors such as climate trends, weather patterns and vegetation management by humans can all contribute to the intensity of bushfire seasons, and the most destructive fires in Australian history have usually been preceded by extreme high temperatures, low relative humidity and strong winds, which combine to create ideal conditions for the rapid spread of fire.<sup id="cite_ref-auto_272-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto-272">[265]</a></sup> Scientific experts and land management agencies agree that severely below average fuel moisture attributed to record-breaking temperatures and drought, accompanied by severe fire weather, are the primary causes of the 2019-20 Australian bushfire season, and that these are likely to have been exacerbated by long-term trends of warmer and dryer weather observed over the Australian land mass.<sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gergis_384-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gergis-384">[377]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_News_385-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_News-385">[378]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Carbon_Brief_386-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carbon_Brief-386">[379]</a></sup> Nonetheless, the political nature of many of the crisis and its associated issues has also resulted in the circulation of large amounts of disinformation regarding the causes of the fire activity, to the neglect of credible scientific research, expert opinion, and previous government inquiries.<sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gergis_384-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gergis-384">[377]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_News_385-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_News-385">[378]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Carbon_Brief_386-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carbon_Brief-386">[379]</a></sup></p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r923042769/mw-parser-output/.tmulti"><div class="thumb tmulti tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:204px;max-width:204px"><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage" style="border:none;"><a href="/wiki/File:2019-12_2019-11_BOM_tmax_a036.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/2019-12_2019-11_BOM_tmax_a036.png/200px-2019-12_2019-11_BOM_tmax_a036.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="137" data-file-width="2498" data-file-height="1714"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 200px;height: 137px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/2019-12_2019-11_BOM_tmax_a036.png/200px-2019-12_2019-11_BOM_tmax_a036.png" data-alt="" data-width="200" data-height="137"> </span></a></div><div class="thumbcaption">Maximum temperature deciles, January to November 2019</div></div></div><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage" style="border:none;"><a href="/wiki/File:2019-12_2019-11_BOM_rain_a036.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/2019-12_2019-11_BOM_rain_a036.png/200px-2019-12_2019-11_BOM_rain_a036.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="137" data-file-width="2498" data-file-height="1714"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 200px;height: 137px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/2019-12_2019-11_BOM_rain_a036.png/200px-2019-12_2019-11_BOM_rain_a036.png" data-alt="" data-width="200" data-height="137"> </span></a></div><div class="thumbcaption">Rainfall deciles, January to November 2019</div></div></div><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage" style="border:none;"><a href="/wiki/File:2019_Spring_BOM_FFDI_scs72.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/2019_Spring_BOM_FFDI_scs72.png/200px-2019_Spring_BOM_FFDI_scs72.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="137" data-file-width="1179" data-file-height="809"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 200px;height: 137px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/2019_Spring_BOM_FFDI_scs72.png/200px-2019_Spring_BOM_FFDI_scs72.png" data-alt="" data-width="200" data-height="137"> </span></a></div><div class="thumbcaption">FFDI (<a href="/wiki/McArthur_Forest_Fire_Danger_Index" title="McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index">Forest Fire Danger Index</a>), Spring 2019</div></div></div><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage" style="border:none;"><a href="/wiki/File:Forest_distribution_in_Australia,_2018.png" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Forest_distribution_in_Australia%2C_2018.png/200px-Forest_distribution_in_Australia%2C_2018.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="140" data-file-width="1141" data-file-height="801"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 200px;height: 140px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Forest_distribution_in_Australia%2C_2018.png/200px-Forest_distribution_in_Australia%2C_2018.png" data-alt="" data-width="200" data-height="140"> </span></a></div><div class="thumbcaption">Distribution of Australian Forests 2016</div></div></div></div></div>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Ignition">Ignition</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=33" title="Edit section: Ignition" data-section="33" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>The major cause of ignition of fires during the 2019-20 fire crisis in NSW and Victoria is reported to be lightning strikes.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_News_385-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_News-385">[378]</a></sup> According to <a href="/wiki/ABC_News_(Australia)" title="ABC News (Australia)"><i>ABC News</i></a>, <a href="/wiki/Arson" title="Arson">arson</a> has been of little impact – accounting for around 1% of NSW fires and 0.3% of Victorian fires by 18 January 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_News_385-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_News-385">[378]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Carbon_Brief_386-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carbon_Brief-386">[379]</a></sup> The NSW Rural Fire Service referred numerous individuals to the <a href="/wiki/NSW_Police" class="mw-redirect" title="NSW Police">NSW Police</a>; 24 people were charged with arson, allegedly starting bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-arson3_387-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-arson3-387">[380]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-arson1_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-arson1-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-arson2_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-arson2-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-:11_388-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:11-388">[381]</a></sup>  Queensland police reported that 114 out of 1068 fires "were found to be deliberately or maliciously lit".<sup id="cite_ref-389" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-389">[382]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Drought_and_temperature">Drought and temperature</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=34" title="Edit section: Drought and temperature" data-section="34" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>A likely contributor to the bushfire crisis was the ongoing <a href="/wiki/Drought_in_Australia#2017%E2%80%93current_drought" title="Drought in Australia">drought in eastern Australia</a> – the most severe on record for some fire affected areas.<sup id="cite_ref-390" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-390">[383]</a></sup> Exacerbating the effects of diminished rainfall in this drought has been a record breaking run of above average monthly temperatures, lasting 36 months to October 2019.<sup id="cite_ref-391" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-391">[384]</a></sup> The combination of heat and drought caused critical low fuel moisture content, with Victoria Country Fire Authority Response Controller Gavin Freeman stating that the "underlying dryness" of the bush has led to exceptionally high fire danger.<sup id="cite_ref-392" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-392">[385]</a></sup> Although Australia has naturally experienced high rainfall variability and hot summers for millennia, the country has experienced an increase of nearly 1.0 °C (1.8 °F) in average annual temperatures since 1900, decreases in average rainfall in southeastern Australia since 1990, with the country's worst recorded droughts occurring within the 21st century.<sup id="cite_ref-393" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-393">[386]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-394" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-394">[387]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-395" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-395">[388]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-396" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-396">[389]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-397" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-397">[390]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Commonwealth_Scientific_and_Industrial_Research_Organisation" class="mw-redirect" title="Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation">Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation</a> (CSIRO) stated that on account of projected future climate change, hot days will become more frequent and hotter (very high confidence), and the time in drought is projected to increase over southern Australia (high confidence).<sup id="cite_ref-398" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-398">[391]</a></sup> In October 2019 <a href="/wiki/David_Littleproud" title="David Littleproud">David Littleproud</a>, the Australian <a href="/wiki/Minister_for_Water_Resources" class="mw-redirect" title="Minister for Water Resources">Minister for Water Resources</a>, stated that he "totally accepts" the link between <a href="/wiki/Climate_change_in_Australia" title="Climate change in Australia">climate change and drought in Australia</a>, as someone who has experienced it first hand.<sup id="cite_ref-theguardian.com_399-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-theguardian.com-399">[392]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Climate_change">Climate change</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=35" title="Edit section: Climate change" data-section="35" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>Climate and fire experts agree that <a href="/wiki/Climate_change" class="mw-redirect" title="Climate change">climate change</a> is a factor known to result in increased fire frequency and intensity in south east Australia, and although it should not be considered as the sole cause of the 2019-20 Australian fires,<sup id="cite_ref-400" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-400">[393]</a></sup> climate change is considered very likely to have contributed to the unprecedented extent and severity of the fires.<sup id="cite_ref-401" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-401">[394]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-402" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-402">[395]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-403" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-403">[396]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gergis_384-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gergis-384">[377]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-BBC1612020_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC1612020-7">[7]</a></sup> The crisis has led to calls for more action to combat climate change. In December 2019, Australia had been ranked worst in terms of policy, and sixth worst overall, out of 57 countries assessed on the <a href="/wiki/Climate_Change_Performance_Index" title="Climate Change Performance Index">Climate Change Performance Index</a>, with the Morrison government labelled "an increasingly regressive force."<sup id="cite_ref-404" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-404">[397]</a></sup> Originally downplaying the role of climate change in causing the fires,<sup id="cite_ref-405" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-405">[398]</a></sup> Prime Minister Morrison eventually conceded that climate change was one of "many factors" involved and added that Australia was "playing its part" in the international effort against climate change.<sup id="cite_ref-NewsAU2019-12-12a_406-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NewsAU2019-12-12a-406">[399]</a></sup> That said, the <a href="/wiki/Morrison_Government" title="Morrison Government">Morrison government</a> has received <a href="/wiki/Morrison_Government#Energy_and_climate_change" title="Morrison Government">some criticism on its 2030 emission reduction targets</a>. Several members of the governing Liberal Party were criticised internationally for <a href="/wiki/Climate_change_denial" title="Climate change denial">climate change denial</a>, with backbencher <a href="/wiki/Craig_Kelly_(politician)" title="Craig Kelly (politician)">Craig Kelly</a> called "disgraceful" during an interview with the hosts of <i><a href="/wiki/Good_Morning_Britain_(2014_TV_programme)" title="Good Morning Britain (2014 TV programme)">Good Morning Britain</a></i> for denying any link between climate change and the fires,<sup id="cite_ref-407" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-407">[400]</a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Israeli_Public_Broadcasting_Corporation" title="Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation">Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation</a> receiving "angry" feedback from listeners after airing an interview in which former Liberal prime minister <a href="/wiki/Tony_Abbott" title="Tony Abbott">Tony Abbott</a> said the world was "in the grip of a climate cult."<sup id="cite_ref-408" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-408">[401]</a></sup> Prior to the worst phases of the bushfires, in an interview in November 2019, former Liberal prime minister <a href="/wiki/Malcolm_Turnbull" title="Malcolm Turnbull">Malcolm Turnbull</a> said the party had struggled with the issue of climate change denial for more than a decade because it had become an issue of "identity" rather than fact, and criticised <a href="/wiki/News_Corp_(2013%E2%80%93present)" title="News Corp (2013–present)">News Corporation</a> for being a "long-time promoter" of climate denialism.<sup id="cite_ref-409" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-409">[402]</a></sup> The chief executive of the Council of Small Business Organisations Australia said bushfire preparations had been "stymied" by the federal government, because "there are people within government who firmly believe there is no such thing as climate change or that human beings don't have an impact upon it, and they are adamant that no extra work or extra effort should ever happen because they don't believe in climate change."<sup id="cite_ref-410" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-410">[403]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Disputed_causes">Disputed causes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=36" title="Edit section: Disputed causes" data-section="36" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>Throughout the crisis, most people primarily blamed climate change, in agreeance with the scientific community, with many using the event to criticise the government on climate policy. Protests were held in the midst of the crisis, although some were criticised for their timing and use of resources, including by the Victorian Premier <a href="/wiki/Daniel_Andrews" title="Daniel Andrews">Daniel Andrews</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-411" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-411">[404]</a></sup> However, conservative politicians and media primarily blamed a lack of <a href="/wiki/Controlled_burn" title="Controlled burn">prescribed burning</a> and fire break management, although such assertion has subsequently been heavily criticised and disproven by scientific experts.<sup id="cite_ref-:13_412-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:13-412">[405]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-abc.net.au_413-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-abc.net.au-413">[406]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup> Accompanying this was the assertion that environmental groups were responsible for the crisis by inhibiting prescribed burning, despite environmental groups holding relatively negligible political power compared to the Liberal and National parties. Furthermore, the amount of prescribed burning in southeastern Australia has been stated to have increased in recent years, following the recommendation for increased prescribed burning from the <a href="/wiki/2009_Victorian_Bushfires_Royal_Commission" title="2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission">2009 Black Saturday Royal Commission</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-factcheck_414-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-factcheck-414">[407]</a></sup> Experts suggested that prescribed burning has been more difficult to achieve given recent trends towards warmer and dryer conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup> Experts have also cast skepticism on the effectiveness of fuel reduction treatments, citing research that suggests that prescribed burning does little to stop bushfire and save property in south east Australia, with climate and weather conditions having primary influence.<sup id="cite_ref-:13_412-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:13-412">[405]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-:12_415-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:12-415">[408]</a></sup></p><p>The effect of previous prescribed burns in slowing the 2019-20 Australian fires and assisting fire suppression efforts remains unclear, although in many instances the fires were observed to burn through cleared agricultural land and forest recently affected by unplanned and prescribed burns, owing to the extreme weather conditions and dryness of vegetation.<sup id="cite_ref-Sydney_Morning_Herald_416-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sydney_Morning_Herald-416">[409]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bega_District_News_417-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bega_District_News-417">[410]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-data.nsw.gov.au_418-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-data.nsw.gov.au-418">[411]</a></sup> Of particular note, the damaging Currowan fire burnt though a large area of <a href="/wiki/Morton_National_Park" title="Morton National Park">Morton National Park</a> subject in 2017 to one of the largest prescribed burns ever successfully conducted in NSW.<sup id="cite_ref-419" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-419">[412]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bega_District_News_417-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bega_District_News-417">[410]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-data.nsw.gov.au_418-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-data.nsw.gov.au-418">[411]</a></sup> In relation to the blame of prescribed burning, Professor of Pyrogeography and Fire Science David Bowman stated "These are very tired and very old conspiracy theories that get a run after most major fires," and that they were "an obvious attempt to deflect the conversation away from climate change."<sup id="cite_ref-factcheck_414-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-factcheck-414">[407]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-420" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-420">[413]</a></sup> In the lead up to another Federal inquiry into state land management, Professor of Bushfire Behaviour and Management Trent Penman added "If there was a silver bullet on bushfires we'd have found it by now, after the 51 [bushfire] inquiries since 1939," and that "blindly putting money into prescribed burning won't stop the problem".<sup id="cite_ref-Sydney_Morning_Herald_416-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sydney_Morning_Herald-416">[409]</a></sup> Despite evidence to suggest that fuel loads played a minimal role in the 2019-20 Australian fires, there are calls to open up Australian protected lands to industry, particularly logging and grazing, to reduce fire fuel, with these calls having so far mainly stemmed from individuals and businesses with interests in such industries, and have resulted in the circulation of large amounts of <a href="/wiki/Misinformation" title="Misinformation">disinformation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Sydney_Morning_Herald_416-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sydney_Morning_Herald-416">[409]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-421" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-421">[414]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-422" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-422">[415]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Disinformation_and_contested_reporting">Disinformation and contested reporting</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=37" title="Edit section: Disinformation and contested reporting" data-section="37" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>Incorrect reporting and social media claims about the extent of the fires, its precedents and causes, and matters like funding of fire fighting services have been circulated during the fire season. Media outlets of differing political allegiances have also disputed each other's coverage. 
</p>
<dl><dt>Misleading maps and graphics</dt>
<dd></dd></dl><p>A number of maps giving an exaggerated impression of Australia's fires have gone viral online, and have been published by major news outlets. It was reported by news.com.au that "Some bushfire maps have been criticised for misleading people about the location and size of the fires, with a map used by the ABC in the US appearing to show the entire east coast of Australia on fire, as well as a strange line of fires through the centre of the country... "<sup id="cite_ref-423" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-423">[416]</a></sup> One image created by Anthony Hearsey spread widely on Twitter and by celebrities including <a href="/wiki/Rihanna" title="Rihanna">Rihanna</a> was wrongly interpreted as a map showing the live extent of fires, when in fact it sought to present one month of data of locations where fire was detected, according to NASA's Fire Information for Resource Management System.<sup id="cite_ref-424" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-424">[417]</a></sup> Maps showing "hotspots" were spread online as comprehensive fire maps, giving an exaggerated impression of the extent of fires.<sup id="cite_ref-425" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-425">[418]</a></sup> Photographs of previous Australian bushfires were also being wrongly published as current <sup id="cite_ref-426" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-426">[419]</a></sup> and maps that exaggerate the extent of the fires, or include both past and present fires.<sup id="cite_ref-427" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-427">[420]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Exaggerated extent of arson</dt>
<dd></dd></dl><p><i><a href="/wiki/Guardian_Australia" title="Guardian Australia">The Guardian</a></i> newspaper wrote that "Bot and troll accounts are involved in a 'disinformation campaign' exaggerating the role of arson in Australia’s bushfire disaster, social media analysis suggests... The false claims are, in some cases, used to undermine the link between the current bushfires and the longer, more intense fire seasons brought about by climate change." The report cited a study by <a href="/wiki/Queensland_University_of_Technology" title="Queensland University of Technology">Queensland University of Technology</a> senior lecturer on social network analysis Dr Timothy Graham, who examined content published on the #arsonemergency hashtag on Twitter.<sup id="cite_ref-428" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-428">[421]</a></sup> <a href="/w/index.php?title=Giovanni_Torre&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Giovanni Torre (page does not exist)">Giovanni Torre</a> wrote for The Telegraph that "Australia’s bushfire crisis has led to what appears to be a deliberate misinformation campaign started by climate-change deniers claiming arson is the primary cause of the ongoing fires... Social media accounts, including Donald Trump Jr's Twitter account, circulated the false claim that 183 people had been arrested for arson during the Australian fire crisis..."<sup id="cite_ref-429" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-429">[422]</a></sup>  183 people were subject to legal action, but only 24 for "deliberately-lit bushfires".<sup id="cite_ref-430" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-430">[423]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-431" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-431">[424]</a></sup>  An opinion piece for <i><a href="/wiki/The_Conversation_(website)" title="The Conversation (website)">The Conversation</a></i> website stated "In the first week of 2020, hashtag #ArsonEmergency became the focal point of a new online narrative surrounding the bushfire crisis. The message: the cause is arson, not climate change. Police and bushfire services (and some journalists) have contradicted this claim [...] We’ve observed both troll and bot accounts spouting disinformation regarding the bushfires on Twitter." The article also argued that a <a href="/wiki/Disinformation" title="Disinformation">disinformation</a> was underway to downplay the role of climate change in causing the fires.<sup id="cite_ref-432" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-432">[425]</a></sup> The vice.com website wrote "Research conducted by the <a href="/wiki/Queensland_University_of_Technology" title="Queensland University of Technology">Queensland University of Technology</a> showed that Twitter accounts with the characteristics of bots or trolls were spreading disinformation about the responsibility of arsonists and Greens."<sup id="cite_ref-433" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-433">[426]</a></sup> <i>The Guardian</i> accused <a href="/wiki/News_Corp_(2013%E2%80%93present)" title="News Corp (2013–present)">News Corp</a> of furthering arson disinformation.<sup id="cite_ref-434" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-434">[427]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Funding for the Rural Fire Service</dt>
<dd></dd></dl><p>Incorrect reports were disseminated that the New South Wales Government, led by Premier <a href="/wiki/Gladys_Berejiklian" title="Gladys Berejiklian">Gladys Berejiklian</a>, had cut funding to fire services.<sup id="cite_ref-435" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-435">[428]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-436" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-436">[429]</a></sup> NSW Rural Fire Service Commissioner <a href="/wiki/Shane_Fitzsimmons" title="Shane Fitzsimmons">Shane Fitzsimmons</a>, in response to the funding cut claims, stated "that it is rubbish, it is misinformation, it's being misrepresented and I think it is disgracefully being misrepresented here today". He also stated that "not only has our budget not been cut, we are enjoying record budgets. We have got more money today than we have ever had before in the history of the organisation".<sup id="cite_ref-437" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-437">[430]</a></sup> Debate and controversy continue to surround previous funding cuts to fire management agencies, with other reports noting recent funding cuts to the National Parks and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for the planning and enforcement of prescribed burns in NSW national parks.<sup id="cite_ref-438" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-438">[431]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-439" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-439">[432]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-440" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-440">[433]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-441" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-441">[434]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-442" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-442">[435]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Hazard reduction activities</dt>
<dd></dd></dl><p><i>The Guardian</i> newspaper has disputed claims that Greens have blocked hazard reduction, writing: "Despite the evidence a claim persists that a major contributing factor of Australia’s devastating fire season... is not climate change but a conspiracy by environmentalists to 'lock up' national parks and prevent hazard reduction activities such as prescribed burning and clearing of the forest floor".<sup id="cite_ref-auto6_443-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto6-443">[436]</a></sup></p>
<dl><dt>Other false reports</dt>
<dd></dd></dl><ul><li>Fires would clear land to benefit a high-speed rail project.<sup id="cite_ref-auto6_443-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto6-443">[436]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant" title="Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant">ISIS</a> was somehow responsible or involved.<sup id="cite_ref-auto6_443-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto6-443">[436]</a></sup></li>
<li>The fires were a <a href="/wiki/False_flag" title="False flag">false flag</a> operation deliberately lit by climate change activists.<sup id="cite_ref-444" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-444">[437]</a></sup></li></ul></section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(11)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Political_response">Political response</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=38" title="Edit section: Political response" data-section="38" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-11 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-11">
<p>Ongoing political and social debate has surrounded many aspects of the 2019-20 Australian fire crisis, particularly regarding the causes and future prevention of such fire activity, and the role of <a href="/wiki/Climate_change" class="mw-redirect" title="Climate change">climate change</a>. Amid a conservative government that has received noted criticism for its climate change inaction and support for fossil fuel industries, growing acknowledgement within the nation's politics and society of the issue of <a href="/wiki/Climate_change_in_Australia" title="Climate change in Australia">climate change in Australia</a> resulted in a highly political agenda to the crisis response.<sup id="cite_ref-445" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-445">[438]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-446" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-446">[439]</a></sup> The governing Liberal and National parties, accompanied by numerous news outlets associated with <a href="/wiki/Climate_change_denial" title="Climate change denial">climate change denial</a>, firmly deflected responsibility away from the record-breaking <a href="/wiki/Drought_in_Australia" title="Drought in Australia">drought</a> affecting the country and its associated links to climate change observations and projections.<sup id="cite_ref-Carbon_Brief_386-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carbon_Brief-386">[379]</a></sup> Conversely, scientific experts have asserted the influence of climate change, drought, prolonged fire weather, and contextualised the limited role of prescribed burning and arson in influencing the crisis.<sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gergis_384-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gergis-384">[377]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_News_385-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_News-385">[378]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Carbon_Brief_386-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carbon_Brief-386">[379]</a></sup> The political and social response to the crisis has been marked notably by political blame shifting, the circulation of large amounts of disinformation, and political disregard for scientific research, expert opinion, and previous government inquiries.<sup id="cite_ref-447" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-447">[440]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-abc.net.au_413-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-abc.net.au-413">[406]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-auto1_383-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto1-383">[376]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-:13_412-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:13-412">[405]</a></sup></p><p>On 24 January, NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian and NSW Rural Fire Service Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons announced that a <a href="/wiki/Memorial_service" class="mw-redirect" title="Memorial service">State Memorial</a> for people impacted by the bushfires in New South Wales will be held on Sunday, 23 February at Sydney Olympic Park.<sup id="cite_ref-448" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-448">[441]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Criticism">Criticism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=39" title="Edit section: Criticism" data-section="39" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Brisbane_Protest_Sack_Scomo!_Fund_Firies!_Climate_Action_Now!_(49361581887).jpg" class="image"><noscript><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Brisbane_Protest_Sack_Scomo%21_Fund_Firies%21_Climate_Action_Now%21_%2849361581887%29.jpg/220px-Brisbane_Protest_Sack_Scomo%21_Fund_Firies%21_Climate_Action_Now%21_%2849361581887%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="3997" data-file-height="2665"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 220px;height: 147px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Brisbane_Protest_Sack_Scomo%21_Fund_Firies%21_Climate_Action_Now%21_%2849361581887%29.jpg/220px-Brisbane_Protest_Sack_Scomo%21_Fund_Firies%21_Climate_Action_Now%21_%2849361581887%29.jpg" data-alt="" data-width="220" data-height="147" data-class="thumbimage"> </span></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Brisbane_Protest_Sack_Scomo!_Fund_Firies!_Climate_Action_Now!_(49361581887).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A protest in Brisbane held in response to the bushfires</div></div></div>
<p>Further controversy has surrounded Prime Minister <a href="/wiki/Scott_Morrison" title="Scott Morrison">Scott Morrison</a> for taking an overseas family holiday to <a href="/wiki/Hawaii,_United_States" class="mw-redirect" title="Hawaii, United States">Hawaii, United States</a>, during the bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-449" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-449">[442]</a></sup> These criticisms also applied to New South Wales Minister for Emergency Services <a href="/wiki/David_Elliott_(politician)" title="David Elliott (politician)">David Elliot</a>, who went for a holiday in Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-450" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-450">[443]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-451" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-451">[444]</a></sup> Queensland Premier <a href="/wiki/Annastacia_Palaszczuk" title="Annastacia Palaszczuk">Annastacia Palaszczuk</a> was also criticised for holidaying on a cruise ship while fires were active in the state.<sup id="cite_ref-452" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-452">[445]</a></sup></p><p>While travelling throughout fire-affected towns in New South Wales, Morrison was filmed attempting to shake the hands of two residents in <a href="/wiki/Cobargo,_New_South_Wales" title="Cobargo, New South Wales">Cobargo</a> who had refused to shake his outstretched hand. Morrison was criticised for grabbing and then shaking their hands despite their refusals.<sup id="cite_ref-news9cobargo_44-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-news9cobargo-44">[42]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-abc1cobargo_45-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-abc1cobargo-45">[43]</a></sup> In an interview with <a href="/wiki/Andrew_Constance" title="Andrew Constance">Andrew Constance</a>, NSW Liberal MP for <a href="/wiki/Electoral_district_of_Bega" title="Electoral district of Bega">Bega</a>, Constance described the incident stating "the locals probably gave him the welcome he probably deserved".<sup id="cite_ref-453" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-453">[446]</a></sup> Morrison did not appear concerned with the criticism, later stating, "people are angry, and if people want to direct that at me, that is up to them".<sup id="cite_ref-454" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-454">[447]</a></sup></p><p>On 4 January, volunteer firefighter Paul Parker, from <a href="/wiki/Nelligen,_New_South_Wales" title="Nelligen, New South Wales">Nelligen</a>, rose to fame after he stopped his firetruck next to a <a href="/wiki/Seven_Network" title="Seven Network">Channel 7</a> news crew, and used colourful language to denounce what he perceived as an inadequate response by Morrison.<sup id="cite_ref-455" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-455">[448]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-456" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-456">[449]</a></sup> The video became <a href="/wiki/Viral_video" title="Viral video">viral</a> in the days after.<sup id="cite_ref-457" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-457">[450]</a></sup></p><p>Soon after, Morrison released a video on behalf of the <a href="/wiki/Liberal_Party_of_Australia" title="Liberal Party of Australia">Liberal Party</a> regarding deployment of military assets to respond to the bushfire crisis, for which he was widely criticised.<sup id="cite_ref-458" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-458">[451]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-459" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-459">[452]</a></sup> The video was perceived as an inappropriate and an untimely political advertisement, with former ABC broadcaster <a href="/wiki/Barrie_Cassidy" title="Barrie Cassidy">Barrie Cassidy</a> calling it "absolutely obscene,"<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_obscene_460-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_obscene-460">[453]</a></sup> journalist <a href="/wiki/Peter_van_Onselen" title="Peter van Onselen">Peter van Onselen</a> saying it was "beyond inappropriate",<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_obscene_460-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_obscene-460">[453]</a></sup> and British political commentator <a href="/wiki/Piers_Morgan" title="Piers Morgan">Piers Morgan</a> characterising it as "one of the most tone-deaf things I've ever seen a country's leader put out during a crisis."<sup id="cite_ref-News_slammed_461-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-News_slammed-461">[454]</a></sup> The Australian Defence Association, a public-interest watchdog dealing with defence issues, said the video was "milking ADF support to civil agencies fighting bushfires" and was a "clear breach of the (reciprocal) non-partisanship convention applying to both the ADF & Ministers/MPs."<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_obscene_460-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_obscene-460">[453]</a></sup> NSW Rural Fire Service Commissioner Fitzsimmons said it was "disappointing" to learn of the announcement of military assistance from the media and not the government directly.<sup id="cite_ref-462" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-462">[455]</a></sup> Morrison was further criticised for a "donate" button on a Liberal Party website page which misleadingly led to a donations page for the Liberal Party itself, rather than bushfire relief; the button was later removed.<sup id="cite_ref-News_slammed_461-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-News_slammed-461">[454]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Royal_commission_and_other_inquiries">Royal commission and other inquiries</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=40" title="Edit section: Royal commission and other inquiries" data-section="40" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>On 12 January 2020, the Prime Minister, Scott Morrison outlined a proposal to establish a <a href="/wiki/Royal_commission#Australia" title="Royal commission">royal commission</a> into the bushfires.<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_RC_463-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_RC-463">[456]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-464" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-464">[457]</a></sup> Requiring the approval of the state and territory governments, the Commonwealth Government drafted terms of reference; and proposed <a href="/wiki/Mark_Binskin" title="Mark Binskin">Mark Binskin</a>, a former <a href="/wiki/Chief_of_the_Australian_Defence_Force" class="mw-redirect" title="Chief of the Australian Defence Force">Chief of the Australian Defence Force</a>, to head the inquiry.<sup id="cite_ref-465" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-465">[458]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-466" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-466">[459]</a></sup> A number of organisations raised objections to the commission of inquiry, citing cost, length and the emotionally exhausting process;<sup id="cite_ref-467" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-467">[460]</a></sup> and that previous inquiries had failed to implement many of their recommendations.<sup id="cite_ref-468" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-468">[461]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-469" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-469">[462]</a></sup> On 20 February 2020, Morrison released the letters patent confirming the national inquiry, to be led by <a href="/wiki/Mark_Binskin" title="Mark Binskin">Mark Binskin</a>, joined by <a href="/wiki/Annabelle_Bennett" title="Annabelle Bennett">Annabelle Bennett</a> and Professor Andrew Macintosh.
</p><p>On 5 December 2019 <a href="/wiki/David_Littleproud" title="David Littleproud">David Littleproud</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Minister_for_Water_Resources,_Drought,_Rural_Finance,_Natural_Disaster_and_Emergency_Management" class="mw-redirect" title="Minister for Water Resources, Drought, Rural Finance, Natural Disaster and Emergency Management">minister for natural disasters and emergency management</a>, announced that the House of Representatives Standing Committee on the Environment and Energy would conduct an inquiry into the ‘efficacy of past and current vegetation and land management policy, practice and legislation and their effect on the intensity and frequency of bushfires and subsequent risk to property, life and the environment’.<sup id="cite_ref-470" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-470">[463]</a></sup> On 14 January 2020, the Victorian Premier, Daniel Andrews, announced an independent investigation into the 2019-2020 bushfire season in Victoria.<sup id="cite_ref-471" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-471">[464]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-472" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-472">[465]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-473" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-473">[466]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_names">Other names</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=41" title="Edit section: Other names" data-section="41" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>The term <i>black summer</i> was used twice to refer to events within the 2019–20 bushfire season. An episode of <i><a href="/wiki/Four_Corners_(Australian_TV_program)" title="Four Corners (Australian TV program)">Four Corners</a></i> titled <i>Black Summer</i> comprised an audio-visual media collation of material provided by people impacted by bushfires and was broadcast in early February 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-474" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-474">[467]</a></sup> The Prime Minister, Scott Morrison, in an address to the Australian Parliament labelled the bushfire season as the <i>Black Summer</i> as he outlined a proposal to establish a royal commission into the bushfires:<sup id="cite_ref-SBS_RC_463-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SBS_RC-463">[456]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-475" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-475">[468]</a></sup></p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>These fires are yet to end and danger is still before us in many, many places, but today we gather to mourn, honour, reflect and begin to learn from the black summer that continues.</p><div class="templatequotecite">— <cite>Scott Morrison, Prime Minister of Australia, 4 February 2020.</cite></div>
</blockquote>
<p><br></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(12)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Donations">Donations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=42" title="Edit section: Donations" data-section="42" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-12 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-12">
<p><a href="/wiki/Philanthropist" class="mw-redirect" title="Philanthropist">Philanthropists</a>, corporate organisations, celebrities, and sportspeople donated to various fundraising appeals for bushfire victims and firefighters; estimated to total <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>500 million as of 19 January 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-476" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-476">[469]</a></sup> Following a representative sample, a report issued by the Fundraising Institute of Australia estimated that 53 percent of all adult Australians donated to a bushfire appeal.<sup id="cite_ref-477" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-477">[470]</a></sup></p><p><a href="/wiki/Andrew_Forrest" title="Andrew Forrest">Andrew Forrest</a> and his wife, Nicola, donated A$70 million;<sup id="cite_ref-478" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-478">[471]</a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Paul_Ramsay" title="Paul Ramsay">Paul Ramsay Foundation</a> donated A$30 million. In November, <a href="/wiki/James_Packer" title="James Packer">James Packer</a> pledged <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>1 million to support the NSWRFS. As the impact of the bushfire season spread, the <a href="/wiki/Crown_Resorts" title="Crown Resorts">Crown Resorts Foundation</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Packer_family" title="Packer family">Packer Family Foundation</a> pledged a further <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>4 million to volunteer fire services in NSW, Victoria and Western Australia – all states in which Crown has resorts.<sup id="cite_ref-479" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-479">[472]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Murdoch_family#Third_generation" title="Murdoch family">Murdoch family</a> donated A$5 million; the Micky and Madeleine Arison Family Foundation, A$1.5 million;<sup id="cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH_donations_2020-01-19-480">[473]</a></sup> and donations of A$1 million each were received from the <a href="/wiki/Pratt_Foundation" title="Pratt Foundation">Pratt Foundation</a>, <a href="/wiki/John_Gandel" title="John Gandel">John</a> and <a href="/wiki/Pauline_Gandel" title="Pauline Gandel">Pauline Gandel</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mike_Cannon-Brookes" title="Mike Cannon-Brookes">Mike Cannon-Brookes</a>, <a href="/wiki/Scott_Farquhar" title="Scott Farquhar">Scott Farquhar</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/David_Hains" title="David Hains">Haines</a> and the Perich families.<sup id="cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH_donations_2020-01-19-480">[473]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Justin_Hemmes" title="Justin Hemmes">Justin Hemmes</a> donated A$500,000.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_donations-481">[474]</a></sup></p><p>Corporate organisations to make donations or pledges included the <a href="/wiki/Seven_Group_Holdings" title="Seven Group Holdings">Seven Group</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kerry_Stokes" title="Kerry Stokes">Kerry Stokes</a>' private investment firm, ACE Capital Equity, a combined total of A$10 million;<sup id="cite_ref-482" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-482">[475]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Tim_Cook" title="Tim Cook">Tim Cook</a> from <a href="/wiki/Apple_Inc." title="Apple Inc.">Apple</a>, an undisclosed amount;<sup id="cite_ref-483" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-483">[476]</a></sup> the <a href="/wiki/National_Australia_Bank" title="National Australia Bank">NAB</a> and <a href="/wiki/News_Corp_Australia" title="News Corp Australia">News Corp Australia</a>, A$5 million each; <a href="/wiki/Coles_Group" title="Coles Group">Coles Group</a>, A$4 million (of which A$3 million was in gift cards); the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Football_League" title="Australian Football League">Australian Football League</a>, A$2.5 million; <a href="/wiki/BHP" title="BHP">BHP</a>, A$2 million; <a href="/wiki/Westpac" title="Westpac">Westpac</a> and <a href="/wiki/Woolworths_Supermarkets" title="Woolworths Supermarkets">Woolworths</a>, A$1.5 million each; <a href="/wiki/Facebook" title="Facebook">Facebook</a>, A$1.25 million; and <a href="/wiki/Amazon_(company)" title="Amazon (company)">Amazon</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Australia_and_New_Zealand_Banking_Group" title="Australia and New Zealand Banking Group">ANZ Bank</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Atlassian" title="Atlassian">Atlassian Foundation</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Commonwealth_Bank" title="Commonwealth Bank">Commonwealth Bank</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-484" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-484">[h]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Orica" title="Orica">Orica</a>, <a href="/wiki/Qantas" title="Qantas">Qantas</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Rio_Tinto_(corporation)" title="Rio Tinto (corporation)">Rio Tinto</a>, A$1 million each;<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_donations-481">[474]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Canva" title="Canva">Canva</a> and the <a href="/wiki/San_Diego_Zoo" title="San Diego Zoo">San Diego Zoo</a>, A$500,000 each.<sup id="cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH_donations_2020-01-19-480">[473]</a></sup></p><p><a href="/wiki/Leonardo_DiCaprio" title="Leonardo DiCaprio">Leonardo DiCaprio</a> donated <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>3 million (<span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>3.4 million) via Earth Alliance;<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_donations-481">[474]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Kylie_Jenner" title="Kylie Jenner">Kylie Jenner</a>, <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>1 million; <a href="/wiki/Ellen_DeGeneres" title="Ellen DeGeneres">Ellen DeGeneres</a>, A$1.5 million; and donations of A$1 million were received from <a href="/wiki/Elton_John" title="Elton John">Sir Elton John</a> and <a href="/wiki/Chris_Hemsworth" title="Chris Hemsworth">Chris Hemsworth</a> and family.<sup id="cite_ref-485" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-485">[477]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Pink_(singer)" title="Pink (singer)">Pink</a> donated US$500,000 (<span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>720,000), tweeting that she is "totally devastated watching what is happening in Australia right now."<sup id="cite_ref-486" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-486">[478]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-487" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-487">[479]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Metallica" title="Metallica">Metallica</a> donated <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>750,000; and donations of <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>500,000 were received from <a href="/wiki/Nicole_Kidman" title="Nicole Kidman">Nicole Kidman</a> and her husband, <a href="/wiki/Keith_Urban" title="Keith Urban">Keith Urban</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-488" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-488">[480]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Kylie_Minogue" title="Kylie Minogue">Kylie</a> and <a href="/wiki/Danii_Minogue" class="mw-redirect" title="Danii Minogue">Danii Minogue</a> and their family,<sup id="cite_ref-489" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-489">[481]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Bette_Midler" title="Bette Midler">Bette Midler</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-490" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-490">[482]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_donations-481">[474]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH_donations_2020-01-19-480">[473]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/The_Wiggles" title="The Wiggles">The Wiggles</a> performed a concert on 17 and 18 January,<sup id="cite_ref-491" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-491">[483]</a></sup> and on 16 February at <a href="/wiki/Stadium_Australia" title="Stadium Australia">Stadium Australia</a> in Sydney, the <a href="/wiki/Fire_Fight_Australia" title="Fire Fight Australia">Fire Fight Australia</a> concert featured local and international acts.<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_donations-481">[474]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-492" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-492">[484]</a></sup></p><p>Tennis players, led by <a href="/wiki/Nick_Kyrgios" title="Nick Kyrgios">Nick Kyrgios</a>, pledged to donate money for every <a href="/wiki/Ace_(tennis)" title="Ace (tennis)">ace</a> served during the Australian summer of tennis.<sup id="cite_ref-493" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-493">[485]</a></sup> Many cricket players, such as international representatives <a href="/wiki/Chris_Lynn" title="Chris Lynn">Chris Lynn</a>, <a href="/wiki/Glenn_Maxwell" title="Glenn Maxwell">Glenn Maxwell</a>, <a href="/wiki/D%27Arcy_Short" title="D'Arcy Short">D'Arcy Short</a>, <a href="/wiki/Matthew_Renshaw" class="mw-redirect" title="Matthew Renshaw">Matthew Renshaw</a> and <a href="/wiki/Fawad_Ahmed" title="Fawad Ahmed">Fawad Ahmed</a> pledged to donate money for every <a href="/wiki/Dismissal_(cricket)" title="Dismissal (cricket)">wicket</a> and/or <a href="/wiki/Boundary_(cricket)#Scoring_runs" title="Boundary (cricket)">six</a> during the remainder of the Australian cricket season.<sup id="cite_ref-494" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-494">[486]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Shane_Warne" title="Shane Warne">Shane Warne</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jeff_Thomson" title="Jeff Thomson">Jeff Thomson</a>, retired Australian cricketers, donated their <a href="/wiki/Baggy_green" title="Baggy green">baggy green</a> Test cricket caps and Thomson also donated a playing vest for online auction. Warne's cap was purchased by the Commonwealth Bank<sup id="cite_ref-495" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-495">[i]</a></sup> with a bid of A$1,007,500;<sup id="cite_ref-496" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-496">[487]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Russell_Crowe" title="Russell Crowe">Russell Crowe</a>'s <a href="/wiki/South_Sydney_Rabbitohs" title="South Sydney Rabbitohs">Rabbitohs</a> cap was auctioned with a winning bid in excess of A$500,000.<sup id="cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SMH_donations_2020-01-19-480">[473]</a></sup> Footballer <a href="/wiki/Mathew_Ryan" title="Mathew Ryan">Mathew Ryan</a>, <a href="/wiki/Goalkeeper_(association_football)" title="Goalkeeper (association football)">goalkeeper</a> for <a href="/wiki/Premier_League" title="Premier League">Premier League</a> club <a href="/wiki/Brighton_%26_Hove_Albion_F.C." title="Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.">Brighton & Hove Albion</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Australia_national_soccer_team" title="Australia national soccer team">Australia national team</a> announced he'll donate $500 for every registered save by an English Premier League goalkeeper on the weekend of 11–12 January 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-497" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-497">[488]</a></sup> Australian stars who were playing in the <a href="/wiki/2019%E2%80%9320_NBA_season" title="2019–20 NBA season">2019–20 NBA season</a> collectively donated in excess of A$1 million;<sup id="cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ABC_donations-481">[474]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Lewis_Hamilton" title="Lewis Hamilton">Lewis Hamilton</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Formula_One" title="Formula One">Formula One</a> driver, donated <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>500,000.<sup id="cite_ref-498" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-498">[489]</a></sup></p><p>Comedian Celeste Barber launched a fundraising appeal with a target of raising <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>15,000, however it went on to raise over <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>50 million, making it the largest fundraiser ever held on Facebook.<sup id="cite_ref-499" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-499">[490]</a></sup> A telethon conducted with the <a href="/wiki/Sydney_New_Year%27s_Eve#2020%E2%80%93present" title="Sydney New Year's Eve">Sydney New Year's Eve fireworks</a> raised more than <span style="white-space: nowrap">A$</span>2 million.<sup id="cite_ref-500" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-500">[491]</a></sup></p>
<h3 class="in-block"><span class="mw-headline" id="Scams_and_fraud">Scams and fraud</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=43" title="Edit section: Scams and fraud" data-section="43" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h3>
<p>Multiple media outlets reported that the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Competition_and_Consumer_Commission" title="Australian Competition and Consumer Commission">Australian Competition and Consumer Commission</a> (ACCC) received 86 reports of bushfire-related scams. It came as increased requests for cash driven donations leveraging crowdfunding platforms like <a href="/wiki/GoFundMe" title="GoFundMe">GoFundMe</a>, or as a result of false links posted on <a href="/wiki/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-501" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-501">[492]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-502" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-502">[493]</a></sup> It prompted some organisations to provide a list of approved and vetted charities online to reduce fraud.<sup id="cite_ref-503" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-503">[494]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-504" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-504">[495]</a></sup></p>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(13)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=44" title="Edit section: See also" data-section="44" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-13 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-13">
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r936637989">.mw-parser-output .portal{border:solid #aaa 1px;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .portal.tleft{margin:0.5em 1em 0.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .portal.tright{margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul{display:table;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0.1em;max-width:175px;background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li{display:table-row}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li>span:first-child{display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li>span:last-child{display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle}</style><div role="navigation" aria-label="Portals" class="noprint portal plainlist tright">
<ul><li><span><noscript><img alt="flag" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg/32px-Flag_of_Australia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="32" height="16" class="noviewer thumbborder" data-file-width="1280" data-file-height="640"></noscript><span class="lazy-image-placeholder" style="width: 32px;height: 16px;" data-src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg/32px-Flag_of_Australia.svg.png" data-alt="flag" data-width="32" data-height="16" data-srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg/48px-Flag_of_Australia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg/64px-Flag_of_Australia.svg.png 2x" data-class="noviewer thumbborder"> </span></span><span><a href="/wiki/Portal:Australia" title="Portal:Australia">Australia portal</a></span></li></ul></div>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_major_bushfires_in_Australia" title="List of major bushfires in Australia">List of major bushfires in Australia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wildfire#Prevention" title="Wildfire">Wildfire § Prevention</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_wildfires" title="List of wildfires">List of wildfires</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fire_ecology#Australian_eucalypt_forests" title="Fire ecology">Fire ecology § Australian eucalypt forests</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Climate_of_Australia" title="Climate of Australia">Climate of Australia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters_in_Australia" title="List of natural disasters in Australia">List of natural disasters in Australia</a></li></ul></section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(14)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=45" title="Edit section: Notes" data-section="45" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-14 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-14">
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: lower-alpha;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references"><li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Wildfire" title="Wildfire">Bushfires</a> in Australia can occur all year-round. For what "season" means, see <a href="/wiki/Bushfires_in_Australia#Seasonality" title="Bushfires in Australia">seasonality of bushfires in Australia</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-fn1-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-fn1_20-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-fn1_20-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-fn1_20-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Comparison to other fires in Australia:
<ul><li>The 1974-75 bushfire season burnt over 100 million hectares (250 million acres), but there are different figures reported:
<ul><li>In 1995, the <a href="/wiki/Australian_Bureau_of_Statistics" title="Australian Bureau of Statistics">Australian Bureau of Statistics</a> reported 117 million hectares (290 million acres)<sup id="cite_ref-110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110">[105]</a></sup></li>
<li>The 2004 National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management reported a total of 102 million hectares (250 million acres)<sup id="cite_ref-111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111">[106]</a></sup></li></ul></li></ul><dl><dd>The extent of the 1974-75 bushfire season was not known until after the event when satellite images were analysed, due to the fires being mostly located in very remote areas of the continent.<sup id="cite_ref-112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112">[107]</a></sup></dd>
<dd>The 1974-75 season affected mainly arid and grass lands. 2019-20 season has so far affected mainly forested land.</dd></dl><ul><li>The <a href="/wiki/Black_Saturday_bushfires" title="Black Saturday bushfires">Black Saturday bushfires</a> in <a href="/wiki/Victoria_(Australia)" title="Victoria (Australia)">Victoria</a> killed 173 people, injured 414, and destroyed 2,029 houses.</li></ul></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-94"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-94">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">NSW bushfire smoke blew into the ACT causing dangerous pollution, leading to one death<sup id="cite_ref-newdaily20200102_93-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-newdaily20200102-93">[91]</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-102"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-102">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Some sources are reporting 48 homes lost in Queensland.<sup id="cite_ref-98" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-98">[95]</a></sup> Individual reports of Queensland home losses only amount to 45:
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sarabah,_Queensland" title="Sarabah, Queensland">Sarabah</a>:10, <a href="/wiki/Stanthorpe" class="mw-redirect" title="Stanthorpe">Stanthorpe</a>:7, <a href="/wiki/Mareeba" title="Mareeba">Mareeba</a>:1<sup id="cite_ref-99" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99">[96]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravensbourne,_Queensland" title="Ravensbourne, Queensland">Ravensborne</a>:3, <a href="/wiki/Pechey,_Queensland" title="Pechey, Queensland">Peechey</a>:5, <a href="/wiki/Cobraball" class="mw-redirect" title="Cobraball">Cobraball </a>:15, <a href="/wiki/Cooroibah" class="mw-redirect" title="Cooroibah">Cooroibah</a>:1<sup id="cite_ref-100" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-100">[97]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lowmead" class="mw-redirect" title="Lowmead">Lowmead</a>:3<sup id="cite_ref-101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-101">[98]</a></sup></li></ul></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-109"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-109">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area" title="List of countries and dependencies by area">Compared to a country</a> this would rank as the 87th largest, bigger than <a href="/wiki/Syria" title="Syria">Syria</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-116"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-116">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">A Federal election was scheduled for <a href="/wiki/2019_Australian_federal_election" title="2019 Australian federal election">May 2019</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-234"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-234">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kangaroo Island koalas are free of <a href="/wiki/Chlamydiaceae" title="Chlamydiaceae">chlamydia</a>, which affects koalas on the mainland.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-484"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-484">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Also see A$1 million purchase of <a href="/wiki/Shane_Warne" title="Shane Warne">Shane Warne</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Baggy_green" title="Baggy green">baggy green</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-495"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-495">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">It appears that the purchase is in addition to the bank's A$1 million donation referred to above.</span>
</li>
</ol></div></div>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(15)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=46" title="Edit section: References" data-section="46" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-15 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-15">
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
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<li id="cite_note-arson1-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-arson1_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-arson1_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Cormack, Lucy; Bungard, Matt (27 November 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://smh.com.au/national/nsw/rfs-volunteer-charged-with-allegedly-lighting-seven-fires-deliberately-20191127-p53ejo.html">"RFS volunteer charged with lighting seven fires"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald" title="The Sydney Morning Herald">The Sydney Morning Herald</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=RFS+volunteer+charged+with+lighting+seven+fires&rft.date=2019-11-27&rft.au=Cormack%2C+Lucy&rft.au=Bungard%2C+Matt&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fsmh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Frfs-volunteer-charged-with-allegedly-lighting-seven-fires-deliberately-20191127-p53ejo.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-arson2-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-arson2_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-arson2_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Visontay, Elias (17 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/nsw-firefronts-uncontrollable-as-state-braces-for-heatwave/news-story/4f006855e6b1598ba3a6d53c66391516">"NSW bushfires: police set to charge a dozen with arson"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Australian" title="The Australian">The Weekend Australian</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Weekend+Australian&rft.atitle=NSW+bushfires%3A+police+set+to+charge+a+dozen+with+arson&rft.date=2019-12-17&rft.au=Visontay%2C+Elias&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fnation%2Fnsw-firefronts-uncontrollable-as-state-braces-for-heatwave%2Fnews-story%2F4f006855e6b1598ba3a6d53c66391516&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Alexander, Harriet; Moir, Nick (20 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/the-monster-a-short-history-of-australia-s-biggest-forest-fire-20191218-p53l4y.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>The monster': a short history of Australia's biggest forest fire"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald" title="The Sydney Morning Herald">The Sydney Morning Herald</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=%27The+monster%27%3A+a+short+history+of+Australia%27s+biggest+forest+fire&rft.date=2019-12-20&rft.au=Alexander%2C+Harriet&rft.au=Moir%2C+Nick&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Fthe-monster-a-short-history-of-australia-s-biggest-forest-fire-20191218-p53l4y.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-BOM71-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-BOM71_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-BOM71_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-BOM71_6-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/current/statements/scs71.pdf">"Special Climate Statement 71—severe fire weather conditions in southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales in September 2019"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i><a href="/wiki/Bureau_of_Meteorology" title="Bureau of Meteorology">Bureau of Meteorology</a></i>. 24 September 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Bureau+of+Meteorology&rft.atitle=Special+Climate+Statement+71%E2%80%94severe+fire+weather+conditions+in+southeast+Queensland+and+northeast+New+South+Wales+in+September+2019&rft.date=2019-09-24&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bom.gov.au%2Fclimate%2Fcurrent%2Fstatements%2Fscs71.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-BBC1612020-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-BBC1612020_7-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-BBC1612020_7-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Shukman, David (16 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51123638">"Sir David Attenborough warns of climate 'crisis moment<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>BBC</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 January</span> 2020</span>. <q>Scientists say climate change is one of several factors behind the Australian fires; others include how forests are managed and natural patterns in the weather.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=BBC&rft.atitle=Sir+David+Attenborough+warns+of+climate+%27crisis+moment%27&rft.date=2020-01-16&rft.aulast=Shukman&rft.aufirst=David&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bbc.com%2Fnews%2Fscience-environment-51123638&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-lucas2007-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-lucas2007_8-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-lucas2007_8-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-lucas2007_8-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Lucas, C.; Hennedssy, K.; Mills, G.; Bathols, J. (September 2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cmar.csiro.au/e-print/open/2007/hennesseykj_c.pdf">"Bushfire Weather in Southeast Australia: Recent Trends and Projected Climate Change Impacts"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. CSIRO<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Bushfire+Weather+in+Southeast+Australia%3A+Recent+Trends+and+Projected+Climate+Change+Impacts&rft.pub=CSIRO&rft.date=2007-09&rft.au=Lucas%2C+C.&rft.au=Hennedssy%2C+K.&rft.au=Mills%2C+G.&rft.au=Bathols%2C+J.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cmar.csiro.au%2Fe-print%2Fopen%2F2007%2Fhennesseykj_c.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Gourlay, Colin; Leslie, Tim; Martino, Matt; Spraggon, Ben (19 February 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-19/australia-bushfires-how-heat-and-drought-created-a-tinderbox/11976134">"From a single lightning strike to Australia's largest bushfire"</a>. <i>ABC News</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=From+a+single+lightning+strike+to+Australia%E2%80%99s+largest+bushfire&rft.date=2020-02-19&rft.aulast=Gourlay&rft.aufirst=Colin&rft.au=Leslie%2C+Tim&rft.au=Martino%2C+Matt&rft.au=Spraggon%2C+Ben&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-02-19%2Faustralia-bushfires-how-heat-and-drought-created-a-tinderbox%2F11976134&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Withey, Andree (27 June 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-06-27/bushfire-outlook-queensland-2019/11251150">"Bushfire season starts early across northern Australia due to ongoing hot, dry conditions"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">20 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfire+season+starts+early+across+northern+Australia+due+to+ongoing+hot%2C+dry+conditions&rft.date=2019-06-27&rft.au=Withey%2C+Andree&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-06-27%2Fbushfire-outlook-queensland-2019%2F11251150&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/03/victoria-fires-state-of-disaster-declared-as-evacuation-ordered-and-second-man-found-dead">"Victorian fires: state of disaster declared as evacuation ordered and 28 people missing"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i>. Australian Associated Press. 3 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">20 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Victorian+fires%3A+state+of+disaster+declared+as+evacuation+ordered+and+28+people+missing&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F03%2Fvictoria-fires-state-of-disaster-declared-as-evacuation-ordered-and-second-man-found-dead&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-OBA-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-OBA_36-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://news.defence.gov.au/national/defence-boosts-bushfire-support">"Defence boosts bushfire support"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Department_of_Defence_(Australia)" title="Department of Defence (Australia)">Department of Defence</a></i>. Australian Government. 4 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Department+of+Defence&rft.atitle=Defence+boosts+bushfire+support&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fnews.defence.gov.au%2Fnational%2Fdefence-boosts-bushfire-support&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:0-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-:0_52-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Harvey, Josephine (2 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.huffpost.com/entry/australian-wildfires-480-million-animals-dead_n_5e0d58e5e4b0b2520d1cb47f">"Nearly Half A Billion Animals Feared Dead In Australian Wildfires"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Huffington_Post" class="mw-redirect" title="The Huffington Post">The Huffington Post</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Huffington+Post&rft.atitle=Nearly+Half+A+Billion+Animals+Feared+Dead+In+Australian+Wildfires&rft.date=2020-01-02&rft.aulast=Harvey&rft.aufirst=Josephine&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.huffpost.com%2Fentry%2Faustralian-wildfires-480-million-animals-dead_n_5e0d58e5e4b0b2520d1cb47f&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Keoghan, Sarah (14 November 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/man-charged-after-allegedly-starting-fire-with-fireworks-20191115-p53au0.html">"Man charged after allegedly starting fire with fireworks"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191115002210/https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/man-charged-after-allegedly-starting-fire-with-fireworks-20191115-p53au0.html">Archived</a> from the original on 15 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 November</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=Man+charged+after+allegedly+starting+fire+with+fireworks&rft.date=2019-11-14&rft.aulast=Keoghan&rft.aufirst=Sarah&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Fman-charged-after-allegedly-starting-fire-with-fireworks-20191115-p53au0.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Mayers, Lily (15 November 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-15/nsw-bushfires-destroy-more-than-250-homes-in-a-week/11707004">"Bushfires have destroyed more than 250 homes in NSW this week, the RFS says"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191115062035/https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-15/nsw-bushfires-destroy-more-than-250-homes-in-a-week/11707004">Archived</a> from the original on 15 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 November</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfires+have+destroyed+more+than+250+homes+in+NSW+this+week%2C+the+RFS+says&rft.date=2019-11-15&rft.aulast=Mayers&rft.aufirst=Lily&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-11-15%2Fnsw-bushfires-destroy-more-than-250-homes-in-a-week%2F11707004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/New_South_Wales_Rural_Fire_Service" title="New South Wales Rural Fire Service">New South Wales Rural Fire Service</a> [@NSWRFS] (5 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://twitter.com/NSWRFS/status/1202837953904545792">"We've seen dangerous fire conditions this season. Building Impact Assessment teams are continuing to assess fire affected areas. Over the past month 684 homes have been destroyed and more than 9,800 buildings have been saved. #nswrfs #nswfirespic.twitter.com/fOiFzNJIhC"</a> (Tweet)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 December</span> 2019</span> – via <a href="/wiki/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=We%27ve+seen+dangerous+fire+conditions+this+season.+Building+Impact+Assessment+teams+are+continuing+to+assess+fire+affected+areas.+Over+the+past+month+684+homes+have+been+destroyed+and+more+than+9%2C800+buildings+have+been+saved.+%23nswrfs+%23nswfirespic.twitter.com%2FfOiFzNJIhC&rft.date=2019-12-05&rft.au=New+South+Wales+Rural+Fire+Service+%5B%40NSWRFS%5D&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2FNSWRFS%2Fstatus%2F1202837953904545792&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608">    </span>
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<li id="cite_note-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Alexander, Harriet; Chung, Laura; Chrysanthos, Natassia; Drevikovsky, Janek; Brickwood, James (31 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/extraordinary-2019-ends-with-deadliest-day-of-the-worst-fire-season-20191231-p53nw0.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>Extraordinary' 2019 ends with deadliest day of the worst fire season"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=%27Extraordinary%27+2019+ends+with+deadliest+day+of+the+worst+fire+season&rft.date=2019-12-31&rft.au=Alexander%2C+Harriet&rft.au=Chung%2C+Laura&rft.au=Chrysanthos%2C+Natassia&rft.au=Drevikovsky%2C+Janek&rft.au=Brickwood%2C+James&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Fextraordinary-2019-ends-with-deadliest-day-of-the-worst-fire-season-20191231-p53nw0.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-69"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-69">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Hurley, Brendan; Taylor, Catherine (27 January 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-27/firefighter-veteran-on-worst-bushfire-season-in-memory/11825364">"I've been a firefighter for 20 years. The Blue Mountains bushfires are the worst conditions I've ever faced"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=I%27ve+been+a+firefighter+for+20+years.+The+Blue+Mountains+bushfires+are+the+worst+conditions+I%27ve+ever+faced&rft.date=2019-01-27&rft.au=Hurley%2C+Brendan&rft.au=Taylor%2C+Catherine&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-12-27%2Ffirefighter-veteran-on-worst-bushfire-season-in-memory%2F11825364&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-77">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/worldtoday/councils-cancel-new-years-eve-fireworks-as-fire-risk-rises/11832462">"Councils cancel New Years Eve fireworks as fire risk rises"</a>. <i>ABC Radio</i>. Australia. 30 December 2019. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191231052533/https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/worldtoday/councils-cancel-new-years-eve-fireworks-as-fire-risk-rises/11832462">Archived</a> from the original on 31 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+Radio&rft.atitle=Councils+cancel+New+Years+Eve+fireworks+as+fire+risk+rises&rft.date=2019-12-30&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fradio%2Fprograms%2Fworldtoday%2Fcouncils-cancel-new-years-eve-fireworks-as-fire-risk-rises%2F11832462&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC-2020-01-02-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ABC-2020-01-02_79-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC-2020-01-02_79-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC-2020-01-02_79-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Nguyen, Kevin; Elsworthy, Emma (2 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-02/nsw-rural-fire-service-declares-tourist-leave-zone-south-coast/11836730">"NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian declares state of emergency, as thousands flee South Coast ahead of horror fire weekend"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/ABC_News_(Australia)" title="ABC News (Australia)">ABC News</a></i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=NSW+Premier+Gladys+Berejiklian+declares+state+of+emergency%2C+as+thousands+flee+South+Coast+ahead+of+horror+fire+weekend&rft.date=2020-01-02&rft.au=Nguyen%2C+Kevin&rft.au=Elsworthy%2C+Emma&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-02%2Fnsw-rural-fire-service-declares-tourist-leave-zone-south-coast%2F11836730&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC_Online-82"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_Online_82-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_Online_82-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-23/nsw-rfs-air-tanker-crashes-near-numeralla-bushfire/11893554?fbclid=IwAR0bGFJIsG6-8y_s5MLKb8ICBqUu0BYRG9gGeyD5vNqZBEjLYxxeOFx4cxI">"Three dead after Large Air Tanker crashes while fighting bushfires in southern NSW"</a>. <a href="/wiki/ABC_Online" title="ABC Online">ABC Online</a>. 23 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">23 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Three+dead+after+Large+Air+Tanker+crashes+while+fighting+bushfires+in+southern+NSW&rft.pub=ABC+Online&rft.date=2020-01-23&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-23%2Fnsw-rfs-air-tanker-crashes-near-numeralla-bushfire%2F11893554%3Ffbclid%3DIwAR0bGFJIsG6-8y_s5MLKb8ICBqUu0BYRG9gGeyD5vNqZBEjLYxxeOFx4cxI&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-129"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-129">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation pressrelease"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/news-and-media/media-releases/property-losses-from-recent-nsw-bush-fires">"Property losses from recent NSW bush fires"</a> (Press release). New South Wales Rural Fire Service. 17 September 2019. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191231052535/https://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/news-and-media/media-releases/property-losses-from-recent-nsw-bush-fires">Archived</a> from the original on 31 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 November</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Property+losses+from+recent+NSW+bush+fires&rft.pub=New+South+Wales+Rural+Fire+Service&rft.date=2019-09-17&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.rfs.nsw.gov.au%2Fnews-and-media%2Fmedia-releases%2Fproperty-losses-from-recent-nsw-bush-fires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-180"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-180">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://10daily.com.au/news/australia/a191230xytfc/volunteer-firefighter-killed-two-injured-after-truck-rolls-in-extreme-winds-20191230">"Jingellic: Volunteer Firefighter Killed After NSW Fire"</a>. <i>10daily.com.au</i>. 30 December 2019. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191230143950/https://10daily.com.au/news/australia/a191230xytfc/volunteer-firefighter-killed-two-injured-after-truck-rolls-in-extreme-winds-20191230">Archived</a> from the original on 30 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=10daily.com.au&rft.atitle=Jingellic%3A+Volunteer+Firefighter+Killed+After+NSW+Fire&rft.date=2019-12-30&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F10daily.com.au%2Fnews%2Faustralia%2Fa191230xytfc%2Fvolunteer-firefighter-killed-two-injured-after-truck-rolls-in-extreme-winds-20191230&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-230"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-230">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Mott, Mitch (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/strike-teams-and-water-bombers-inbound-to-battle-out-of-control-kersbrook-fire/news-story/02debd4013bb987afe39d01b493f14ce">"Strike teams and water bombers to battle out of control Kersbrook fire"</a>. <i>The Advertiser</i>. Adelaide<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Advertiser&rft.atitle=Strike+teams+and+water+bombers+to+battle+out+of+control+Kersbrook+fire&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.aulast=Mott&rft.aufirst=Mitch&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.adelaidenow.com.au%2Fnews%2Fsouth-australia%2Fstrike-teams-and-water-bombers-inbound-to-battle-out-of-control-kersbrook-fire%2Fnews-story%2F02debd4013bb987afe39d01b493f14ce&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-231"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-231">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-03/cfs-battles-kangaroo-island-fire-amid-extreme-heat/11838600">"Kangaroo Island bushfire emergency declared as firefighters warn they can't stop fire spreading, Adelaide Hills ablaze again"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. 3 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Kangaroo+Island+bushfire+emergency+declared+as+firefighters+warn+they+can%27t+stop+fire+spreading%2C+Adelaide+Hills+ablaze+again&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-03%2Fcfs-battles-kangaroo-island-fire-amid-extreme-heat%2F11838600&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-232"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-232">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">=Mott, Mitch (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/ravine-fire-burning-on-kangaroo-island-virtually-unstoppable-in-current-conditions-cfs-says/news-story/e8ce03fa2178a0148a324627cabeb611">"Ravine fire burning on Kangaroo Island 'virtually unstoppable' as major towns only safe place left on island"</a>. <i>The Advertiser</i>. Adelaide<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Advertiser&rft.atitle=Ravine+fire+burning+on+Kangaroo+Island+%27virtually+unstoppable%27+as+major+towns+only+safe+place+left+on+island&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.aulast=%3DMott&rft.aufirst=Mitch&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.adelaidenow.com.au%2Fnews%2Fsouth-australia%2Fravine-fire-burning-on-kangaroo-island-virtually-unstoppable-in-current-conditions-cfs-says%2Fnews-story%2Fe8ce03fa2178a0148a324627cabeb611&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-233"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-233">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Olle, Emily (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/news/bushfires/kangaroo-island-fires-two-confirmed-dead-as-blazes-continue-to-burn-c-632266">"Kangaroo Island fires: Two confirmed dead as blazes continue to burn"</a>. <i>7NEWS</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=7NEWS&rft.atitle=Kangaroo+Island+fires%3A+Two+confirmed+dead+as+blazes+continue+to+burn&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.aulast=Olle&rft.aufirst=Emily&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfires%2Fkangaroo-island-fires-two-confirmed-dead-as-blazes-continue-to-burn-c-632266&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-235"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-235">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-05/firefighting-continues-on-kangaroo-island-on-sunday/11841610">"Kangaroo Island fires continue as locals count cost of damage to infrastructure, animals"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/ABC_News_(Australia)" title="ABC News (Australia)">ABC News</a></i>. Australia. 7 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Kangaroo+Island+fires+continue+as+locals+count+cost+of+damage+to+infrastructure%2C+animals&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-05%2Ffirefighting-continues-on-kangaroo-island-on-sunday%2F11841610&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-237"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-237">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-13/bushfire-emergency-in-wa-town-of-geraldton/11701868">"Bushfire 'perfect storm' as twin blazes hit WA port city of Geraldton"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. 13 November 2019. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191114175103/https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-13/bushfire-emergency-in-wa-town-of-geraldton/11701868">Archived</a> from the original on 14 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 November</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfire+%27perfect+storm%27+as+twin+blazes+hit+WA+port+city+of+Geraldton&rft.date=2019-11-13&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-11-13%2Fbushfire-emergency-in-wa-town-of-geraldton%2F11701868&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-239"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-239">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Cross, Daile (12 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.watoday.com.au/national/western-australia/wa-bushfires-yanchep-fire-flares-up-again-threat-to-lives-and-homes-20191212-p53jai.html">"More homes under threat as 'dynamic' Yanchep fires gain intensity"</a>. <i>WAtoday</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191213183942/https://www.watoday.com.au/national/western-australia/wa-bushfires-yanchep-fire-flares-up-again-threat-to-lives-and-homes-20191212-p53jai.html">Archived</a> from the original on 13 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=WAtoday&rft.atitle=More+homes+under+threat+as+%27dynamic%27+Yanchep+fires+gain+intensity&rft.date=2019-12-12&rft.aulast=Cross&rft.aufirst=Daile&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.watoday.com.au%2Fnational%2Fwestern-australia%2Fwa-bushfires-yanchep-fire-flares-up-again-threat-to-lives-and-homes-20191212-p53jai.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:3-242"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:3_242-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:3_242-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-16/yanchep-two-rocks-bushfire-emergency-fire-crews-make-progress/11802140">"Bushfire threat eases north of Perth and near Collie after heatwave"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. 16 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfire+threat+eases+north+of+Perth+and+near+Collie+after+heatwave&rft.date=2019-12-16&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-12-16%2Fyanchep-two-rocks-bushfire-emergency-fire-crews-make-progress%2F11802140&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-243"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-243">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Lucas, Jarrod; Hamlyn, Charlotte; da Silva, Ivo (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-03/nullarbor-road-closures-to-last-five-days-causing-food-shortages/11837324">"Bushfires cutting off Nullarbor likely to cost millions and cause food shortages in Perth"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfires+cutting+off+Nullarbor+likely+to+cost+millions+and+cause+food+shortages+in+Perth&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.au=Lucas%2C+Jarrod&rft.au=Hamlyn%2C+Charlotte&rft.au=da+Silva%2C+Ivo&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-03%2Fnullarbor-road-closures-to-last-five-days-causing-food-shortages%2F11837324&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Perthnow_Stirling_Range-246"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Perthnow_Stirling_Range_246-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.perthnow.com.au/news/bushfires/stirling-range-bushfire-continues-to-pose-threat-ng-b881422021z">"Stirling Range bushfire continues to pose threat"</a>. <i>Perth Now</i>. AAP. 31 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Perth+Now&rft.atitle=Stirling+Range+bushfire+continues+to+pose+threat&rft.date=2019-12-31&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.perthnow.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfires%2Fstirling-range-bushfire-continues-to-pose-threat-ng-b881422021z&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Stirling_Range_ABC-247"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Stirling_Range_ABC_247-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Stirling_Range_ABC_247-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Logan, Tyne; Dobson, John (7 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-07/bushfires-cause-stirling-ranges-biodiversity-to-be-devastated/11844516">"Western Australia bushfires devastate the Stirling Ranges — one of the world's richest biodiversity hotspots"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Western+Australia+bushfires+devastate+the+Stirling+Ranges+%E2%80%94+one+of+the+world%27s+richest+biodiversity+hotspots&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft.aulast=Logan&rft.aufirst=Tyne&rft.au=Dobson%2C+John&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-07%2Fbushfires-cause-stirling-ranges-biodiversity-to-be-devastated%2F11844516&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-249"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-249">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-10-29/tasmania-news-briefing-tuesday-october-29/11646270">"Tasmania Now: Watch and act fire alerts for two blazes north of Hobart"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. 29 October 2019. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191104193547/https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-10-29/tasmania-news-briefing-tuesday-october-29/11646270">Archived</a> from the original on 4 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 November</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Tasmania+Now%3A+Watch+and+act+fire+alerts+for+two+blazes+north+of+Hobart&rft.date=2019-10-29&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-10-29%2Ftasmania-news-briefing-tuesday-october-29%2F11646270&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-250"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-250">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Cooper, Erin (2 November 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-02/reprieve-for-tasmanian-fires-but-warnings-not-to-be-complacent/11665070">"Longer fire season stretches volunteers, with calls for compensation"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191110111857/https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-02/reprieve-for-tasmanian-fires-but-warnings-not-to-be-complacent/11665070">Archived</a> from the original on 10 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 November</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Longer+fire+season+stretches+volunteers%2C+with+calls+for+compensation&rft.date=2019-11-02&rft.aulast=Cooper&rft.aufirst=Erin&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-11-02%2Freprieve-for-tasmanian-fires-but-warnings-not-to-be-complacent%2F11665070&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-251"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-251">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Koch, Ainsley (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-04/man-charged-with-unlawfully-starting-fire-in-tasmania/11841018">"Man charged with unlawfully starting fire in Tasmania during total fire ban"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Man+charged+with+unlawfully+starting+fire+in+Tasmania+during+total+fire+ban&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.aulast=Koch&rft.aufirst=Ainsley&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-04%2Fman-charged-with-unlawfully-starting-fire-in-tasmania%2F11841018&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_6th_January-252"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_6th_January_252-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://amp.abc.net.au/article/11845044">"Tasmanian fire crews battling blazes prepare for spike in weather conditions"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. 6 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Tasmanian+fire+crews+battling+blazes+prepare+for+spike+in+weather+conditions&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Famp.abc.net.au%2Farticle%2F11845044&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_17th_January-253"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-ABC_Tasmanian_Fire_Update_17th_January_253-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://amp.abc.net.au/article/11874940">"Weather window for fire control"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. 17 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Weather+window+for+fire+control&rft.date=2020-01-17&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Famp.abc.net.au%2Farticle%2F11874940&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-254"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-254">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/canberra-s-air-quality-is-the-worst-in-the-world-as-bushfire-smoke-shrouds-capital">"Canberra's air quality is 'the worst in the world' as bushfire smoke shrouds capital"</a>. <i>SBS News</i>. Australia. 1 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=SBS+News&rft.atitle=Canberra%27s+air+quality+is+%27the+worst+in+the+world%27+as+bushfire+smoke+shrouds+capital&rft.date=2020-01-01&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sbs.com.au%2Fnews%2Fcanberra-s-air-quality-is-the-worst-in-the-world-as-bushfire-smoke-shrouds-capital&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-255"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-255">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.9news.com.au/national/nsw-bushfires-smoke-blanketing-canberra-air-quality-worst-in-world/9fbdbc16-a7da-4bf5-b39a-d881d589ea4d">"Canberra air quality 'worst in world' as bushfire smoke chokes capital"</a>. <i>Nine News</i>. 2 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Nine+News&rft.atitle=Canberra+air+quality+%27worst+in+world%27+as+bushfire+smoke+chokes+capital&rft.date=2020-01-02&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.9news.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw-bushfires-smoke-blanketing-canberra-air-quality-worst-in-world%2F9fbdbc16-a7da-4bf5-b39a-d881d589ea4d&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-269"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-269">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UqeEjkawfrE"><span class="plainlinks">Fire And Gale In Australia (1939); British Pathe</span></a> on <a href="/wiki/YouTube" title="YouTube">YouTube</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-292"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-292">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Allam, Lorena (1 February 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/feb/02/grave-fears-held-for-thousands-of-rock-art-sites-after-bushfires-lay-bare-irrevocable-damage">"Grave fears held for thousands of rock art sites after bushfires lay bare irrevocable damage"</a>. <i>The Guardian</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft.atitle=Grave+fears+held+for+thousands+of+rock+art+sites+after+bushfires+lay+bare+irrevocable+damage&rft.date=2020-02-01&rft.aulast=Allam&rft.aufirst=Lorena&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fartanddesign%2F2020%2Ffeb%2F02%2Fgrave-fears-held-for-thousands-of-rock-art-sites-after-bushfires-lay-bare-irrevocable-damage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-293"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-293">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">CNN, Eric Cheung. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/21/asia/budj-bim-australia-bushfire-intl-hnk-scli/index.html">"Ancient aquatic system revealed by bushfires"</a>. <i>CNN</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=CNN&rft.atitle=Ancient+aquatic+system+revealed+by+bushfires&rft.aulast=CNN&rft.aufirst=Eric+Cheung&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnn.com%2F2020%2F01%2F21%2Fasia%2Fbudj-bim-australia-bushfire-intl-hnk-scli%2Findex.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-294"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-294">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Machemer, Theresa. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/australian-bushfires-uncover-hidden-sections-ancient-aquaculture-system-180974028/">"Australian Bushfires Reveal Hidden Sections of Ancient Aquaculture System"</a>. <i>Smithsonian Magazine</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Smithsonian+Magazine&rft.atitle=Australian+Bushfires+Reveal+Hidden+Sections+of+Ancient+Aquaculture+System&rft.aulast=Machemer&rft.aufirst=Theresa&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smithsonianmag.com%2Fsmart-news%2Faustralian-bushfires-uncover-hidden-sections-ancient-aquaculture-system-180974028%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-295"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-295">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">McDonald, Alasdair (6 February 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.illawarramercury.com.au/story/6618509/this-is-special-stone-boomerang-found-in-fire-ravaged-cobargo-creek/?src=rss">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>This is special': Stone boomerang found in fire-ravaged Cobargo creek"</a>. <i>Illawarra Mercury</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Illawarra+Mercury&rft.atitle=%27This+is+special%27%3A+Stone+boomerang+found+in+fire-ravaged+Cobargo+creek&rft.date=2020-02-06&rft.aulast=McDonald&rft.aufirst=Alasdair&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.illawarramercury.com.au%2Fstory%2F6618509%2Fthis-is-special-stone-boomerang-found-in-fire-ravaged-cobargo-creek%2F%3Fsrc%3Drss&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-296"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-296">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://news.cfa.vic.gov.au/-/cfa-send-over-300-personnel-to-nsw-bushfires">"CFA sends over 300 personnel to NSW bushfires"</a>. <i>CFA News and Media</i>. 11 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=CFA+News+and+Media&rft.atitle=CFA+sends+over+300+personnel+to+NSW+bushfires&rft.date=2019-11-11&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fnews.cfa.vic.gov.au%2F-%2Fcfa-send-over-300-personnel-to-nsw-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-297"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-297">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://news.google.com/articles/CAIiEICjIUKHPzJnTBOFYpYJ0p4qFwgEKg8IACoHCAow_cXTBDDc9n4whOUH">"Victorian fire crews deployed to NSW frontline"</a>. <i>Google News</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Google+News&rft.atitle=Victorian+fire+crews+deployed+to+NSW+frontline&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fnews.google.com%2Farticles%2FCAIiEICjIUKHPzJnTBOFYpYJ0p4qFwgEKg8IACoHCAow_cXTBDDc9n4whOUH&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:5-298"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:5_298-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:5_298-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:5_298-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.cfs.sa.gov.au/site/home/criimson/sa_to_send_more_help_to_nsw_issued_08_nov_17210003130.jsp">"SA to send more help to NSW Issued 08 Nov 17:21 :: CFS"</a>. <i>www.cfs.sa.gov.au</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.cfs.sa.gov.au&rft.atitle=SA+to+send+more+help+to+NSW+Issued+08+Nov+17%3A21+%3A%3A+CFS&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cfs.sa.gov.au%2Fsite%2Fhome%2Fcriimson%2Fsa_to_send_more_help_to_nsw_issued_08_nov_17210003130.jsp&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-299"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-299">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Stone, Lucy (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/time-to-repay-the-favour-as-queensland-sends-firefighters-south-20200103-p53ojt.html">"Time to 'repay the favour' as Queensland sends firefighters south"</a>. <i>Brisbane Times</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Brisbane+Times&rft.atitle=Time+to+%27repay+the+favour%27+as+Queensland+sends+firefighters+south&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.aulast=Stone&rft.aufirst=Lucy&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.brisbanetimes.com.au%2Fnational%2Fqueensland%2Ftime-to-repay-the-favour-as-queensland-sends-firefighters-south-20200103-p53ojt.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:6-300"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:6_300-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:6_300-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.facebook.com/nswrfs/photos/a.10150499693320552/10157568399175552/?type=3">"NSW Rural Fire Service"</a>. <i>www.facebook.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.facebook.com&rft.atitle=NSW+Rural+Fire+Service&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fnswrfs%2Fphotos%2Fa.10150499693320552%2F10157568399175552%2F%3Ftype%3D3&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-301"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-301">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Chayes Wida, Erica (14 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.today.com/food/australian-government-airdrops-food-animals-amid-fires-t171683">"Australian government airdrops more than 4K pounds of food to hungry animals"</a>. <i>TODAY.com</i>. United States<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=TODAY.com&rft.atitle=Australian+government+airdrops+more+than+4K+pounds+of+food+to+hungry+animals&rft.date=2020-01-14&rft.au=Chayes+Wida%2C+Erica&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.today.com%2Ffood%2Faustralian-government-airdrops-food-animals-amid-fires-t171683&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-302"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-302">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/technology/environment/wollemi-pines-known-as-dinosaur-trees-saved-from-nsw-bushfires-thanks-to-a-secret-firefighting-mission/news-story">"Wollemi pines known as 'dinosaur trees' saved from NSW bushfires thanks to a secret firefighting mission"</a>. <i>news.com.au</i>. 16 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=news.com.au&rft.atitle=Wollemi+pines+known+as+%27dinosaur+trees%27+saved+from+NSW+bushfires+thanks+to+a+secret+firefighting+mission&rft.date=2020-01-16&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Ftechnology%2Fenvironment%2Fwollemi-pines-known-as-dinosaur-trees-saved-from-nsw-bushfires-thanks-to-a-secret-firefighting-mission%2Fnews-story&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-303"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-303">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.npr.org/2020/01/16/796994699/aussie-firefighters-save-worlds-only-groves-of-prehistoric-wollemi-pines">"Aussie Firefighters Save World's Only Groves Of Prehistoric Wollemi Pines"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/NPR" title="NPR">NPR</a></i>. United States. 16 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=NPR&rft.atitle=Aussie+Firefighters+Save+World%27s+Only+Groves+Of+Prehistoric+Wollemi+Pines&rft.date=2020-01-16&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.npr.org%2F2020%2F01%2F16%2F796994699%2Faussie-firefighters-save-worlds-only-groves-of-prehistoric-wollemi-pines&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-304"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-304">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation pressrelease">Prime Minister (24 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.pm.gov.au/media/boosting-leave-aps-volunteer-firefighters">"Boosting Leave For APS Volunteer Firefighters"</a>. <i>Prime Minister of Australia</i> (Press release)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Boosting+Leave+For+APS+Volunteer+Firefighters&rft.date=2019-12-24&rft.au=Prime+Minister&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pm.gov.au%2Fmedia%2Fboosting-leave-aps-volunteer-firefighters&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-305"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-305">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation pressrelease">Prime Minister (29 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.pm.gov.au/media/new-payments-support-nsw-volunteer-firefighters">"New Payments To Support NSW Volunteer Firefighters"</a>. <i>Prime Minister of Australia</i> (Press release)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=New+Payments+To+Support+NSW+Volunteer+Firefighters&rft.date=2019-12-29&rft.au=Prime+Minister&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pm.gov.au%2Fmedia%2Fnew-payments-support-nsw-volunteer-firefighters&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-PM4Jan-306"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-PM4Jan_306-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-PM4Jan_306-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation pressrelease"><a href="/wiki/Scott_Morrison" title="Scott Morrison">Morrison, Scott</a>; <a href="/wiki/David_Littleproud" title="David Littleproud">Littleproud, David</a> (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.minister.defence.gov.au/minister/lreynolds/media-releases/bushfire-relief-and-recovery">"Bushfire relief and recovery"</a>. <i>Department of Defence Ministers</i> (Press release). Department of Defence<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Bushfire+relief+and+recovery&rft.pub=Department+of+Defence&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.au=Morrison%2C+Scott&rft.au=Littleproud%2C+David&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.minister.defence.gov.au%2Fminister%2Flreynolds%2Fmedia-releases%2Fbushfire-relief-and-recovery&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-307"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-307">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/bushfire-recovery-agency-established-as-scott-morrison-brushes-off-criticism">"Bushfire recovery agency established as Scott Morrison brushes off criticism"</a>. <i>SBS News</i>. 5 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=SBS+News&rft.atitle=Bushfire+recovery+agency+established+as+Scott+Morrison+brushes+off+criticism&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sbs.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfire-recovery-agency-established-as-scott-morrison-brushes-off-criticism&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-2020-01-06_ABC-308"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2020-01-06_ABC_308-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Beech, Alexandra; Dalzell, Stephanie; Snape, Jack (6 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-06/scott-morrison-bushfire-recovery-bill/11844096">"Bushfire recovery costs start at $2 billion but Government assistance can't pay the bills"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/ABC_News_Online" class="mw-redirect" title="ABC News Online">ABC News Online</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News+Online&rft.atitle=Bushfire+recovery+costs+start+at+%242+billion+but+Government+assistance+can%27t+pay+the+bills&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft.au=Beech%2C+Alexandra&rft.au=Dalzell%2C+Stephanie&rft.au=Snape%2C+Jack&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-06%2Fscott-morrison-bushfire-recovery-bill%2F11844096&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-309"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-309">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.9news.com.au/national/adf-to-support-fire-response/47a51f6c-4d76-468c-b607-73d79b3e78a7">"Defence force to support fire response with military assistance"</a>. <i>www.9news.com.au</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.9news.com.au&rft.atitle=Defence+force+to+support+fire+response+with+military+assistance&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.9news.com.au%2Fnational%2Fadf-to-support-fire-response%2F47a51f6c-4d76-468c-b607-73d79b3e78a7&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-310"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-310">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Linda_Reynolds" title="Linda Reynolds">Reynolds, Linda [@lindareynoldswa]</a> (30 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://twitter.com/lindareynoldswa/status/1211893717990133761">"Authorised ADF to deploy extra assets to the Victorian fires"</a> (Tweet) – via <a href="/wiki/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Authorised+ADF+to+deploy+extra+assets+to+the+Victorian+fires&rft.date=2019-12-30&rft.au=Reynolds%2C+Linda+%5B%40lindareynoldswa%5D&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Flindareynoldswa%2Fstatus%2F1211893717990133761&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608">    </span>
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<li id="cite_note-311"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-311">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Albeck-Ripka, Livia (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/04/world/australia/fires-military.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>It's an Atomic Bomb': Australia Deploys Military as Fires Spread"</a>. <i>The New York Times</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft.atitle=%27It%27s+an+Atomic+Bomb%27%3A+Australia+Deploys+Military+as+Fires+Spread&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.aulast=Albeck-Ripka&rft.aufirst=Livia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2020%2F01%2F04%2Fworld%2Faustralia%2Ffires-military.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-312"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-312">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.wires.org.au/blog/nsw-fire-catastrophe">"NSW Fire Catastrophe"</a>. <i>www.wires.org.au</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.wires.org.au&rft.atitle=NSW+Fire+Catastrophe&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.wires.org.au%2Fblog%2Fnsw-fire-catastrophe&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-313"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-313">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.rapidreliefteam.org/">"Rapid Relief Team"</a>. <i>Rapid Relief Team</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Rapid+Relief+Team&rft.atitle=Rapid+Relief+Team&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.rapidreliefteam.org%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-314"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-314">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.teamrubiconaus.org/field-ops/operation-bugden/">"Operation Bugden | Team Rubicon Australia"</a>. <i>www.teamrubiconaus.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.teamrubiconaus.org&rft.atitle=Operation+Bugden+%7C+Team+Rubicon+Australia&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.teamrubiconaus.org%2Ffield-ops%2Foperation-bugden%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-315"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-315">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/radio/northcoast/programs/breakfast/team-rubicon-veterans-mental-health-bushfire-recovery/11681410">"Team Rubicon deployed to Busby Fire Flat bushfire victims"</a>. <i>ABC Radio</i>. 8 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+Radio&rft.atitle=Team+Rubicon+deployed+to+Busby+Fire+Flat+bushfire+victims&rft.date=2019-11-08&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fradio%2Fnorthcoast%2Fprograms%2Fbreakfast%2Fteam-rubicon-veterans-mental-health-bushfire-recovery%2F11681410&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-316"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-316">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.awlnsw.com.au/bushfire-appeal/">"Bushfire Appeal"</a>. <i>Animal Welfare League NSW</i>. 18 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Animal+Welfare+League+NSW&rft.atitle=Bushfire+Appeal&rft.date=2019-11-18&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.awlnsw.com.au%2Fbushfire-appeal%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-317"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-317">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FaRljx2ehT4"><i>ABC News speaks to Animal Welfare League NSW CEO Mark Slater</i></a><span class="reference-accessdate">, retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 January</span> 2020</span></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=ABC+News+speaks+to+Animal+Welfare+League+NSW+CEO+Mark+Slater&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DFaRljx2ehT4&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-318"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-318">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.wwf.org.au/news/news/2019/wwf-s-towards-two-billion-trees-plan-to-aid-koala-bushfire-recovery">"WWF's "Towards Two Billion Trees" plan to aid koala bushfire recovery"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/World_Wildlife_Fund" class="mw-redirect" title="World Wildlife Fund">WWF-Australia</a></i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=WWF-Australia&rft.atitle=WWF%27s+%22Towards+Two+Billion+Trees%22+plan+to+aid+koala+bushfire+recovery&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.wwf.org.au%2Fnews%2Fnews%2F2019%2Fwwf-s-towards-two-billion-trees-plan-to-aid-koala-bushfire-recovery&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Self-published_sources" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"><span title="The material near this tag may rely on a self-published source. (January 2020)">self-published source?</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-319"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-319">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.wwf.org.au/what-we-do/2-billion-trees/2-billiontrees">"Towards Two Billion Trees"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/World_Wildlife_Fund" class="mw-redirect" title="World Wildlife Fund">WWF-Australia</a></i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=WWF-Australia&rft.atitle=Towards+Two+Billion+Trees&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.wwf.org.au%2Fwhat-we-do%2F2-billion-trees%2F2-billiontrees&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Self-published_sources" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"><span title="The material near this tag may rely on a self-published source. (January 2020)">self-published source?</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-320"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-320">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.australiandesignreview.com/architecture/architects-assist-offers-pro-bono-design-services-to-aussies-impacted-by-bushfire-crisis/">"Architects Assist offers pro-bono bushfire services"</a>. <i>Australian Design Review</i>. 8 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Australian+Design+Review&rft.atitle=Architects+Assist+offers+pro-bono+bushfire+services&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.australiandesignreview.com%2Farchitecture%2Farchitects-assist-offers-pro-bono-design-services-to-aussies-impacted-by-bushfire-crisis%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-321"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-321">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.dezeen.com/2020/01/07/australian-architects-assist-bushfire-crisis-news/">"Australian architects offer free design services to bushfire victims"</a>. <i>Dezeen</i>. 7 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Dezeen&rft.atitle=Australian+architects+offer+free+design+services+to+bushfire+victims&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.dezeen.com%2F2020%2F01%2F07%2Faustralian-architects-assist-bushfire-crisis-news%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-322"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-322">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://architectsassist.com.au/about/">"About AA"</a>. <i>Architects Assist</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Architects+Assist&rft.atitle=About+AA&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farchitectsassist.com.au%2Fabout%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-323"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-323">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.fiveaa.com.au/news/donald-trump-sends-some-love-australia-during-bushfire-crisis">"DONALD TRUMP SENDS SOME "LOVE" TO AUSTRALIA DURING BUSHFIRE CRISIS"</a>. <i>FiveAA</i>. Adelaide. 8 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=FiveAA&rft.atitle=DONALD+TRUMP+SENDS+SOME+%22LOVE%22+TO+AUSTRALIA+DURING+BUSHFIRE+CRISIS&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.fiveaa.com.au%2Fnews%2Fdonald-trump-sends-some-love-australia-during-bushfire-crisis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-celebs-324"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-celebs_324-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-celebs_324-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-celebs_324-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Doherty, Ben (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/04/from-tina-arena-to-elizabeth-warren-the-big-names-weighing-in-on-australias-bushfire-crisis">"From Tina Arena to Elizabeth Warren: the big names weighing in on Australia's bushfire crisis"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=From+Tina+Arena+to+Elizabeth+Warren%3A+the+big+names+weighing+in+on+Australia%27s+bushfire+crisis&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.au=Doherty%2C+Ben&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F04%2Ffrom-tina-arena-to-elizabeth-warren-the-big-names-weighing-in-on-australias-bushfire-crisis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-SBS_international_commentary-325"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_international_commentary_325-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/from-bernie-sanders-to-bette-midler-the-world-reacts-to-the-bushfires">"From Bernie Sanders to Bette Midler: The world reacts to the bushfires"</a>. <i>SBS News</i>. 4 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=SBS+News&rft.atitle=From+Bernie+Sanders+to+Bette+Midler%3A+The+world+reacts+to+the+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sbs.com.au%2Fnews%2Ffrom-bernie-sanders-to-bette-midler-the-world-reacts-to-the-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-326"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-326">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Greta_Thunberg" title="Greta Thunberg">Thunberg, Greta [@GretaThunberg]</a> (22 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://twitter.com/GretaThunberg/status/1208682929855041538">"Not even catastrophes like these seem to bring any political action. How is this possible?"</a> (Tweet)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 December</span> 2019</span> – via <a href="/wiki/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Not+even+catastrophes+like+these+seem+to+bring+any+political+action.+How+is+this+possible%3F&rft.date=2019-12-22&rft.au=Thunberg%2C+Greta+%5B%40GretaThunberg%5D&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2FGretaThunberg%2Fstatus%2F1208682929855041538&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608">    </span>
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<li id="cite_note-327"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-327">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Wolfe, Natalie (23 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/technology/environment/greta-thunberg-weighs-in-on-australias-fire-catastrophe/news-story/da3128050c064d979e388e5540cec61e">"Greta Thunberg weighs in on Australia's fire 'catastrophe<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>news.com.au</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191225123318/https://www.news.com.au/technology/environment/greta-thunberg-weighs-in-on-australias-fire-catastrophe/news-story/da3128050c064d979e388e5540cec61e">Archived</a> from the original on 25 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">25 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=news.com.au&rft.atitle=Greta+Thunberg+weighs+in+on+Australia%27s+fire+%27catastrophe%27&rft.date=2019-12-23&rft.aulast=Wolfe&rft.aufirst=Natalie&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Ftechnology%2Fenvironment%2Fgreta-thunberg-weighs-in-on-australias-fire-catastrophe%2Fnews-story%2Fda3128050c064d979e388e5540cec61e&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes-328"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-The_Guardian_Golden_Globes_328-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/film/2020/jan/06/russell-crowe-and-cate-blanchett-use-golden-globes-speeches-to-link-australian-fires-to-climate-crisis">"Russell Crowe and Cate Blanchett use Golden Globes speeches to link Australian fires to climate crisis"</a>. <i>The Guardian</i>. 6 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft.atitle=Russell+Crowe+and+Cate+Blanchett+use+Golden+Globes+speeches+to+link+Australian+fires+to+climate+crisis&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Ffilm%2F2020%2Fjan%2F06%2Frussell-crowe-and-cate-blanchett-use-golden-globes-speeches-to-link-australian-fires-to-climate-crisis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-329"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-329">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Harris, Rob (6 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/morrison-says-bushfire-ravaged-communities-the-priority-as-celebrities-pile-on-20200106-p53par.html">"Morrison says bushfire-ravaged communities the priority as celebrities pile on"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=Morrison+says+bushfire-ravaged+communities+the+priority+as+celebrities+pile+on&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft.au=Harris%2C+Rob&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fpolitics%2Ffederal%2Fmorrison-says-bushfire-ravaged-communities-the-priority-as-celebrities-pile-on-20200106-p53par.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-330"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-330">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/national/my-heart-goes-out-to-everyone-suffering-in-australia-ellen/video/199ecd2a54fe15b9db6f5b85a55c726e">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>My heart goes out to everyone suffering in Australia': Ellen"</a>. <i>news.com.au</i>. 6 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=news.com.au&rft.atitle=%27My+heart+goes+out+to+everyone+suffering+in+Australia%27%3A+Ellen&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Fnational%2Fmy-heart-goes-out-to-everyone-suffering-in-australia-ellen%2Fvideo%2F199ecd2a54fe15b9db6f5b85a55c726e&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Yahoo-6Jan2020-331"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Yahoo-6Jan2020_331-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://au.news.yahoo.com/celebrities-react-australias-bushfires-004013075--spt.html">"Celebrities react to Australia's bushfires"</a>. <i>Yahoo! News</i>. Australian Associated Press. 6 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Yahoo%21+News&rft.atitle=Celebrities+react+to+Australia%27s+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fau.news.yahoo.com%2Fcelebrities-react-australias-bushfires-004013075--spt.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-SBS_bushfire3-332"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-SBS_bushfire3_332-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sbs.com.au/popasia/blog/2020/01/07/jay-park-donates-30k-australian-bushfire-effort">"Jay Park donates $30k to Australian bushfire effort"</a>. <i>sbs.com.au</i>. 7 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=sbs.com.au&rft.atitle=Jay+Park+donates+%2430k+to+Australian+bushfire+effort&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sbs.com.au%2Fpopasia%2Fblog%2F2020%2F01%2F07%2Fjay-park-donates-30k-australian-bushfire-effort&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-SBS_Queen-333"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-SBS_Queen_333-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/queen-deeply-saddened-by-australia-s-ongoing-bushfire-crisis">"Queen 'deeply saddened' by Australia's ongoing bushfire crisis"</a>. <i>SBS News</i>. Australia. AAP. 5 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=SBS+News&rft.atitle=Queen+%27deeply+saddened%27+by+Australia%27s+ongoing+bushfire+crisis&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sbs.com.au%2Fnews%2Fqueen-deeply-saddened-by-australia-s-ongoing-bushfire-crisis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-News_Charles_video-334"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-News_Charles_video_334-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-News_Charles_video_334-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Coy, Bronte (8 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/celebrity-life/royals/appalling-horror-prince-charles-emotional-video-message/news-story/17091b709ff0e0c3c6624e84d756de5b">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>Appalling horror': Prince Charles' emotional video message"</a>. <i>news.com.au</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=news.com.au&rft.atitle=%27Appalling+horror%27%3A+Prince+Charles%27+emotional+video+message&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft.aulast=Coy&rft.aufirst=Bronte&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Fentertainment%2Fcelebrity-life%2Froyals%2Fappalling-horror-prince-charles-emotional-video-message%2Fnews-story%2F17091b709ff0e0c3c6624e84d756de5b&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-372"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-372">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Noyes, Jenny (8 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/it-smells-like-it-s-time-to-go-to-work-american-firefighters-arrive-in-sydney-20191208-p53hxt.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>Smells like it's time to go to work': American firefighters arrive in Sydney"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191225233817/https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/it-smells-like-it-s-time-to-go-to-work-american-firefighters-arrive-in-sydney-20191208-p53hxt.html">Archived</a> from the original on 25 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">25 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=%27Smells+like+it%27s+time+to+go+to+work%27%3A+American+firefighters+arrive+in+Sydney&rft.date=2019-12-08&rft.aulast=Noyes&rft.aufirst=Jenny&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Fit-smells-like-it-s-time-to-go-to-work-american-firefighters-arrive-in-sydney-20191208-p53hxt.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-373"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-373">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Trask, Steven (23 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/national/nsw-act/news/three-us-fireys-killed-in-tanker-crash/news-story/d6c220bc87ca96f105db45e277736f7f">"Three US fireys killed in tanker crash"</a>. <i>news.com.au</i>. AAP.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=news.com.au&rft.atitle=Three+US+fireys+killed+in+tanker+crash&rft.date=2020-01-23&rft.aulast=Trask&rft.aufirst=Steven&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw-act%2Fnews%2Fthree-us-fireys-killed-in-tanker-crash%2Fnews-story%2Fd6c220bc87ca96f105db45e277736f7f&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-376"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-376">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.mai.gov.ro/ministerul-afacerilor-interne-raspunde-apelului-lansat-la-nivel-european-si-are-forte-pregatite-pentru-a-fi-trimise-in-australia/">"Ministerul Afacerilor Interne răspunde apelului lansat la nivel european și are forțe pregătite pentru a fi trimise în Australia"</a>. <i>mai.gov.ro</i> (in Romanian). 6 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=mai.gov.ro&rft.atitle=Ministerul+Afacerilor+Interne+r%C4%83spunde+apelului+lansat+la+nivel+european+%C8%99i+are+for%C8%9Be+preg%C4%83tite+pentru+a+fi+trimise+%C3%AEn+Australia&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mai.gov.ro%2Fministerul-afacerilor-interne-raspunde-apelului-lansat-la-nivel-european-si-are-forte-pregatite-pentru-a-fi-trimise-in-australia%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-377"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-377">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.national.ro/news/pompierii-romani-flituiti-de-incendiata-australie-nu-avem-nevoie-de-ajutor-676782.html/">"Pompierii români, flituiți de incendiata Australie: Nu avem nevoie de ajutor"</a>. <i>national.ro</i> (in Romanian). 8 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=national.ro&rft.atitle=Pompierii+rom%C3%A2ni%2C+flitui%C8%9Bi+de+incendiata+Australie%3A+Nu+avem+nevoie+de+ajutor&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.national.ro%2Fnews%2Fpompierii-romani-flituiti-de-incendiata-australie-nu-avem-nevoie-de-ajutor-676782.html%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-378"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-378">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.palpress.net/?View=News&id=4679&dep=3">"Australia rejected an offer by the European Union to help it against fires"</a>. <i>palpress.net</i>. 14 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=palpress.net&rft.atitle=Australia+rejected+an+offer+by+the+European+Union+to+help+it+against+fires&rft.date=2020-01-14&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.palpress.net%2F%3FView%3DNews%26id%3D4679%26dep%3D3&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-379"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-379">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Kara Aydin, Havva. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.aa.com.tr/en/turkey/turkey-stands-with-australia-with-bushfires-raging/1695387">"Turkey stands with Australia with bushfires raging"</a>. <i>Anatolian Agency</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Anatolian+Agency&rft.atitle=Turkey+stands+with+Australia+with+bushfires+raging&rft.aulast=Kara+Aydin&rft.aufirst=Havva&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aa.com.tr%2Fen%2Fturkey%2Fturkey-stands-with-australia-with-bushfires-raging%2F1695387&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-380"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-380">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.trthaber.com/haber/dunya/avustralyadaki-turklerden-yangin-magdurlarina-yardim-447208.html">"Avustralya'daki Türklerden yangın mağdurlarına yardım"</a>. <i>TRT Haber</i> (in Turkish)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=TRT+Haber&rft.atitle=Avustralya%27daki+T%C3%BCrklerden+yang%C4%B1n+ma%C4%9Fdurlar%C4%B1na+yard%C4%B1m&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.trthaber.com%2Fhaber%2Fdunya%2Favustralyadaki-turklerden-yangin-magdurlarina-yardim-447208.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-381"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-381">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.unian.info/society/10820981-ukraine-offers-australia-help-to-combat-wildfires-ready-to-send-200-seasoned-firefighters.html">"Ukraine offers Australia help to combat wildfires, ready to send 200 seasoned firefighters"</a>. <i>UNIAN</i>. UNIAN Ukrainian News Agency.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=UNIAN&rft.atitle=Ukraine+offers+Australia+help+to+combat+wildfires%2C+ready+to+send+200+seasoned+firefighters&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.unian.info%2Fsociety%2F10820981-ukraine-offers-australia-help-to-combat-wildfires-ready-to-send-200-seasoned-firefighters.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-382"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-382">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Bonyhady, Nick (6 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/call-for-help-international-response-to-australian-fires-20200106-p53p5r.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>Call for help': International response to Australian fires"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=%27Call+for+help%27%3A+International+response+to+Australian+fires&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft.au=Bonyhady%2C+Nick&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fpolitics%2Ffederal%2Fcall-for-help-international-response-to-australian-fires-20200106-p53p5r.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-auto1-383"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto1_383-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Readfern, Graham (5 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/05/explainer-how-effective-is-bushfire-hazard-reduction-on-australias-fires">"Explainer: how effective is bushfire hazard reduction on Australia's fires?"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Guardian_Australia" title="Guardian Australia">Guardian Australia</a></i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Explainer%3A+how+effective+is+bushfire+hazard+reduction+on+Australia%27s+fires%3F&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft.aulast=Readfern&rft.aufirst=Graham&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F05%2Fexplainer-how-effective-is-bushfire-hazard-reduction-on-australias-fires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Gergis-384"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Gergis_384-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Gergis_384-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Gergis_384-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Gergis_384-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Gergis, Joëlle (2 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jan/03/we-are-seeing-the-very-worst-of-our-scientific-predictions-come-to-pass-in-these-bushfires">"We are seeing the very worst of our scientific predictions come to pass in these bushfires"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Guardian_Australia" title="Guardian Australia">Guardian Australia</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">12 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=We+are+seeing+the+very+worst+of+our+scientific+predictions+come+to+pass+in+these+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-02&rft.aulast=Gergis&rft.aufirst=Jo%C3%ABlle&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fcommentisfree%2F2020%2Fjan%2F03%2Fwe-are-seeing-the-very-worst-of-our-scientific-predictions-come-to-pass-in-these-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC_News-385"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_News_385-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_News_385-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_News_385-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_News_385-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_News_385-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Nguyen, Kevin; <a href="/wiki/Tim_Brunero" title="Tim Brunero">Brunero, Tim</a>; Thomas, Sarah; Keane, Daniel; Mills, Nicole (11 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-11/australias-fires-reveal-arson-not-a-major-cause/11855022">"The truth about Australia's fires — arsonists aren't responsible for many this season"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=The+truth+about+Australia%27s+fires+%E2%80%94+arsonists+aren%27t+responsible+for+many+this+season&rft.date=2020-01-11&rft.au=Nguyen%2C+Kevin&rft.au=Brunero%2C+Tim&rft.au=Thomas%2C+Sarah&rft.au=Keane%2C+Daniel&rft.au=Mills%2C+Nicole&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-11%2Faustralias-fires-reveal-arson-not-a-major-cause%2F11855022&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-410"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-410">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Janda, Michael (6 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-06/climate-change-deniers-hinder-fire-response-says-business-group/11843530">"Bushfire preparations stymied by climate change deniers in Government, says small business lobby"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfire+preparations+stymied+by+climate+change+deniers+in+Government%2C+says+small+business+lobby&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft.au=Janda%2C+Michael&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-06%2Fclimate-change-deniers-hinder-fire-response-says-business-group%2F11843530&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-411"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-411">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/melbourne-climate-change-protest-not-appropriate-daniel-andrews/news-story/f0fa76b1db53359cf314f1342bf3f6bf">"Melbourne climate change protest not appropriate: Daniel Andrews"</a>. <i>The Australian</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Australian&rft.atitle=Melbourne+climate+change+protest+not+appropriate%3A+Daniel+Andrews&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fnation%2Fmelbourne-climate-change-protest-not-appropriate-daniel-andrews%2Fnews-story%2Ff0fa76b1db53359cf314f1342bf3f6bf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:13-412"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:13_412-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:13_412-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:13_412-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Gibbons, Phil. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.canberratimes.com.au/story/6514176/what-is-the-evidence-behind-hazard-reduction-burning/">"What is the evidence behind hazard-reduction burning?"</a>. <i>Canberra Times</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Canberra+Times&rft.atitle=What+is+the+evidence+behind+hazard-reduction+burning%3F&rft.aulast=Gibbons&rft.aufirst=Phil&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.canberratimes.com.au%2Fstory%2F6514176%2Fwhat-is-the-evidence-behind-hazard-reduction-burning%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Bega_District_News-417"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Bega_District_News_417-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Bega_District_News_417-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Cartwright, Zoe. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.begadistrictnews.com.au/story/6565446/what-does-the-fire-spread-map-for-january-4-mean-we-break-it-down/?cs=50">"What does the fire spread map for January 4 mean? We break it down"</a>. <i>Bega District News</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Bega+District+News&rft.atitle=What+does+the+fire+spread+map+for+January+4+mean%3F+We+break+it+down&rft.aulast=Cartwright&rft.aufirst=Zoe&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.begadistrictnews.com.au%2Fstory%2F6565446%2Fwhat-does-the-fire-spread-map-for-january-4-mean-we-break-it-down%2F%3Fcs%3D50&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-data.nsw.gov.au-418"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-data.nsw.gov.au_418-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-data.nsw.gov.au_418-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://data.nsw.gov.au/data/dataset/fire-history-wildfires-and-prescribed-burns-1e8b6">"NPWS Fire History - Wildfires and Prescribed Burns"</a>. <i>Data NSW</i>. NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Data+NSW&rft.atitle=NPWS+Fire+History+-+Wildfires+and+Prescribed+Burns&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fdata.nsw.gov.au%2Fdata%2Fdataset%2Ffire-history-wildfires-and-prescribed-burns-1e8b6&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-419"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-419">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/news/largest-hazard-reduction-burn-a-success-in-morton-national-park">"Largest hazard reduction burn a success in Morton National Park"</a>. NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Largest+hazard+reduction+burn+a+success+in+Morton+National+Park&rft.pub=NSW+Department+of+Planning%2C+Industry+and+Environment&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.environment.nsw.gov.au%2Fnews%2Flargest-hazard-reduction-burn-a-success-in-morton-national-park&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-420"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-420">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Smyth, Ben. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.begadistrictnews.com.au/story/5647682/updates-bemboka-bushfire-out-of-control-three-buildings-lost/">"UPDATES: Bemboka bushfire out of control, three buildings lost"</a>. <i>Bega District News</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Bega+District+News&rft.atitle=UPDATES%3A+Bemboka+bushfire+out+of+control%2C+three+buildings+lost&rft.aulast=Smyth&rft.aufirst=Ben&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.begadistrictnews.com.au%2Fstory%2F5647682%2Fupdates-bemboka-bushfire-out-of-control-three-buildings-lost%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-421"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-421">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><span class="cs1-lock-subscription" title="Paid subscription required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/subscribe/news/1/?sourceCode=TAWEB_WRE170_a_GGL&dest=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Finquirer%2Ffirestorms-follow-move-away-from-cool-burning%2Fnews-story%2F9e0b6bc2cee5851d56dbedaafa7ce26e&memtype=anonymous&mode=premium">"Firestorms follow move away from cool burning Graham Lloyd"</a></span>. <i>The Australian</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Australian&rft.atitle=Firestorms+follow+move+away+from+cool+burning+Graham+Lloyd&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fsubscribe%2Fnews%2F1%2F%3FsourceCode%3DTAWEB_WRE170_a_GGL%26dest%3Dhttps%253A%252F%252Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%252Finquirer%252Ffirestorms-follow-move-away-from-cool-burning%252Fnews-story%252F9e0b6bc2cee5851d56dbedaafa7ce26e%26memtype%3Danonymous%26mode%3Dpremium&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-422"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-422">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><span class="cs1-lock-subscription" title="Paid subscription required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/subscribe/news/1/?sourceCode=TAWEB_WRE170_a_GGL&dest=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fnation%2Fforestry-industry-cfmeu-united-on-logging-burns-to-take-fight-to-bushfires%2Fnews-story%2Ff890944893a1135a8896f9fcbb8cc0bc&memtype=anonymous&mode=premium">"Forestry call to take the fight to fires"</a></span>. <i>The Australian</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Australian&rft.atitle=Forestry+call+to+take+the+fight+to+fires&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fsubscribe%2Fnews%2F1%2F%3FsourceCode%3DTAWEB_WRE170_a_GGL%26dest%3Dhttps%253A%252F%252Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%252Fnation%252Fforestry-industry-cfmeu-united-on-logging-burns-to-take-fight-to-bushfires%252Fnews-story%252Ff890944893a1135a8896f9fcbb8cc0bc%26memtype%3Danonymous%26mode%3Dpremium&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-423"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-423">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/technology/online/fake-and-misleading-images-of-australias-bushfire-crisis-are-being-circulated/news-story/ce1a7def75e87e5a0146116c6eb734f6">Fake and misleading images of Australia’s bushfire crisis are being circulated</a>; news.com.au; 8 January 2020</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-424"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-424">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-51020564">Australia fires: Misleading maps and pictures go viral</a>; BBC NSW 7 January 2020</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-425"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-425">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-08/misleading-fire-maps-go-viral-during-australian-bushfire-crisis/11850948">The truth behind the 'misleading' fire maps that have gone viral during Australia's bushfire crisis</a>; abc.net.au; 8 Jan 2020</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-426"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-426">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Whigham, Nick (7 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://news.yahoo.com/australian-bushfires-fake-viral-image-102216729.html">"The truth behind this viral image of the Australian bushfires"</a>. <i>news.yahoo.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=news.yahoo.com&rft.atitle=The+truth+behind+this+viral+image+of+the+Australian+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft.aulast=Whigham&rft.aufirst=Nick&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fnews.yahoo.com%2Faustralian-bushfires-fake-viral-image-102216729.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-427"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-427">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Rannard, Georgina (7 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-51020564">"Australia fires: Misleading maps and pictures go viral"</a>. <i>bbc.co.uk/news</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">9 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=bbc.co.uk%2Fnews&rft.atitle=Australia+fires%3A+Misleading+maps+and+pictures+go+viral&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft.aulast=Rannard&rft.aufirst=Georgina&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bbc.com%2Fnews%2Fblogs-trending-51020564&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-428"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-428">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Chritopher Knaus (8 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/08/twitter-bots-trolls-australian-bushfires-social-media-disinformation-campaign-false-claims">"Bots and trolls spread false arson claims in Australian fires "disinformation campaign<span class="cs1-kern-right">"</span>"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Bots+and+trolls+spread+false+arson+claims+in+Australian+fires+%22disinformation+campaign%22&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft.au=Chritopher+Knaus&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F08%2Ftwitter-bots-trolls-australian-bushfires-social-media-disinformation-campaign-false-claims&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-429"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-429">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Torre, Giovanni (8 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/01/08/fake-news-spreads-australian-wildfires-inaccurate-report-184/">"Fake news spreads over Australian wildfires as inaccurate report of 183 arson arrests is shared worldwide"</a>. <i>The Telegraph</i>. United Kingdom<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Telegraph&rft.atitle=Fake+news+spreads+over+Australian+wildfires+as+inaccurate+report+of+183+arson+arrests+is+shared+worldwide&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft.au=Torre%2C+Giovanni&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.telegraph.co.uk%2Fnews%2F2020%2F01%2F08%2Ffake-news-spreads-australian-wildfires-inaccurate-report-184%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-430"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-430">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Rod McGuirk (31 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20200201142143/https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/australian-wildfires-fan-argument-over-impact-of-arsonists/2020/01/31/51c38564-4499-11ea-99c7-1dfd4241a2fe_story.html">"Australian wildfires fan argument over impact of arsonists"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Washington_Post" title="The Washington Post">The Washington Post</a></i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/australian-wildfires-fan-argument-over-impact-of-arsonists/2020/01/31/51c38564-4499-11ea-99c7-1dfd4241a2fe_story.html">the original</a> on 1 February 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">16 February</span> 2020</span>. <q>“legal action” had been taken against 183 people since November for “bushfire-related offenses.” These included only 24 people charged over “deliberately-lit bushfires.”</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Washington+Post&rft.atitle=Australian+wildfires+fan+argument+over+impact+of+arsonists&rft.date=2020-01-31&rft.au=Rod+McGuirk&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.washingtonpost.com%2Fworld%2Faustralian-wildfires-fan-argument-over-impact-of-arsonists%2F2020%2F01%2F31%2F51c38564-4499-11ea-99c7-1dfd4241a2fe_story.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-431"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-431">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"'legal action' had been taken against 183 people since November for 'bushfire-related offenses.'" <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://whdh.com/news/australian-wildfires-fan-argument-over-impact-of-arsonists/">https://whdh.com/news/australian-wildfires-fan-argument-over-impact-of-arsonists/</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-432"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-432">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Timothy Graham; Tobias R. Keller (10 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://theconversation.com/bushfires-bots-and-arson-claims-australia-flung-in-the-global-disinformation-spotlight-129556">"Bushfires, bots and arson claims: Australia flung in the global disinformation spotlight"</a>. <i>The Conversation</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">25 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Conversation&rft.atitle=Bushfires%2C+bots+and+arson+claims%3A+Australia+flung+in+the+global+disinformation+spotlight&rft.date=2020-01-10&rft.au=Timothy+Graham&rft.au=Tobias+R.+Keller&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftheconversation.com%2Fbushfires-bots-and-arson-claims-australia-flung-in-the-global-disinformation-spotlight-129556&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-433"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-433">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Macdonald, Connor (17 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/v74dx3/conservatives-across-the-world-are-spreading-disinformation-about-wildfires">"Australia's Bushfires Are the Worst Ever. So Is the Disinformation Campaign"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Vice_Media" title="Vice Media">Vice</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Vice&rft.atitle=Australia%27s+Bushfires+Are+the+Worst+Ever.+So+Is+the+Disinformation+Campaign&rft.date=2020-01-17&rft.aulast=Macdonald&rft.aufirst=Connor&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.vice.com%2Fen_us%2Farticle%2Fv74dx3%2Fconservatives-across-the-world-are-spreading-disinformation-about-wildfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-434"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-434">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Knaus, Christopher (8 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/08/police-contradict-claims-spread-online-exaggerating-arsons-role-in-australian-bushfires">"Police contradict claims spread online exaggerating arson's role in Australian bushfires"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0261-3077">0261-3077</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Police+contradict+claims+spread+online+exaggerating+arson%27s+role+in+Australian+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-08&rft.issn=0261-3077&rft.aulast=Knaus&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F08%2Fpolice-contradict-claims-spread-online-exaggerating-arsons-role-in-australian-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-435"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-435">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Campbell, David; <a href="/wiki/RMIT" class="mw-redirect" title="RMIT">RMIT</a> ABC Fact Check (9 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-05/fact-check-are-nsw-firefighters-facing--budget-cuts/11747396">"Jodi McKay says the NSW firefighting budget is facing a $40 million cut. Is that correct?"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200101232401/https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-05/fact-check-are-nsw-firefighters-facing--budget-cuts/11747396">Archived</a> from the original on 1 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Jodi+McKay+says+the+NSW+firefighting+budget+is+facing+a+%2440+million+cut.+Is+that+correct%3F&rft.date=2019-12-09&rft.au=Campbell%2C+David&rft.au=RMIT+ABC+Fact+Check&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-12-05%2Ffact-check-are-nsw-firefighters-facing--budget-cuts%2F11747396&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-436"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-436">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.examiner.com.au/story/6495171/nsw-fire-union-budget-claim-not-clear-cut/">"NSW fire union budget claim not clear cut"</a>. <i>The Examiner</i>. Tasmania. <a href="/wiki/Australian_Associated_Press" title="Australian Associated Press">Australian Associated Press</a>. 14 November 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Examiner&rft.atitle=NSW+fire+union+budget+claim+not+clear+cut&rft.date=2019-11-14&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.examiner.com.au%2Fstory%2F6495171%2Fnsw-fire-union-budget-claim-not-clear-cut%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-437"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-437">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=feiPdhStHvk"><span class="plainlinks">Cuts to firefighting budgets described as "rubbish" Fire Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons</span></a> on <a href="/wiki/YouTube" title="YouTube">YouTube</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-438"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-438">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Penny_Sharpe" title="Penny Sharpe">Sharpe, Hon. Penny</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.pennysharpe.com/cuts_to_national_parks_raising_bushfire_risk">"Cuts to national parks raising bushfire risk"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Hansard" title="Hansard">Hansard</a></i>. Penny Sharpe MLC<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Hansard&rft.atitle=Cuts+to+national+parks+raising+bushfire+risk&rft.aulast=Sharpe&rft.aufirst=Hon.+Penny&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pennysharpe.com%2Fcuts_to_national_parks_raising_bushfire_risk&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-439"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-439">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Davis, Jess. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-07-06/national-parks-underfunded-former-ranger-warns/11282562">"National parks funding decreases amid growing threats to the environment, former ranger warns"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=National+parks+funding+decreases+amid+growing+threats+to+the+environment%2C+former+ranger+warns&rft.aulast=Davis&rft.aufirst=Jess&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-07-06%2Fnational-parks-underfunded-former-ranger-warns%2F11282562&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-440"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-440">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Davies, Anne. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/dec/17/under-siege-our-commitment-to-australias-national-parks-is-waning">"Under siege: our commitment to Australia's national parks is waning"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Under+siege%3A+our+commitment+to+Australia%27s+national+parks+is+waning&rft.aulast=Davies&rft.aufirst=Anne&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fenvironment%2F2018%2Fdec%2F17%2Funder-siege-our-commitment-to-australias-national-parks-is-waning&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-441"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-441">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Various letters to the editor. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/national-parks-left-to-burn-after-jobs-and-funding-cuts-20191113-p53aav.html">"National Parks left to burn after jobs and funding cuts"</a>. <i>Sydney Morning Herald</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=National+Parks+left+to+burn+after+jobs+and+funding+cuts&rft.au=Various+letters+to+the+editor&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Fnational-parks-left-to-burn-after-jobs-and-funding-cuts-20191113-p53aav.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-442"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-442">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation pressrelease"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://psa.asn.au/future-npws-employee-transition/">"Future NPWS Employee Transition"</a> (Press release). <a href="/wiki/Public_Service_Association_of_New_South_Wales" class="mw-redirect" title="Public Service Association of New South Wales">Public Service Association NSW</a>. 17 August 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Future+NPWS+Employee+Transition&rft.pub=Public+Service+Association+NSW&rft.date=2017-08-17&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fpsa.asn.au%2Ffuture-npws-employee-transition%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-auto6-443"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-auto6_443-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto6_443-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto6_443-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Readfearn, Graham (12 November 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/08/twitter-bots-trolls-australian-bushfires-social-media-disinformation-campaign-false-claims">"Factcheck: Is there really a green conspiracy to stop bushfire hazard reduction?"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Factcheck%3A+Is+there+really+a+green+conspiracy+to+stop+bushfire+hazard+reduction%3F&rft.date=2019-11-12&rft.au=Readfearn%2C+Graham&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F08%2Ftwitter-bots-trolls-australian-bushfires-social-media-disinformation-campaign-false-claims&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-444"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-444">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Knaus, Christopher (12 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/12/disinformation-and-lies-are-spreading-faster-than-australias-bushfires">"Disinformation and lies are spreading faster than Australia's bushfires"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Disinformation+and+lies+are+spreading+faster+than+Australia%27s+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-12&rft.au=Knaus%2C+Christopher&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F12%2Fdisinformation-and-lies-are-spreading-faster-than-australias-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-445"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-445">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Chemnick, Jean. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/as-fires-rage-australia-pushes-to-emit-more-carbon/">"As Fires Rage, Australia Pushes to Emit More Carbon"</a>. <i>Scientific American</i>. Scientific American<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Scientific+American&rft.atitle=As+Fires+Rage%2C+Australia+Pushes+to+Emit+More+Carbon&rft.aulast=Chemnick&rft.aufirst=Jean&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scientificamerican.com%2Farticle%2Fas-fires-rage-australia-pushes-to-emit-more-carbon%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-446"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-446">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Irvine, Jessica. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/environment/climate-change/environment-now-trumps-economy-on-australian-list-of-biggest-worries-20200121-p53td7.html">"Environment now trumps economy on Australian list of biggest worries"</a>. <i>Brisbane Times</i>. Brisbane Times<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Brisbane+Times&rft.atitle=Environment+now+trumps+economy+on+Australian+list+of+biggest+worries&rft.aulast=Irvine&rft.aufirst=Jessica&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.brisbanetimes.com.au%2Fenvironment%2Fclimate-change%2Fenvironment-now-trumps-economy-on-australian-list-of-biggest-worries-20200121-p53td7.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-447"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-447">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Knaus, Christopher. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/12/disinformation-and-lies-are-spreading-faster-than-australias-bushfires">"Disinformation and lies are spreading faster than Australia's bushfires"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i>. Guardian Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Disinformation+and+lies+are+spreading+faster+than+Australia%27s+bushfires&rft.aulast=Knaus&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F12%2Fdisinformation-and-lies-are-spreading-faster-than-australias-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-450"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-450">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-27/nsw-emergency-services-david-elliott-holidays-amid-bushfires/11828744">"Emergency Services Minister heads off on European holiday as bushfire crisis continues"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia. 27 December 2019. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191230155911/https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-27/nsw-emergency-services-david-elliott-holidays-amid-bushfires/11828744">Archived</a> from the original on 30 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Emergency+Services+Minister+heads+off+on+European+holiday+as+bushfire+crisis+continues&rft.date=2019-12-27&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2019-12-27%2Fnsw-emergency-services-david-elliott-holidays-amid-bushfires%2F11828744&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-451"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-451">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Various letters to the editor (20 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/missing-in-action-prime-minister-shows-poor-leadership-20191219-p53ll2.html">"Missing in action Prime Minister shows poor leadership"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191230152211/https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/missing-in-action-prime-minister-shows-poor-leadership-20191219-p53ll2.html">Archived</a> from the original on 30 December 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 December</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=Missing+in+action+Prime+Minister+shows+poor+leadership&rft.date=2019-12-20&rft.au=Various+letters+to+the+editor&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fnsw%2Fmissing-in-action-prime-minister-shows-poor-leadership-20191219-p53ll2.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-452"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-452">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Peel, Charlie; Akerman, Tessa. <span class="cs1-lock-subscription" title="Paid subscription required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/bushfires-double-standards-call-on-qld-premier-annastacia-palaszczuks-leave/news-story/5e22112d2b8e7c85f42bac67fd7e7624">"Bushfires: 'Double standards' call on Qld Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk's leave"</a></span>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Australian" title="The Australian">The Australian</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Australian&rft.atitle=Bushfires%3A+%27Double+standards%27+call+on+Qld+Premier+Annastacia+Palaszczuk%27s+leave&rft.aulast=Peel&rft.aufirst=Charlie&rft.au=Akerman%2C+Tessa&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fnation%2Fbushfires-double-standards-call-on-qld-premier-annastacia-palaszczuks-leave%2Fnews-story%2F5e22112d2b8e7c85f42bac67fd7e7624&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-453"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-453">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Nguyen, Kevin; Dalzell, Stephanie (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-03/scott-morrison-got-bushfire-welcome-he-deserved-says-liberal-mp/11838476">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>Welcome he deserved': Liberal MP speaks out as bushfire victims, firefighters shun PM"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=%27Welcome+he+deserved%27%3A+Liberal+MP+speaks+out+as+bushfire+victims%2C+firefighters+shun+PM&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.au=Nguyen%2C+Kevin&rft.au=Dalzell%2C+Stephanie&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-03%2Fscott-morrison-got-bushfire-welcome-he-deserved-says-liberal-mp%2F11838476&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-454"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-454">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Dalzell, Stephanie (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-03/scott-morrison-responds-to-angry-criticism-bushfire-victims/11839674">"Bushfire crisis 'not about one individual', says PM after angry criticism"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Bushfire+crisis+%27not+about+one+individual%27%2C+says+PM+after+angry+criticism&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.au=Dalzell%2C+Stephanie&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-03%2Fscott-morrison-responds-to-angry-criticism-bushfire-victims%2F11839674&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-455"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-455">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://au.news.yahoo.com/australia-bushfires-firefighters-message-scott-morrison-013012584.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>Tell the PM to go and get f***ed': Rural firefighter's brutal message for ScoMo"</a>. <i>au.news.yahoo.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=au.news.yahoo.com&rft.atitle=%27Tell+the+PM+to+go+and+get+f%2A%2A%2Aed%27%3A+Rural+firefighter%27s+brutal+message+for+ScoMo&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fau.news.yahoo.com%2Faustralia-bushfires-firefighters-message-scott-morrison-013012584.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-456"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-456">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Schaffer, Amanda. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.newyorker.com/news/as-told-to/the-firefighter-whose-denunciation-of-australias-prime-minister-made-him-a-folk-hero">"The Firefighter Whose Denunciation of Australia's Prime Minister Made Him a Folk Hero"</a>. <i>The New Yorker</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+New+Yorker&rft.atitle=The+Firefighter+Whose+Denunciation+of+Australia%27s+Prime+Minister+Made+Him+a+Folk+Hero&rft.aulast=Schaffer&rft.aufirst=Amanda&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.newyorker.com%2Fnews%2Fas-told-to%2Fthe-firefighter-whose-denunciation-of-australias-prime-minister-made-him-a-folk-hero&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-457"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-457">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ladbible.com/news/news-firefighter-stops-truck-to-tell-prime-minister-to-go-and-get-fed-20200106">"Exhausted Firefighter Stops Truck To Tell 'The Prime Minister To Go And Get F***ed<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>www.ladbible.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.ladbible.com&rft.atitle=Exhausted+Firefighter+Stops+Truck+To+Tell+%27The+Prime+Minister+To+Go+And+Get+F%2A%2A%2Aed%27&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ladbible.com%2Fnews%2Fnews-firefighter-stops-truck-to-tell-prime-minister-to-go-and-get-fed-20200106&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-458"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-458">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Bourke, Latika (5 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com/politics/federal/for-god-s-sake-rudd-says-pm-unfit-for-job-after-liberal-party-bushfire-ad-20200105-p53ow7.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>For God's sake': Rudd says PM unfit for job after Liberal Party bushfire ad"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald" title="The Sydney Morning Herald">The Sydney Morning Herald</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=%27For+God%27s+sake%27%3A+Rudd+says+PM+unfit+for+job+after+Liberal+Party+bushfire+ad&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft.au=Bourke%2C+Latika&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com%2Fpolitics%2Ffederal%2Ffor-god-s-sake-rudd-says-pm-unfit-for-job-after-liberal-party-bushfire-ad-20200105-p53ow7.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-459"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-459">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Murphy, Katharine (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/04/scott-morrisons-political-ad-is-a-bizarre-act-of-self-love-as-firefighters-battle-to-save-australia">"Scott Morrison's political ad is a bizarre act of self-love as firefighters battle to save Australia"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Scott+Morrison%27s+political+ad+is+a+bizarre+act+of+self-love+as+firefighters+battle+to+save+Australia&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.aulast=Murphy&rft.aufirst=Katharine&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F04%2Fscott-morrisons-political-ad-is-a-bizarre-act-of-self-love-as-firefighters-battle-to-save-australia&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC_obscene-460"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_obscene_460-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_obscene_460-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_obscene_460-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Weedon, Alan (5 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-05/scott-morrison-criticised-for-political-ads-during-bushfires/11841458">"Scott Morrison criticised for running 'absolutely obscene' political ads during bushfires"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Scott+Morrison+criticised+for+running+%27absolutely+obscene%27+political+ads+during+bushfires&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft.aulast=Weedon&rft.aufirst=Alan&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-05%2Fscott-morrison-criticised-for-political-ads-during-bushfires%2F11841458&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-News_slammed-461"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-News_slammed_461-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-News_slammed_461-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/technology/online/social/this-is-absolutely-obscene-scott-morrison-slammed-after-tweeting-50second-ad-spruiking-new-bushfire-measures/news-story/faa88f349b1e9214c1a74c11201d2633">"Scott Morrison slammed after tweeting 50-second ad spruiking new bushfire measures"</a>. <i>News.com.au</i>. 5 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=News.com.au&rft.atitle=Scott+Morrison+slammed+after+tweeting+50-second+ad+spruiking+new+bushfire+measures&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Ftechnology%2Fonline%2Fsocial%2Fthis-is-absolutely-obscene-scott-morrison-slammed-after-tweeting-50second-ad-spruiking-new-bushfire-measures%2Fnews-story%2Ffaa88f349b1e9214c1a74c11201d2633&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-462"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-462">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Bourke, Latika (5 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/disappointing-rfs-boss-says-he-heard-of-defence-deployment-from-media-not-pm-20200105-p53owi.html">"NSW fires: RFS Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons heard of ADF deployment from media, not Scott Morrison"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald" title="The Sydney Morning Herald">The Sydney Morning Herald</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=NSW+fires%3A+RFS+Commissioner+Shane+Fitzsimmons+heard+of+ADF+deployment+from+media%2C+not+Scott+Morrison&rft.date=2020-01-05&rft.au=Bourke%2C+Latika&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fpolitics%2Ffederal%2Fdisappointing-rfs-boss-says-he-heard-of-defence-deployment-from-media-not-pm-20200105-p53owi.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-SBS_RC-463"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_RC_463-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SBS_RC_463-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/scott-morrison-moves-to-set-up-royal-commission-into-black-summer-bushfires">"Scott Morrison moves to set up royal commission into 'Black Summer' bushfires"</a>. <i>SBS News</i>. Australia. 4 February 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=SBS+News&rft.atitle=Scott+Morrison+moves+to+set+up+royal+commission+into+%27Black+Summer%27+bushfires&rft.date=2020-02-04&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sbs.com.au%2Fnews%2Fscott-morrison-moves-to-set-up-royal-commission-into-black-summer-bushfires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-464"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-464">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Martin, Sarah (12 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jan/12/scott-morrison-flags-bushfires-royal-commission-and-says-coalition-could-bolster-emissions-targets">"Scott Morrison flags bushfires royal commission and says Coalition could bolster emissions reduction"</a>. <i>Guardian Australia</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Guardian+Australia&rft.atitle=Scott+Morrison+flags+bushfires+royal+commission+and+says+Coalition+could+bolster+emissions+reduction&rft.date=2020-01-12&rft.au=Martin%2C+Sarah&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Faustralia-news%2F2020%2Fjan%2F12%2Fscott-morrison-flags-bushfires-royal-commission-and-says-coalition-could-bolster-emissions-targets&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-472"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-472">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">McMillan, Ashleigh (12 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/victoria-s-bushfire-review-already-underway-premier-andrews-20200112-p53qrh.html">"Inquiry into Victoria's bushfire season has already begun"</a>. <i>The Age</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Age&rft.atitle=Inquiry+into+Victoria%27s+bushfire+season+has+already+begun&rft.date=2020-01-12&rft.au=McMillan%2C+Ashleigh&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theage.com.au%2Fnational%2Fvictoria%2Fvictoria-s-bushfire-review-already-underway-premier-andrews-20200112-p53qrh.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-474"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-474">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Day, Lauren; Nicholls, Sean; Gartry, Laura; Piper, Georgina; Byrd, Joshua (3 February 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-03/inside-the-australian-bushfires-crisis/11890458">"Black Summer"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Black+Summer&rft.date=2020-02-03&rft.au=Day%2C+Lauren&rft.au=Nicholls%2C+Sean&rft.au=Gartry%2C+Laura&rft.au=Piper%2C+Georgina&rft.au=Byrd%2C+Joshua&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-02-03%2Finside-the-australian-bushfires-crisis%2F11890458&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-476"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-476">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Cuthburtson, Debbie; Irvine, Jessica (19 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/bushfire-donations-near-500-million-as-watchdogs-put-charities-on-notice-20200117-p53sg5.html">"Bushfire donations near $500 million as watchdogs put charities on notice"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Heradl</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Heradl&rft.atitle=Bushfire+donations+near+%24500+million+as+watchdogs+put+charities+on+notice&rft.date=2020-01-19&rft.au=Cuthburtson%2C+Debbie&rft.au=Irvine%2C+Jessica&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fbushfire-donations-near-500-million-as-watchdogs-put-charities-on-notice-20200117-p53sg5.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-479"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-479">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Jackson, Steve (6 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/james-packer-to-donate-5m-to-australias-bushfire-crisis/news-story/aaae6a0d73b2dd866a89d0c7c2599250">"James Packer to donate $5m to Australia's bushfire crisis"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Australian" title="The Australian">The Australian</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Australian&rft.atitle=James+Packer+to+donate+%245m+to+Australia%27s+bushfire+crisis&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft.au=Jackson%2C+Steve&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theaustralian.com.au%2Fnation%2Fjames-packer-to-donate-5m-to-australias-bushfire-crisis%2Fnews-story%2Faaae6a0d73b2dd866a89d0c7c2599250&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-SMH_donations_2020-01-19-480"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SMH_donations_2020-01-19_480-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Cuthbertson, Debbie; Irvine, Jessica (19 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/bushfire-donations-near-500-million-as-watchdogs-put-charities-on-notice-20200117-p53sg5.html">"Bushfire donations near $500 million as watchdogs put charities on notice"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=Bushfire+donations+near+%24500+million+as+watchdogs+put+charities+on+notice&rft.date=2020-01-19&rft.au=Cuthbertson%2C+Debbie&rft.au=Irvine%2C+Jessica&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fbushfire-donations-near-500-million-as-watchdogs-put-charities-on-notice-20200117-p53sg5.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ABC_donations-481"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ABC_donations_481-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Cockburn, Paige (13 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-13/bushfire-relief-concert-lineup-announced/11862106">"Queen, Alice Cooper, Olivia Newton-John lead Fire Fight bushfire relief concert line-up"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=Queen%2C+Alice+Cooper%2C+Olivia+Newton-John+lead+Fire+Fight+bushfire+relief+concert+line-up&rft.date=2020-01-13&rft.au=Cockburn%2C+Paige&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-13%2Fbushfire-relief-concert-lineup-announced%2F11862106&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-482"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-482">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/news/bushfires/seven-group-holdings-ace-announce-10-million-bushfire-relief-donation-c-650133">"Seven Group Holdings, ACE announce $10 million bushfire relief donation"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Seven_Network" title="Seven Network">Seven Network</a></i>. 16 January 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">16 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Seven+Network&rft.atitle=Seven+Group+Holdings%2C+ACE+announce+%2410+million+bushfire+relief+donation&rft.date=2020-01-16&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfires%2Fseven-group-holdings-ace-announce-10-million-bushfire-relief-donation-c-650133&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Self-published_sources" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"><span title="The material near this tag may rely on a self-published source. (January 2020)">self-published source?</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-483"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-483">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Cunningham, Melissa (27 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/billionaire-philanthropists-donate-1m-to-bushfire-emergency-response-20191227-p53n4b.html">"Billionaire philanthropists, Apple donate to bushfire emergency response"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald" title="The Sydney Morning Herald">The Sydney Morning Herald</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=Billionaire+philanthropists%2C+Apple+donate+to+bushfire+emergency+response&rft.date=2019-12-27&rft.au=Cunningham%2C+Melissa&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fnational%2Fbillionaire-philanthropists-donate-1m-to-bushfire-emergency-response-20191227-p53n4b.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-485"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-485">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Bond, Nick. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/celebrity-life/chris-hemsworth-announces-giant-bushfire-donation/news-story/9986d950d17386b47d321f110ef8d6fa">"Chris Hemsworth announces giant bushfire donation"</a>. <i>news.com.au</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=news.com.au&rft.atitle=Chris+Hemsworth+announces+giant+bushfire+donation&rft.aulast=Bond&rft.aufirst=Nick&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.news.com.au%2Fentertainment%2Fcelebrity-life%2Fchris-hemsworth-announces-giant-bushfire-donation%2Fnews-story%2F9986d950d17386b47d321f110ef8d6fa&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-486"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-486">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/P!nk" class="mw-redirect" title="P!nk">P!nk</a> (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://twitter.com/Pink/status/1213350834672586752">"I am totally devastated watching what is happening in Australia right now with the horrific bushfires"</a>. <i>twitter.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=twitter.com&rft.atitle=I+am+totally+devastated+watching+what+is+happening+in+Australia+right+now+with+the+horrific+bushfires.&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.au=P%21nk&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2FPink%2Fstatus%2F1213350834672586752&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-487"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-487">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Olle, Emily (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/news/bushfires/pnk-pledges-500000-toward-australian-bushfire-crisis-relief-c-632682">"P!nk pledges $500,000 toward Australian bushfire crisis relief"</a>. <i>7news.com.au</i>. Seven News.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=7news.com.au&rft.atitle=P%21nk+pledges+%24500%2C000+toward+Australian+bushfire+crisis+relief&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.aulast=Olle&rft.aufirst=Emily&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfires%2Fpnk-pledges-500000-toward-australian-bushfire-crisis-relief-c-632682&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-488"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-488">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Chavez, Nicole. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/04/entertainment/nicole-kidman-keith-urban-australia-fires-trnd/index.html">"Nicole Kidman and Keith Urban are donating $500,000 to help fight bushfires in Australia"</a>. <i>CNN</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=CNN&rft.atitle=Nicole+Kidman+and+Keith+Urban+are+donating+%24500%2C000+to+help+fight+bushfires+in+Australia&rft.au=Chavez%2C+Nicole&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnn.com%2F2020%2F01%2F04%2Fentertainment%2Fnicole-kidman-keith-urban-australia-fires-trnd%2Findex.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-489"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-489">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Quaggin, Lucy (6 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/news/bushfires/australia-bushfires-kylie-minogue-donates-500000-to-firefighting-efforts--c-635181">"Australia bushfires: Kylie Minogue donates $500,000 to firefighting efforts"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Seven_News" title="Seven News">7 News</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=7+News&rft.atitle=Australia+bushfires%3A+Kylie+Minogue+donates+%24500%2C000+to+firefighting+efforts&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft.au=Quaggin%2C+Lucy&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfires%2Faustralia-bushfires-kylie-minogue-donates-500000-to-firefighting-efforts--c-635181&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-490"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-490">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Estera, Christine; Maloon, Natacha (7 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://celebrity.nine.com.au/latest/australian-bushfires-celebrities-donate-social-media/f96143f4-5096-42b4-881e-48985a269903">"Australian bushfires: Stars donate to fires devastating the country"</a>. <i>celebrity.nine.com.au</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=celebrity.nine.com.au&rft.atitle=Australian+bushfires%3A+Stars+donate+to+fires+devastating+the+country&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft.au=Estera%2C+Christine&rft.au=Maloon%2C+Natacha&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fcelebrity.nine.com.au%2Flatest%2Faustralian-bushfires-celebrities-donate-social-media%2Ff96143f4-5096-42b4-881e-48985a269903&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-491"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-491">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/news/nsw/the-wiggles-original-members-to-reunite-for-bushfire-fundraising-gig-c-634959">"Wiggles bushfire relief reunion concerts sell out in five minutes"</a>. <i>7NEWS.com.au</i>. 6 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=7NEWS.com.au&rft.atitle=Wiggles+bushfire+relief+reunion+concerts+sell+out+in+five+minutes&rft.date=2020-01-06&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Fnews%2Fnsw%2Fthe-wiggles-original-members-to-reunite-for-bushfire-fundraising-gig-c-634959&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-492"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-492">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">McCabe, Kathy (16 February 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/bushfiresupport/fire-fight-australia-russell-crowe-to-present-tribute-olivia-newtonjohn-to-sing-with-john-farnham/live-coverage/3d07607a64c3506206db1e73ec91c4de">"Fire Fight Australia: Live updates from the concert"</a>. <i>The Daily Telegraph</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">16 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Daily+Telegraph&rft.atitle=Fire+Fight+Australia%3A+Live+updates+from+the+concert&rft.date=2020-02-16&rft.au=McCabe%2C+Kathy&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.dailytelegraph.com.au%2Fbushfiresupport%2Ffire-fight-australia-russell-crowe-to-present-tribute-olivia-newtonjohn-to-sing-with-john-farnham%2Flive-coverage%2F3d07607a64c3506206db1e73ec91c4de&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-493"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-493">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Lutton, Phil (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/sport/tennis/that-was-all-i-was-thinking-about-kyrgios-steps-up-for-fire-relief-in-winning-start-20200103-p53oot.html">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">'</span>That was all I was thinking about': Kyrgios steps up for fire relief in winning start"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=%27That+was+all+I+was+thinking+about%27%3A+Kyrgios+steps+up+for+fire+relief+in+winning+start&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.aulast=Lutton&rft.aufirst=Phil&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fsport%2Ftennis%2Fthat-was-all-i-was-thinking-about-kyrgios-steps-up-for-fire-relief-in-winning-start-20200103-p53oot.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-494"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-494">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Rayson, Zac (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.foxsports.com.au/cricket/australia/australia-bushfires-fundraisers-cricket-news/news-story/052959a3581a23ea890726e6cd8e88ba">"Support floods in as more cricket stars pledge backing for fire efforts"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Fox_Sports_Australia" class="mw-redirect" title="Fox Sports Australia">Fox Sports Australia</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">12 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Fox+Sports+Australia&rft.atitle=Support+floods+in+as+more+cricket+stars+pledge+backing+for+fire+efforts&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.au=Rayson%2C+Zac&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.foxsports.com.au%2Fcricket%2Faustralia%2Faustralia-bushfires-fundraisers-cricket-news%2Fnews-story%2F052959a3581a23ea890726e6cd8e88ba&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-498"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-498">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/formula1/51054445">"Australian fires: Lewis Hamilton pledges more than £380,000 to aid fight against disaster"</a>. <i>BBC Sport</i>. 9 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=BBC+Sport&rft.atitle=Australian+fires%3A+Lewis+Hamilton+pledges+more+than+%C2%A3380%2C000+to+aid+fight+against+disaster&rft.date=2020-01-09&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bbc.co.uk%2Fsport%2Fformula1%2F51054445&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-499"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-499">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/technology/facebook/celeste-barbers-facebook-fundraising-total-of-50-million-breaks-world-record--c-642842">"Celeste Barber breaks world record as staggering bushfire donation total revealed"</a>. <i>7NEWS.com.au</i>. 10 January 2020.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=7NEWS.com.au&rft.atitle=Celeste+Barber+breaks+world+record+as+staggering+bushfire+donation+total+revealed&rft.date=2020-01-10&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Ftechnology%2Ffacebook%2Fceleste-barbers-facebook-fundraising-total-of-50-million-breaks-world-record--c-642842&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-500"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-500">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">McMahon, Neil (31 December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.smh.com.au/culture/tv-and-radio/abc-new-year-s-eve-coverage-hosts-make-big-bang-worth-it-20200101-p53nzp.html">"ABC New Year's Eve coverage: Hosts make big bang worth it"</a>. <i>The Sydney Morning Herald</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Sydney+Morning+Herald&rft.atitle=ABC+New+Year%27s+Eve+coverage%3A+Hosts+make+big+bang+worth+it&rft.date=2019-12-31&rft.aulast=McMahon&rft.aufirst=Neil&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.smh.com.au%2Fculture%2Ftv-and-radio%2Fabc-new-year-s-eve-coverage-hosts-make-big-bang-worth-it-20200101-p53nzp.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-501"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-501">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Johnson, Paul (7 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-07/scammers-targeting-australians-for-bushfire-funds/11849998">"How Australians can protect themselves from bushfire appeal scammers"</a>. <i>ABC News</i>. Australia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ABC+News&rft.atitle=How+Australians+can+protect+themselves+from+bushfire+appeal+scammers&rft.date=2020-01-07&rft.au=Johnson%2C+Paul&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abc.net.au%2Fnews%2F2020-01-07%2Fscammers-targeting-australians-for-bushfire-funds%2F11849998&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-502"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-502">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7news.com.au/news/bushfires/australia-bushfire-donations-generous-aussies-warned-of-increase-in-scammers-c-635020">"Australia bushfire donations: Generous Aussies warned of increase in scammers"</a>. <i>7NEWS</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=7NEWS&rft.atitle=Australia+bushfire+donations%3A+Generous+Aussies+warned+of+increase+in+scammers&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7news.com.au%2Fnews%2Fbushfires%2Faustralia-bushfire-donations-generous-aussies-warned-of-increase-in-scammers-c-635020&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
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<li id="cite_note-503"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-503">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">@middle_io (4 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://twitter.com/middle_io/status/1213105866972360705">"Australian Bushfire Crisis"</a> (Tweet)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 January</span> 2020</span> – via <a href="/wiki/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Australian+Bushfire+Crisis&rft.date=2020-01-04&rft.au=%40middle_io&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fmiddle_io%2Fstatus%2F1213105866972360705&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608">    </span>
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<li id="cite_note-504"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-504">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://middle.io/fires">"Australian Bushfire Crisis"</a>. <i>Official charity links</i>. Middle Enterprises Pty Ltd. 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Official+charity+links&rft.atitle=Australian+Bushfire+Crisis&rft.date=2020&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmiddle.io%2Ffires&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"></span>
</li>
</ol></div></div>
</section><h2 class="section-heading" onclick="javascript:mfTempOpenSection(16)"><div class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element indicator mw-ui-icon-small mw-ui-icon-flush-left"></div><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season&action=edit&section=47" title="Edit section: External links" data-section="47" class="mw-ui-icon mw-ui-icon-element mw-ui-icon-minerva-edit-enabled edit-page mw-ui-icon-flush-right">Edit</a></span></h2><section class="mf-section-16 collapsible-block" id="mf-section-16">
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000"><tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:2019%E2%80%9320_Australian_bushfire_season" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:2019–20 Australian bushfire season"><span style="">2019–20 Australian bushfire season</span></a></b></i>.</td></tr></tbody></table><ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://earth.nullschool.net/#current/particulates/surface/level/overlay=pm1/orthographic=134.35,-25.61/loc=134.35,-25.61">EarthWindMap</a> – Current global map of airborne particulates less than 1 micrometre in diameter, including smoke, centred on Australia</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://myfirewatch.landgate.wa.gov.au/">MyFireWatch</a> – Government of Western Australia site mapping fires and vegetation every 2–4 hours from satellite data</li>
<li><cite class="citation web">Fanner, David; Leaver, Becca; Ball, Andy;  et al. (February 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2020/feb/11/counting-the-cost-of-australias-summer-of-dread">"Counting the cost of the bushfires: Australia's summer of dread"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Guardian" title="The Guardian">The Guardian</a></i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft.atitle=Counting+the+cost+of+the+bushfires%3A+Australia%27s+summer+of+dread&rft.date=2020-02&rft.aulast=Fanner&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Leaver%2C+Becca&rft.au=Ball%2C+Andy&rft.au=Evershed%2C+Nick&rft.au=Morton%2C+Adam&rft.au=Wahlquist%2C+Calla&rft.au=Cordell%2C+Marni&rft.au=Henriques-Gomes%2C+Luke&rft.au=Allam%2C+Lorena&rft.au=Corderoy%2C+Amy&rft.au=Cox%2C+Lisa&rft.au=Readfearn%2C+Graham&rft.au=Zhou%2C+Naaman&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fenvironment%2Fng-interactive%2F2020%2Ffeb%2F11%2Fcounting-the-cost-of-australias-summer-of-dread&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3A2019%E2%80%9320+Australian+bushfire+season" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"> A collection of articles, ahead of a new series entitled <i>The frontline: inside Australia’s climate emergency</i>.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-19/australia-bushfires-how-heat-and-drought-created-a-tinderbox/11976134">How heat and drought turned Australia into a tinderbox</a> <i>ABC News</i> (19 February 2020). Storyline covering events, with satellite imagery.</li></ul><div style="clear:both;"></div>







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