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Mindfulness - Wikipedia

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	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Mindfulness</h1>
	
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		<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Mindfulness_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Mindfulness (disambiguation)">Mindfulness (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none"> Meditation practice to bring one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment</div>
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<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;padding-bottom:0; text-align:center;">Buddhism</div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;padding-top:0;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_meditation" title="Buddhist meditation">Buddhist meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sati_(Buddhism)" title="Sati (Buddhism)">Sati</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sampaja%C3%B1%C3%B1a" title="Sampajañña">Sampajañña</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apramada" class="mw-redirect" title="Apramada">Apramada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Satipatthana" title="Satipatthana">Satipatthana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mindfulness_of_breathing" class="mw-redirect" title="Mindfulness of breathing">Mindfulness of breathing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vipassan%C4%81" title="Vipassanā">Vipassanā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vipassana_movement" title="Vipassana movement">Vipassana movement</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
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<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;padding-bottom:0; text-align:center;">Psychology</div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;padding-top:0;">
<ul><li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Mindfulness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_stress_reduction" title="Mindfulness-based stress reduction">Mindfulness-based stress reduction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy" title="Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy">Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Acceptance_and_commitment_therapy" title="Acceptance and commitment therapy">Acceptance and commitment therapy</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
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<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_psychology" title="Buddhism and psychology">Buddhism and psychology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mindful_yoga" class="mw-redirect" title="Mindful yoga">Mindful yoga</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
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<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;padding-bottom:0; text-align:center;">Similar concepts</div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;padding-top:0;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wakefulness" title="Wakefulness">Wakefulness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Attention" title="Attention">Attention</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Alertness" title="Alertness">Alertness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prudence" title="Prudence">Prudence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Conscientiousness" title="Conscientiousness">Conscientiousness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Awareness" title="Awareness">Awareness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Consciousness" title="Consciousness">Consciousness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Observation" title="Observation">Observation</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
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<a href="/wiki/Category:Mindfulness" title="Category:Mindfulness">Category:Mindfulness</a></td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Mindfulness" title="Template:Mindfulness"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Mindfulness" title="Template talk:Mindfulness"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Mindfulness&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<table class="infobox" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;background-color: lightblue">Mindfulness</th></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Medical_Subject_Headings" title="Medical Subject Headings">MeSH</a></th><td><span class="reflink plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2016/MB_cgi?field=uid&term=D064866">D064866</a></span></td></tr><tr class="noprint"><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><div style="text-align: right;">[<a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q341045" class="extiw" title="d:Q341045">edit on Wikidata</a>]</div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p><b>Mindfulness</b> is the <a href="/wiki/Psychological" class="mw-redirect" title="Psychological">psychological</a> process of purposely bringing one's attention to <a href="/wiki/Experiences" class="mw-redirect" title="Experiences">experiences</a> occurring in the present moment without <a href="/wiki/Judgment" class="mw-redirect" title="Judgment">judgment</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer_defines2-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Baer_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer-3">[note 1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[4]</a></sup> which one develops through the practice of <a href="/wiki/Meditation" title="Meditation">meditation</a> and through other <a href="/wiki/Training" title="Training">training</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Posner2011_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Posner2011-6">[5]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Deatherage_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Deatherage-7">[6]</a></sup> Mindfulness derives from <a href="/wiki/Sati_(Buddhism)" title="Sati (Buddhism)"><i>sati</i></a>, a significant element of <a href="/wiki/Buddhism" title="Buddhism">Buddhist</a> traditions,<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-VanGordon2015_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-VanGordon2015-9">[8]</a></sup> and based on <a href="/wiki/Zen" title="Zen">Zen</a>, <i><a href="/wiki/Vipassan%C4%81" title="Vipassanā">Vipassanā</a></i>, and Tibetan meditation techniques.<sup id="cite_ref-Nisbet_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nisbet-10">[9]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Wilson_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wilson-11">[10]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[note 2]</a></sup> Though definitions and techniques of mindfulness are wide ranging.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[16]</a></sup> Individuals who have contributed to the popularity of mindfulness in the modern <a href="/wiki/Western_culture" title="Western culture">Western</a> context include <a href="/wiki/Th%C3%ADch_Nh%E1%BA%A5t_H%E1%BA%A1nh" title="Thích Nhất Hạnh">Thích Nhất Hạnh</a> (1926– ), <a href="/wiki/Herbert_Benson" title="Herbert Benson">Herbert Benson</a> (1935– ), <a href="/wiki/Jon_Kabat-Zinn" title="Jon Kabat-Zinn">Jon Kabat-Zinn</a> (1944– ), and <a href="/wiki/Richard_J._Davidson" class="mw-redirect" title="Richard J. Davidson">Richard J. Davidson</a> (1951– ).<sup id="cite_ref-Buchholz2015_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buchholz2015-19">[17]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Davidson2005_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Davidson2005-20">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Harrington2015_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Harrington2015-21">[19]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Clinical_psychology" title="Clinical psychology">Clinical psychology</a> and <a href="/wiki/Psychiatry" title="Psychiatry">psychiatry</a> since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people experiencing a variety of psychological conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-Harrington2015_21-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Harrington2015-21">[19]</a></sup> Mindfulness practice has been employed to reduce symptoms of <a href="/wiki/Depression_(mood)" title="Depression (mood)">depression</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Strauss_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Strauss-22">[20]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Khoury2015_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Khoury2015-23">[21]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Jain_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Jain-24">[22]</a></sup> to reduce <a href="/wiki/Psychological_stress" title="Psychological stress">stress</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Khoury2015_23-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Khoury2015-23">[21]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Sharma_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sharma-25">[23]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Hofmann_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hofmann-26">[24]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Anxiety" title="Anxiety">anxiety</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Strauss_22-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Strauss-22">[20]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Khoury2015_23-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Khoury2015-23">[21]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Hofmann_26-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hofmann-26">[24]</a></sup> and in the treatment of <a href="/wiki/Drug_addiction" class="mw-redirect" title="Drug addiction">drug addiction</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Chiesa_27-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Chiesa-27">[25]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Garland_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Garland-28">[26]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Black_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Black-29">[27]</a></sup> Programs based on mindfulness models have been adopted within schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans' centers, and other environments, and mindfulness programs have been applied for additional outcomes such as for <a href="/wiki/Healthy_aging" class="mw-redirect" title="Healthy aging">healthy aging</a>, <a href="/wiki/Weight_management" title="Weight management">weight management</a>, athletic performance, helping children with <a href="/wiki/Special_needs" title="Special needs">special needs</a>, and as an intervention during the <a href="/wiki/Perinatal" class="mw-redirect" title="Perinatal">perinatal</a> period.
</p><p>Clinical studies have documented both physical- and mental-health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children.<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Paulus2016_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Paulus2016-30">[28]</a></sup> Research studies have consistently shown a positive relationship between trait mindfulness (see below) and psychological health.<sup id="cite_ref-Tomlinson2017_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tomlinson2017-31">[29]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-KengSmoskiRobins2011_32-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-KengSmoskiRobins2011-32">[30]</a></sup> The practice of mindfulness appears to provide therapeutic benefits to people with psychiatric disorders,<sup id="cite_ref-Goldberg2017_33-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Goldberg2017-33">[31]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Boyd2018_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Boyd2018-34">[32]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Rodrigues2017_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rodrigues2017-35">[33]</a></sup> including moderate benefits to those with <a href="/wiki/Psychosis" title="Psychosis">psychosis</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Bradshaw_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bradshaw-36">[34]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Cramer2016_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Cramer2016-37">[35]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Louise2018_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Louise2018-38">[36]</a></sup> Studies also indicate that <a href="/wiki/Rumination_(psychology)" title="Rumination (psychology)">rumination</a> and <a href="/wiki/Worry" title="Worry">worry</a> contribute to the onset of a variety of mental disorders,<sup id="cite_ref-Kaplan2018_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kaplan2018-39">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Watkins2015_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Watkins2015-40">[38]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Querstret_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Querstret-41">[39]</a></sup> and that mindfulness-based interventions significantly reduce both rumination and worry.<sup id="cite_ref-Querstret_41-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Querstret-41">[39]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gu2015_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gu2015-42">[40]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Perestelo-Perez2017_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Perestelo-Perez2017-43">[41]</a></sup> Further, the practice of mindfulness may be a preventive strategy to halt the development of mental-health problems.<sup id="cite_ref-Tang_2015_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tang_2015-44">[42]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Cheng2016_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Cheng2016-45">[43]</a></sup>
</p><p>However, critics have questioned both the <a href="/wiki/Commercialization" title="Commercialization">commercialization</a> and the over-<a href="/wiki/Marketing" title="Marketing">marketing</a> of mindfulness for health benefits - as well as emphasizing the need for more randomized controlled studies, for more methodological details in reported studies and for the use of larger <a href="/wiki/Sample_size_determination" title="Sample size determination">sample-sizes</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"><span title="Quotation needed from source to verify. (February 2020)">need quotation to verify</span></a></i>]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-KengSmoskiRobins2011_32-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-KengSmoskiRobins2011-32">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">[44]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2017, Richard J. Davidson cautioned against expecting too much of mindfulness interventions:
</p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047036">.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}</style><blockquote class="templatequote"><p> With respect to physical illness I would say that the data there really are not very strong and certainly do not show that meditation is better than any other method for any disease. I don't think there is a shred of evidence to suggest that. And with respect to psychiatric illness as we talked about earlier there is some evidence for depression, but for the most part, except for this limited case of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with depressive relapse, the evidence suggests again that mindfulness based interventions are no better than any other empirically well validated treatment. So, while someone may prefer a mindfulness based approach, it's not necessarily going to be any better. And this is a sobering reminder that these practices were not originally designed for treating psychopathology or treating physical illness.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">[45]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886046785">.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}</style><div class="toclimit-3"><div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Practice"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Practice</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Watching_the_breath,_body-scan_and_other_techniques"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Watching the breath, body-scan and other techniques</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Timings"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Timings</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#In_Buddhist_context;_moral_precepts"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">In Buddhist context; moral precepts</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Translations"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Translations</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Sati_and_smṛti"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Sati and smṛti</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Translation"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Translation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Alternative_translations"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Alternative translations</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Definitions"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Definitions</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Psychology"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Psychology</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-11"><a href="#Trait,_state_and_practice"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Trait, state and practice</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-12"><a href="#Trait-like_constructs"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Trait-like constructs</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-13"><a href="#State-like_phenomenon"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">State-like phenomenon</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Mindfulness-practice"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Mindfulness-practice</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-15"><a href="#Two-component_model"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Two-component model</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-16"><a href="#The_five-aggregate_model"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.4</span> <span class="toctext">The five-aggregate model</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-17"><a href="#Cultivating_self-knowledge_and_wisdom"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdom</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Definitions_arising_in_modern_teaching_of_meditation"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Definitions arising in modern teaching of meditation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Other_usages"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Other usages</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#Historical_development"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Historical development</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Buddhism"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Buddhism</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-22"><a href="#Early_Buddhism"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Early Buddhism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-23"><a href="#Zazen"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Zazen</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-24"><a href="#Contemporary_vipassana-meditation"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Contemporary <i>vipassana</i>-meditation</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-25"><a href="#Anapanasati,_satipaṭṭhāna,_and_vipassana"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-4 tocsection-26"><a href="#Samprajaña,_apramāda_and_atappa"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.3.2</span> <span class="toctext"><i>Samprajaña</i>, <i>apramāda</i> and <i>atappa</i></span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-27"><a href="#Monitoring_mental_processes"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Monitoring mental processes</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Transcendentalism"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Transcendentalism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a href="#Jon_Kabat-Zinn_and_MBSR"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a href="#Popularization,_"mindfulness_movement""><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Popularization, "mindfulness movement"</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a href="#Applications"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Applications</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-32"><a href="#Therapy_programs"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Therapy programs</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-33"><a href="#Mindfulness-based_stress_reduction"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Mindfulness-based stress reduction</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-34"><a href="#Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-35"><a href="#Acceptance_and_commitment_therapy"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Acceptance and commitment therapy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-36"><a href="#Dialectical_behavior_therapy"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Dialectical behavior therapy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-37"><a href="#Mode_deactivation_therapy"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Mode deactivation therapy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-38"><a href="#Other_programs"><span class="tocnumber">5.1.6</span> <span class="toctext">Other programs</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-39"><a href="#Schools"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Schools</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-40"><a href="#Education"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Education</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-41"><a href="#Business"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Business</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-42"><a href="#Law"><span class="tocnumber">5.5</span> <span class="toctext">Law</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-43"><a href="#Prison-programs"><span class="tocnumber">5.6</span> <span class="toctext">Prison-programs</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-44"><a href="#Government"><span class="tocnumber">5.7</span> <span class="toctext">Government</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-45"><a href="#Scientific_research"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Scientific research</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-46"><a href="#Effects_and_efficacy_of_mindfulness_practice"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Effects and efficacy of mindfulness practice</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-47"><a href="#Brain_studies"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Brain studies</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-48"><a href="#Associations_of_mindfulness_with_other_variables"><span class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">Associations of mindfulness with other variables</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-49"><a href="#Effects_on_mindfulness"><span class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">Effects on mindfulness</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-50"><a href="#Concerns_and_criticism"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Concerns and criticism</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-51"><a href="#Scholarly_research"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Scholarly research</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-52"><a href="#Shortcomings"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Shortcomings</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-53"><a href="#Risks"><span class="tocnumber">7.3</span> <span class="toctext">Risks</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-54"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-55"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-56"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-57"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-58"><a href="#Printed_sources"><span class="tocnumber">11.1</span> <span class="toctext">Printed sources</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-59"><a href="#Web-sources"><span class="tocnumber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Web-sources</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-60"><a href="#Further_reading_2"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Practice">Practice</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Practice">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Mindfulness practice involves the process of developing the skill of bringing one's attention to whatever is happening in the present moment.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Mindfulness_in_plain_English_48-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mindfulness_in_plain_English-48">[46]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Watching_the_breath.2C_body-scan_and_other_techniques"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Watching_the_breath,_body-scan_and_other_techniques">Watching the breath, body-scan and other techniques</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Watching the breath, body-scan and other techniques">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>There are several exercises designed to develop mindfulness meditation, which are aided by <a href="/wiki/Guided_meditation" title="Guided meditation">guided meditations</a> "to get the hang of it".<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">[47]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Nisbet_10-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nisbet-10">[9]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">[note 3]</a></sup> 
</p>
<ul><li>One method is to sit in a straight-backed chair or sit cross-legged on the floor or a cushion, close one's eyes and bring attention to either the sensations of breathing in the proximity of one's nostrils or to the movements of the abdomen when breathing in and out.<sup id="cite_ref-AskDrK_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AskDrK-51">[web 1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson2014_52-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson2014-52">[48]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer_defines2-1">[1]</a></sup> In this meditation practice, one does not try to control one's breathing, but attempts to simply be aware of one's natural breathing process/rhythm.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup> When engaged in this practice, the mind will often run off to other thoughts and associations, and if this happens, one passively notices that the mind has wandered, and in an accepting, non-judgmental way, returns to focusing on breathing.</li>
<li>In body-scan meditation the attention is directed at various areas of the body and noting body sensations that happen in the present moment.<sup id="cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer_defines2-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53">[49]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">[50]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">[51]</a></sup></li>
<li>One could also focus on sounds, sensations, thoughts, feelings and actions that happen in the present.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Mindfulness_in_plain_English_48-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mindfulness_in_plain_English-48">[46]</a></sup> In this regard, a famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his <a href="#Jon_Kabat-Zinn_and_MBSR">MBSR</a> program,<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">[52]</a></sup> is the mindful tasting of a raisin,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEIhnenFlynn2008148_57-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEIhnenFlynn2008148-57">[53]</a></sup> in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETeasdaleSegal200755–56_58-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETeasdaleSegal200755–56-58">[54]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">[note 4]</a></sup> By enabling reconnection with internal hunger and satiety cues, mindful eating has been suggested to be a means of maintaining healthy and conscious eating patterns.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">[55]</a></sup></li>
<li>Other approaches include practising <a href="/wiki/Mindful_Yoga" title="Mindful Yoga">yoga asanas while attending to movements and body sensations</a>, and walking meditation.<sup id="cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer_defines2-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup></li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Timings">Timings</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Timings">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Meditators are recommended to start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Time2014_61-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Time2014-61">[56]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="In_Buddhist_context.3B_moral_precepts"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="In_Buddhist_context;_moral_precepts">In Buddhist context; moral precepts</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: In Buddhist context; moral precepts">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In a Buddhist context the keeping of <a href="/wiki/Buddhist_ethics" title="Buddhist ethics">moral precepts</a> is an essential preparatory stage for mindfulness or meditation.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson201454–55_62-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson201454–55-62">[57]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">[58]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Vipassana" class="mw-redirect" title="Vipassana">Vipassana</a> also includes contemplation and reflection on phenomena as <a href="/wiki/Dukkha" class="mw-redirect" title="Dukkha">dukkha</a>, <a href="/wiki/Anatta" title="Anatta">anatta</a> and <a href="/wiki/Anicca" class="mw-redirect" title="Anicca">anicca</a>, and reflections on <a href="/wiki/Pa%E1%B9%ADiccasamupp%C4%81da" class="mw-redirect" title="Paṭiccasamuppāda">causation</a> and other Buddhist teachings.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64">[59]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Art_65-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Art-65">[60]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Translations">Translations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: Translations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Mindfulness meditation is part of Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Aggregates_66-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Aggregates-66">[61]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Brown_et_al_2007_67-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Brown_et_al_2007-67">[62]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Sati_and_sm.E1.B9.9Bti"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Sati_and_smṛti">Sati and smṛti</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=6" title="Edit section: Sati and smṛti">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Sati_(Buddhism)" title="Sati (Buddhism)">Sati (Buddhism)</a></div>
<p>The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term <i><a href="/wiki/Sati_(Buddhism)" title="Sati (Buddhism)">sati</a></i> and in its Sanskrit counterpart <a href="/wiki/Smriti" title="Smriti"><i>smṛti</i></a>. It is often translated as "bare attention", but in the Buddhist tradition it has a broader meaning and application, and the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014942_68-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014942-68">[63]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to Bryan Levman, "the word <i>sati</i> incorporates the meaning of 'memory' and 'remembrance' in much of its usage in both the <i>suttas</i> and the [traditional Buddhist] commentary, and ... without the memory component, the notion of mindfulness cannot be properly understood or applied, as mindfulness requires memory for its effectiveness".<sup id="cite_ref-levman17_69-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-levman17-69">[64]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to Robert Sharf, <i>smṛti</i> originally meant "to remember", "to recollect", "to bear in mind", as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term <i>sati</i> also means "to remember". In the <i>Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta</i> the term <i>sati</i> means to remember the <a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">dharmas</a>, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014942_68-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014942-68">[63]</a></sup> Sharf refers to the <a href="/wiki/Milindapa%C3%B1ha" class="mw-redirect" title="Milindapañha">Milindapañha</a>, which explained that the arising of <i>sati</i> calls to mind the wholesome <a href="/wiki/Dhamma" class="mw-redirect" title="Dhamma">dhammas</a> such as the four foundations of mindfulness, the five faculties, the <a href="/wiki/Bodhipakkhiy%C4%81dhamm%C4%81#Five_powers" title="Bodhipakkhiyādhammā">five powers</a>, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eightfold path, and the attainment of insight.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014942–43_70-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014942–43-70">[65]</a></sup> According to Rupert Gethin, 
</p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>[<i>sati</i>] should be understood as what allows awareness of the full range and extent of <i>dhammas</i>; <i>sati</i> is an awareness of things in relation to things, and hence an awareness of their relative value. Applied to the <i>satipaṭṭhānas</i>, presumably what this means is that <i>sati</i> is what causes the practitioner of yoga to "remember" that any feeling he may experience exists in relation to a whole variety or world of feelings that may be skillful or unskillful, with faults or faultless, relatively inferior or refined, dark or pure."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014943_71-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014943-71">[66]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">[note 5]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<p>Sharf further notes that this has little to do with "bare attention", the popular contemporary interpretation of <i>sati</i>, "since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014943_71-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014943-71">[66]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Georges_Dreyfus" title="Georges Dreyfus">Georges Dreyfus</a> has also expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as "bare attention" or "nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness", stressing that mindfulness in a Buddhist context also means "remembering", which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.<sup id="cite_ref-Dreyfus_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dreyfus-73">[67]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">[note 6]</a></sup> Robert H. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention".<sup id="cite_ref-Sharf_75-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sharf-75">[web 2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">[note 7]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Jay_L._Garfield" title="Jay L. Garfield">Jay L. Garfield</a>, quoting <a href="/wiki/Shantideva" title="Shantideva">Shantideva</a> and other sources, stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, <i>calling to mind</i> and vigilantly <i>retaining in mind</i>. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality—at least in the context of Buddhism, from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">[68]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Translation">Translation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: Translation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The Pali-language scholar <a href="/wiki/Thomas_William_Rhys_Davids" title="Thomas William Rhys Davids">Thomas William Rhys Davids</a> (1843–1922) first translated <i>sati</i> in 1881 as English <i><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mindfulness" class="extiw" title="wikt:mindfulness">mindfulness</a></i> in <i>sammā-sati</i> "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind".<sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">[69]</a></sup> Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered <i>sammā-sati</i> as "correct meditation",<sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79">[70]</a></sup> Davids explained: 
</p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p><i>sati</i> is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (<i>sato sampajâno</i>); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">[71]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alternative_translations">Alternative translations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=8" title="Edit section: Alternative translations">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p><a href="/wiki/John_D._Dunne" title="John D. Dunne">John D. Dunne</a> asserts that the translation of <i>sati</i> and <i>smṛti</i> as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.<sup id="cite_ref-81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81">[72]</a></sup>
<a href="/wiki/Bhikkhu_Bodhi" title="Bhikkhu Bodhi">Bhikkhu Bodhi</a> also points to the meaning of <i>sati</i> as "memory".<sup id="cite_ref-BB_82-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BB-82">[73]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83">[note 8]</a></sup> The terms <i>sati</i>/<i>smṛti</i> have been translated as:
</p>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 22em; -webkit-column-width: 22em; column-width: 22em;">
<ul><li>Attention (<a href="/wiki/Jack_Kornfield" title="Jack Kornfield">Jack Kornfield</a>)</li>
<li>Awareness</li>
<li>Concentrated attention (<a href="/wiki/Mahasi_Sayadaw" title="Mahasi Sayadaw">Mahasi Sayadaw</a>)</li>
<li>Inspection (<a href="/wiki/Herbert_V._G%C3%BCnther" title="Herbert V. Günther">Herbert V. Günther</a>)</li>
<li>Mindful attention</li>
<li>Mindfulness</li>
<li>Recollecting mindfulness (<a href="/wiki/Alexander_Berzin_(scholar)" title="Alexander Berzin (scholar)">Alexander Berzin</a>)</li>
<li>Recollection (<a href="/wiki/Erik_Pema_Kunsang" title="Erik Pema Kunsang">Erik Pema Kunsang</a>, <a href="/wiki/Buddhadasa" title="Buddhadasa">Buddhadasa</a>)</li>
<li>Reflective awareness (<a href="/wiki/Buddhadasa" title="Buddhadasa">Buddhadasa</a>)</li>
<li>Remindfulness (<a href="/wiki/James_H._Austin" title="James H. Austin">James H. Austin</a>)<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">[74]</a></sup></li>
<li>Retention</li>
<li>Self-recollection (<a href="/wiki/Jack_Kornfield" title="Jack Kornfield">Jack Kornfield</a>)</li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Definitions">Definitions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=9" title="Edit section: Definitions">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Psychology">Psychology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=10" title="Edit section: Psychology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional over engagement on the other hand.<sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85">[75]</a></sup> Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop self-knowledge and wisdom.<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span id="Trait.2C_state_and_practice"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Trait,_state_and_practice">Trait, state and practice</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=11" title="Edit section: Trait, state and practice">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>According to Brown, Ryan, and Creswell, definitions of mindfulness are typically selectively interpreted based on who is studying it and how it is applied. Some have viewed mindfulness as a mental state, while others have viewed it as a set of skills and techniques.<sup id="cite_ref-Brown_et_al_2007_67-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Brown_et_al_2007-67">[62]</a></sup> A distinction can also be made between the <i>state</i> of mindfulness and the <i>trait</i> of mindfulness.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGehart20127–8_86-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGehart20127–8-86">[76]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to David S. Black, whereas "mindfulness" originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and "a capacity attainable only by certain people",<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20111_87-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20111-87">[77]</a></sup> scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20112-88">[78]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">[note 9]</a></sup> Black mentions three possible domains:<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20112-88">[78]</a></sup>
</p>
<ol><li>A trait, a dispositional characteristic (a relatively long lasting trait),<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20112-88">[78]</a></sup> a person's tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGehart20127_90-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGehart20127-90">[79]</a></sup></li>
<li>A state, an outcome (a state of awareness resulting from mindfulness training),<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20112-88">[78]</a></sup> being in a state of present-moment awareness;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGehart20127_90-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGehart20127-90">[79]</a></sup></li>
<li>A practice (mindfulness meditation practice itself).<sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-95">[note 10]</a></sup></li></ol>
<h5><span class="mw-headline" id="Trait-like_constructs">Trait-like constructs</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=12" title="Edit section: Trait-like constructs">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5>
<p>According to Brown, mindfulness is:
</p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>A quality of consciousness manifest in, but not isomorphic with, the activities through which it is enhanced."<sup id="cite_ref-Brown_et_al_2007_67-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Brown_et_al_2007-67">[62]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<p>Several mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick201010_96-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick201010-96">[84]</a></sup>
</p>
<ul><li>Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)</li>
<li>Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)</li>
<li>Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)</li>
<li>Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS)</li>
<li>Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ)</li>
<li>Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R)</li>
<li>Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)</li></ul>
<h5><span class="mw-headline" id="State-like_phenomenon">State-like phenomenon</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=13" title="Edit section: State-like phenomenon">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5>
<p>According to Bishop, et alia, mindfulness is, "A kind of nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted as it is."<sup id="cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-bishopetal2004-97">[85]</a></sup>
</p>
<ul><li>The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick201010_96-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick201010-96">[84]</a></sup></li>
<li>The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) is a 21-item survey with an overall state mindfulness scale, and 2 sub-scales (state mindfulness of mind, and state mindfulness of body).<sup id="cite_ref-Tanay_98-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tanay-98">[86]</a></sup></li></ul>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Mindfulness-practice">Mindfulness-practice</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=14" title="Edit section: Mindfulness-practice">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>Mindfulness as a practice is described as:
</p>
<ul><li>"Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices"<sup id="cite_ref-99" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99">[87]</a></sup></li>
<li>"Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally"<sup id="cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer_defines2-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Baer_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer-3">[note 1]</a></sup></li>
<li>"Bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis"<sup id="cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer_defines2-1">[1]</a></sup></li></ul>
<p>According to Steven F. Hick, mindfulness practice involves both formal and informal meditation practices, and nonmeditation-based exercises.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick20106-100">[88]</a></sup> Formal mindfulness, or meditation, is the practice of sustaining attention on body, breath or sensations, or whatever arises in each moment.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick20106-100">[88]</a></sup> Informal mindfulness is the application of mindful attention in everyday life.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick20106-100">[88]</a></sup> Nonmeditation-based exercises are specifically used in <a href="/wiki/Dialectical_behavior_therapy" title="Dialectical behavior therapy">dialectical behavior therapy</a> and in <a href="/wiki/Acceptance_and_commitment_therapy" title="Acceptance and commitment therapy">acceptance and commitment therapy</a>. <sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick20106-100">[88]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Two-component_model">Two-component model</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=15" title="Edit section: Two-component model">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>In a paper that described a consensus among <a href="/wiki/Clinical_psychology" title="Clinical psychology">clinical psychologists</a> on an operational and testable definition, Bishop, Lau, et al. (2004)<sup id="cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-bishopetal2004-97">[85]</a></sup> proposed a two-component model of mindfulness: 
</p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance.<sup id="cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-bishopetal2004-97">[85]</a></sup><sup class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:<span>232</span></sup></p></blockquote>
<p>In this two-component model, self-regulated attention (the first component) "involves bringing <a href="/wiki/Awareness" title="Awareness">awareness</a> to current experience - observing and attending to the changing fields of "objects" (thoughts, feelings, sensations), from moment to moment – by regulating the focus of attention". Orientation to experience (the second component) involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state (e.g. relaxation), but rather to just notice each object that arises in the <a href="/wiki/Stream_of_consciousness_(psychology)" title="Stream of consciousness (psychology)">stream of consciousness</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-bishopetal2004-97">[85]</a></sup><sup class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:<span>233</span></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="The_five-aggregate_model">The five-aggregate model</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=16" title="Edit section: The five-aggregate model">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>An ancient model of the mind, generally known as the five-aggregate model<sup id="cite_ref-Aggregates_66-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Aggregates-66">[61]</a></sup> enables one to understand the moment-to-moment manifestation of subjective conscious experience, and therefore can be a potentially useful theoretical resource to guide mindfulness interventions.
</p><p>The five aggregates are described as follows:
</p>
<ol><li><i>Material form:</i> includes both the physical body and external matter where material elements are continuously moving to and from the material body.</li>
<li><i>Feelings:</i> can be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.</li>
<li><i>Perceptions:</i> represent being aware of attributes of an object (e.g. color, shape, etc.)</li>
<li><i>Volition:</i> represents bodily, verbal, or psychological behavior.</li>
<li><i>Sensory consciousness:</i> refers to input from the five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touch sensations) or a thought that happens to arise in the mind.</li></ol>
<p>This model describes how sensory consciousness results in the generation of feelings, perception or volition, and how individuals’ previously conditioned attitudes and past associations influence this generation. The five aggregates are described as constantly arising and ceasing in the present moment.<sup id="cite_ref-Aggregates_66-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Aggregates-66">[61]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Cultivating_self-knowledge_and_wisdom">Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdom</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=17" title="Edit section: Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdom">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>The practice of mindfulness can be utilized to gradually develop self-knowledge and wisdom.<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup> In this regard, Buddhist teachings provide detailed instructions on how one can carry out an inquiry into the nature of the mind, and this guidance can help one to make sense of one's subjective experience. This could include understanding what the “present moment” is, how various thoughts, etc., arise following input from the senses, the conditioned nature of thoughts, and other realizations.<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup> In Buddhist teachings, ultimate wisdom refers to gaining deep insight into all phenomena or “seeing things as they are.”<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bhikkhu_Bodhi_101-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bhikkhu_Bodhi-101">[89]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Definitions_arising_in_modern_teaching_of_meditation">Definitions arising in modern teaching of meditation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=18" title="Edit section: Definitions arising in modern teaching of meditation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Since the 1970s, most books on meditation use definitions of mindfulness similar to <a href="/wiki/Jon_Kabat-Zinn" title="Jon Kabat-Zinn">Jon Kabat-Zinn</a>'s definition as "present moment awareness". However, recently a number of teachers of meditation have proposed quite different definitions of mindfulness. <a href="/wiki/Shinzen_Young" title="Shinzen Young">Shinzen Young</a> says a person is mindful when they have mindful awareness, and defines that to be when "concentration power, sensory clarity, and equanimity [are] working together."<sup id="cite_ref-102" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-102">[90]</a></sup> John Yates (Culadasa) defines mindfulness to be "the optimal interaction between attention and peripheral awareness", where he distinguishes attention and peripheral awareness as two distinct modes in which one may be conscious of things.<sup id="cite_ref-103" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-103">[91]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_usages">Other usages</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=19" title="Edit section: Other usages">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The English term <i>mindfulness</i> already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as <i>myndfulness</i> in 1530 (<a href="/wiki/John_Palsgrave" title="John Palsgrave">John Palsgrave</a> translates French <i><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pens%C3%A9e" class="extiw" title="wikt:pensée">pensée</a></i>), as <i>mindfulnesse</i> in 1561, and <i>mindfulness</i> in 1817. <a href="/wiki/Morphology_(linguistics)" title="Morphology (linguistics)">Morphologically</a> earlier terms include <i>mindful</i> (first recorded in 1340), <i>mindfully</i> (1382), and the obsolete <i>mindiness</i> (c. 1200).<sup id="cite_ref-104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104">[92]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to "a state of being aware".<sup id="cite_ref-MW_105-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MW-105">[web 3]</a></sup> Synonyms for this "state of being aware" are <a href="/wiki/Wakefulness#Mindfulness" title="Wakefulness">wakefulness</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201122–23_106-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201122–23-106">[93]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201365_107-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201365-107">[94]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Attention" title="Attention">attention</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-108" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-108">[web 4]</a></sup> alertness,<sup id="cite_ref-TC_109-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TC-109">[web 5]</a></sup> prudence,<sup id="cite_ref-TC_109-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TC-109">[web 5]</a></sup> conscientiousness,<sup id="cite_ref-TC_109-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TC-109">[web 5]</a></sup> awareness,<sup id="cite_ref-MW_105-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MW-105">[web 3]</a></sup> consciousness,<sup id="cite_ref-MW_105-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MW-105">[web 3]</a></sup> and observation.<sup id="cite_ref-MW_105-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MW-105">[web 3]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Historical_development">Historical development</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=20" title="Edit section: Historical development">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Buddhism">Buddhism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=21" title="Edit section: Buddhism">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness as a modern, Western practice is founded on <a href="/wiki/Zen" title="Zen">Zen</a> and <a href="/wiki/Vipassana_movement" title="Vipassana movement">modern vipassana</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Nisbet_10-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nisbet-10">[9]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Wilson_11-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wilson-11">[10]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112">[note 11]</a></sup> and involves the training of sati, which means "moment to moment awareness of present events", but also "remembering to be aware of something".<sup id="cite_ref-113" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113">[97]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_Buddhism">Early Buddhism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=22" title="Edit section: Early Buddhism">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p><i>Sati</i> is one of the <a href="/wiki/Bojjhanga" class="mw-redirect" title="Bojjhanga">seven factors of enlightenment</a>. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: <i>sammā-sati</i>, Sanskrit <i>samyak-smṛti</i>) is the seventh element of the <a href="/wiki/Noble_eightfold_path" class="mw-redirect" title="Noble eightfold path">noble eightfold path</a>. Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a 'power' (Pali: <i><a href="/wiki/Five_Strengths" title="Five Strengths">bala</a></i>) which contributes to the attainment of <i><a href="/wiki/Nirvana" title="Nirvana">nirvana</a></i>. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with <a href="/wiki/Sampaja%C3%B1%C3%B1a" title="Sampajañña">clear comprehension</a> of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and <a href="/wiki/Avidya_(Buddhism)" class="mw-redirect" title="Avidya (Buddhism)">delusion</a> (Pali: <i>moha</i>) have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.
</p><p>According to <a href="/wiki/Paul_Williams_(Buddhist_studies_scholar)" title="Paul Williams (Buddhist studies scholar)">Paul Williams</a>, referring to <a href="/wiki/Erich_Frauwallner" title="Erich Frauwallner">Erich Frauwallner</a>, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046_15-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046-15">[14]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Frauwallner_114-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Frauwallner-114">[note 12]</a></sup> According to Vetter, <i><a href="/wiki/Dhy%C4%81na_in_Buddhism" title="Dhyāna in Buddhism">dhyana</a></i> may have been the <a href="/wiki/Pre-sectarian_Buddhism#Contents_and_teachings_of_earliest_Buddhism" title="Pre-sectarian Buddhism">original core practice of the Buddha</a>, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEVetter1988_115-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEVetter1988-115">[98]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to <a href="/wiki/Thomas_William_Rhys_Davids" title="Thomas William Rhys Davids">Thomas William Rhys Davids</a>, the doctrine of mindfulness is "perhaps the most important" after the <a href="/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths" title="Four Noble Truths">Four Noble Truths</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path" title="Noble Eightfold Path">Noble Eightfold Path</a>. T.W. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.<sup id="cite_ref-116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-116">[99]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Zazen">Zazen</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=23" title="Edit section: Zazen">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Zazen" title="Zazen">Zazen</a> and <a href="/wiki/Shikantaza" title="Shikantaza">Shikantaza</a></div>
<p>The aim of <a href="/wiki/Zazen" title="Zazen">zazen</a> is just <a href="/wiki/Sitting" title="Sitting">sitting</a>, that is, suspending all judgmental thinking and letting words, ideas, images and thoughts pass by without getting involved in them.<sup id="cite_ref-hcz2_117-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-hcz2-117">[100]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-118">[101]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Contemporary_vipassana-meditation">Contemporary <i>vipassana</i>-meditation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=24" title="Edit section: Contemporary vipassana-meditation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>In modern <i>vipassana</i>-meditation, as propagated by the <a href="/wiki/Vipassana_movement" title="Vipassana movement">Vipassana movement</a>, <i>sati</i> aids <i>vipassana</i>, <a href="/wiki/Wisdom_in_Buddhism" class="mw-redirect" title="Wisdom in Buddhism">insight</a> into the true nature of reality, namely the <a href="/wiki/Three_marks_of_existence" title="Three marks of existence">three marks of existence</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Impermanence" title="Impermanence">impermanence</a> of and the <a href="/wiki/Dukkha" class="mw-redirect" title="Dukkha">unsatisfactoriness</a> of every conditioned thing that exists, and <a href="/wiki/Anatta" title="Anatta">non-self</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Analayo_2003_119-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Analayo_2003-119">[102]</a></sup> With this insight, the practitioner becomes a so-called <i><a href="/wiki/Sot%C4%81panna" title="Sotāpanna">Sotāpanna</a></i>, a "stream-enterer", the first stage on the <a href="/wiki/Buddhist_Paths_to_liberation" class="mw-redirect" title="Buddhist Paths to liberation">path to liberation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Bhikkhu_Bodhi_101-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bhikkhu_Bodhi-101">[89]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Sister_Ayya_Khema_120-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sister_Ayya_Khema-120">[103]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122">[note 13]</a></sup>
</p><p>Vipassana is practiced in tandem with <a href="/wiki/Samatha" title="Samatha">samatha</a>, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions.<sup id="cite_ref-Analayo_2003_119-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Analayo_2003-119">[102]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-123" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-123">[105]</a></sup> According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to <a href="/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Buddhism" title="Enlightenment in Buddhism">liberation</a>.
</p><p>Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110">[95]</a></sup> which employs vipassanā and <a href="/wiki/Anapana" class="mw-redirect" title="Anapana">ānāpāna</a> meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the <i lang="sa-Latn" title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit transliteration">Satipaṭṭhāna</i> Sutta.
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<h5><span id="Anapanasati.2C_satipa.E1.B9.AD.E1.B9.ADh.C4.81na.2C_and_vipassana"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Anapanasati,_satipaṭṭhāna,_and_vipassana">Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=25" title="Edit section: Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5>
<p><a href="/wiki/Anapanasati" title="Anapanasati">Anapanasati</a> is mindfulness of breathing. "Sati" means <a href="/wiki/Mindfulness_(Buddhism)" class="mw-redirect" title="Mindfulness (Buddhism)">mindfulness</a>; "ānāpāna" refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The <i>Anapanasati Sutta</i> gives an exposition on this practice.<sup id="cite_ref-124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124">[note 14]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Satipa%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADh%C4%81na" class="mw-redirect" title="Satipaṭṭhāna">Satipaṭṭhāna</a> is the establishment of mindfulness in one's day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and <a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">dharmas</a>. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: <i>paññā</i>, Sanskrit: <i>prajñā</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-Analayo_2003_119-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Analayo_2003-119">[102]</a></sup>
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<h5><span id="Sampraja.C3.B1a.2C_apram.C4.81da_and_atappa"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Samprajaña,_apramāda_and_atappa"><i>Samprajaña</i>, <i>apramāda</i> and <i>atappa</i></span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=26" title="Edit section: Samprajaña, apramāda and atappa">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h5>
<p>In contemporary Theravada practice, "mindfulness" also includes <i>samprajaña</i>, meaning "clear comprehension" and <i>apramāda</i> meaning "vigilance".<sup id="cite_ref-Subhuti_125-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Subhuti-125">[106]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126">[note 15]</a></sup> All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness", but they all have specific shades of meaning.
</p><p>In a publicly available correspondence between <a href="/wiki/Bhikkhu_Bodhi" title="Bhikkhu Bodhi">Bhikkhu Bodhi</a> and <a href="/wiki/B._Alan_Wallace" title="B. Alan Wallace">B. Alan Wallace</a>, Bodhi has described Ven. <a href="/wiki/Nyanaponika_Thera" title="Nyanaponika Thera">Nyanaponika Thera</a>'s views on "right mindfulness" and sampajañña as follows:
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<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose.<sup id="cite_ref-127" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-127">[107]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128">[note 16]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Monitoring_mental_processes">Monitoring mental processes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=27" title="Edit section: Monitoring mental processes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>According to Buddhadasa, the aim of mindfulness is to stop the arising of disturbing thoughts and emotions, which arise from sense-contact.<sup id="cite_ref-Buddhadasa_Bhikkhu_129-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buddhadasa_Bhikkhu-129">[108]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to Grzegorz Polak, the four <i>upassanā</i> (foundations of mindfulness) have been misunderstood by the developing Buddhist tradition, including Theravada, to refer to four different foundations. According to Polak, the four <i>upassanā</i> do not refer to four different foundations, but to the awareness of four different aspects of raising mindfulness:<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolak2011_130-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolak2011-130">[109]</a></sup>
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<ul><li>the <a href="/wiki/Ayatana" class="mw-redirect" title="Ayatana">six sense-bases</a> which one needs to be aware of (<i>kāyānupassanā</i>);</li>
<li>contemplation on <a href="/wiki/Vedan%C4%81" title="Vedanā">vedanās</a>, which arise with the contact between the senses and their objects (<i>vedanānupassanā</i>);</li>
<li>the altered states of mind to which this practice leads (cittānupassanā);</li>
<li>the development from the <a href="/wiki/Five_hindrances" title="Five hindrances">five hindrances</a> to the <a href="/wiki/Seven_factors_of_enlightenment" class="mw-redirect" title="Seven factors of enlightenment">seven factors of enlightenment</a> (<i>dhammānupassanā</i>).}}</li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Transcendentalism">Transcendentalism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=28" title="Edit section: Transcendentalism">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness practitioner Jon Kabat-Zinn refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with other eminent <a href="/wiki/Transcendentalism" title="Transcendentalism">Transcendentalists</a> such as Emerson and Whitman:<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d._131-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d.-131">[110]</a></sup>
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<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>The collective experience<sup id="cite_ref-132" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-132">[note 17]</a></sup> of sages, yogis, and Zen masters offers a view of the world which is complementary to the predominantly reductionist and materialistic one currently dominating Western thought and institutions. But this view is neither particularly "Eastern" nor mystical. Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in 1846 and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d._131-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d.-131">[110]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<p>The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of <a href="/wiki/Western_esotericism" title="Western esotericism">Western esotericism</a>. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268_133-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268-133">[111]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134">[web 6]</a></sup> which in India collaborated with <a href="/wiki/Ram_Mohan_Roy" title="Ram Mohan Roy">Ram Mohan Roy</a> (1772–1833) and his <a href="/wiki/Brahmo_Samaj" title="Brahmo Samaj">Brahmo Samaj</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268_133-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268-133">[111]</a></sup> He found that <a href="/wiki/Unitarianism" title="Unitarianism">Unitarianism</a> came closest to true Christianity,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268_133-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268-133">[111]</a></sup> and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKipf19793-8_135-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKipf19793-8-135">[112]</a></sup> This influence worked through on <a href="/wiki/Vivekananda" class="mw-redirect" title="Vivekananda">Vivekananda</a>, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKing2001_136-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKing2001-136">[113]</a></sup> Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson201422_137-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson201422-137">[114]</a></sup> which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110">[95]</a></sup> It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the <a href="/wiki/Theosophical_Society" title="Theosophical Society">Theosophical Society</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110">[95]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson201417_138-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson201417-138">[115]</a></sup> Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of <a href="/wiki/D.T._Suzuki" class="mw-redirect" title="D.T. Suzuki">D.T. Suzuki</a>, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110">[95]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110">[95]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Jon_Kabat-Zinn_and_MBSR">Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=29" title="Edit section: Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Mindful_Yoga" title="Mindful Yoga">Mindful Yoga</a></div>
<p>In 1979, <a href="/wiki/Jon_Kabat-Zinn" title="Jon Kabat-Zinn">Jon Kabat-Zinn</a> founded the <a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_stress_reduction" title="Mindfulness-based stress reduction">Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction</a> (MBSR) program at the <a href="/wiki/University_of_Massachusetts" title="University of Massachusetts">University of Massachusetts</a> to treat the chronically ill.<sup id="cite_ref-139" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-139">[116]</a></sup> This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine<sup id="cite_ref-140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-140">[117]</a></sup><sup class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:<span>230–1</span></sup> for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
</p><p>Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the <a href="/wiki/Eastern_World" class="mw-redirect" title="Eastern World">Eastern World</a>, particularly from Buddhist traditions. Kabat-Zinn was first introduced to meditation by <a href="/wiki/Philip_Kapleau" title="Philip Kapleau">Philip Kapleau</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Zen" title="Zen">Zen</a> missionary who came to speak at MIT where Kabat-Zinn was a student. Kabat-Zinn went on to study meditation with other Zen-Buddhist teachers such as <a href="/wiki/Th%C3%ADch_Nh%E1%BA%A5t_H%E1%BA%A1nh" title="Thích Nhất Hạnh">Thích Nhất Hạnh</a> and <a href="/wiki/Seungsahn" title="Seungsahn">Seungsahn</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Wilson_11-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wilson-11">[10]</a></sup> He also studied at the <a href="/wiki/Insight_Meditation_Society" title="Insight Meditation Society">Insight Meditation Society</a> and eventually taught there.<sup id="cite_ref-Wilson_11-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wilson-11">[10]</a></sup> One of MBSR's techniques - the "body scan" - was derived from a meditation practice ("sweeping") of the Burmese <a href="/wiki/U_Ba_Khin" class="mw-redirect" title="U Ba Khin">U Ba Khin</a> tradition, as taught by <a href="/wiki/S._N._Goenka" title="S. N. Goenka">S. N. Goenka</a> in his <a href="/wiki/Vipassana" class="mw-redirect" title="Vipassana">Vipassana</a> retreats, which he began in 1976. The body scan method has since been widely adapted to secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.<sup id="cite_ref-jama.ama-assn.org_141-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-jama.ama-assn.org-141">[note 18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-142" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-142">[note 19]</a></sup>
</p><p>Kabat-Zinn was also influenced by the book <i><a href="/wiki/The_Varieties_of_Religious_Experience" title="The Varieties of Religious Experience">The Varieties of Religious Experience</a></i> by William James, which suggested that religions pointed toward the same experience, and which <a href="/wiki/Counterculture_of_the_1960s" title="Counterculture of the 1960s">1960s counterculture</a> figures interpreted as meaning that the same universal, experiential truth could be reached in different ways, including via non-religious activities.<sup id="cite_ref-143" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-143">[118]</a></sup>
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<h3><span id="Popularization.2C_.22mindfulness_movement.22"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Popularization,_"mindfulness_movement"">Popularization, "mindfulness movement"</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=30" title="Edit section: Popularization, "mindfulness movement"">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from Buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.<sup id="cite_ref-Time2014_61-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Time2014-61">[56]</a></sup> In this context mindfulness is defined as moment-by-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, characterized mainly by "acceptance" - attention to thoughts and feelings without judging whether they are right or wrong. Mindfulness focuses the human brain on what is being sensed at each moment, instead of on its normal <a href="/wiki/Rumination_(psychology)" title="Rumination (psychology)">rumination</a> on the past or the future.<sup id="cite_ref-What_Is_Mindfulness_144-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-What_Is_Mindfulness-144">[119]</a></sup> <i>Mindfulness</i> may be seen as a mode of being,<sup id="cite_ref-Israel_145-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Israel-145">[120]</a></sup> and can be practiced outside a formal setting.<sup id="cite_ref-Bernhard_146-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bernhard-146">[121]</a></sup> The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness "popularization," and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Avoid_weasel_words" class="mw-redirect" title="Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words"><span title="The material near this tag possibly uses too vague attribution or weasel words. (September 2019)">which?</span></a></i>]</sup> criticisms arising.<sup id="cite_ref-Valerio_1–27_147-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Valerio_1–27-147">[122]</a></sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Applications">Applications</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=31" title="Edit section: Applications">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>According to Jon Kabat-Zinn the practice of mindfulness may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn2000_148-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn2000-148">[123]</a></sup> Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins.<sup id="cite_ref-149" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-149">[124]</a></sup> Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adopted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.<sup id="cite_ref-ReferenceA_150-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ReferenceA-150">[125]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Therapy_programs">Therapy programs</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=32" title="Edit section: Therapy programs">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Mindfulness-based_stress_reduction">Mindfulness-based stress reduction</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=33" title="Edit section: Mindfulness-based stress reduction">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_stress_reduction" title="Mindfulness-based stress reduction">Mindfulness-based stress reduction</a></div>
<p>Mindfulness-based stress reduction (<b>MBSR</b>) is a mindfulness-based program<sup id="cite_ref-MBSRwebsite_151-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MBSRwebsite-151">[126]</a></sup> developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and <a href="/wiki/Yoga_as_exercise" title="Yoga as exercise">yoga</a> to help people become more mindful.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup> While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is <a href="/wiki/Secularism" title="Secularism">secular</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2">[2]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy">Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=34" title="Edit section: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy" title="Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy">Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy</a></div>
<p>Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a <a href="/wiki/Psychological_therapy" class="mw-redirect" title="Psychological therapy">psychological therapy</a> designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with <a href="/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder" title="Major depressive disorder">Major depressive disorder</a> (MDD).<sup id="cite_ref-152" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-152">[127]</a></sup> It uses traditional <a href="/wiki/Cognitive_behavioral_therapy" title="Cognitive behavioral therapy">cognitive behavioral therapy</a> (CBT) methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression.<sup id="cite_ref-153" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-153">[128]</a></sup> Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.<sup id="cite_ref-sciencedirect_154-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sciencedirect-154">[129]</a></sup>
</p><p>Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode.<sup id="cite_ref-Felder_155-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Felder-155">[130]</a></sup> The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment.<sup id="cite_ref-Felder_155-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Felder-155">[130]</a></sup> This mindfulness practice allows the participant to notice when automatic processes are occurring and to alter their reaction to be more of a reflection. 
Research supports the effects of MBCT in people who have been depressed three or more times and demonstrates reduced relapse rates by 50%.<sup id="cite_ref-156" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-156">[131]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Acceptance_and_commitment_therapy">Acceptance and commitment therapy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=35" title="Edit section: Acceptance and commitment therapy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Acceptance_and_commitment_therapy" title="Acceptance and commitment therapy">Acceptance and commitment therapy</a></div>
<p>Acceptance and commitment therapy or (ACT) (typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of <a href="/wiki/Clinical_behavior_analysis" title="Clinical behavior analysis">clinical behavior analysis</a> (CBA)<sup id="cite_ref-Plumb_157-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Plumb-157">[132]</a></sup> used in psychotherapy. It is a <a href="/wiki/Psychological_intervention" title="Psychological intervention">psychological intervention</a> that uses <a href="/wiki/Acceptance" title="Acceptance">acceptance</a> and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways<sup id="cite_ref-act_158-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-act-158">[133]</a></sup> with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase <a href="/wiki/Psychological_flexibility" class="mw-redirect" title="Psychological flexibility">psychological flexibility</a>. The approach was originally called <i>comprehensive distancing</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-baojournal.com_159-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-baojournal.com-159">[134]</a></sup> It was developed in the late 1980s<sup id="cite_ref-160" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-160">[135]</a></sup> by <a href="/wiki/Steven_C._Hayes" title="Steven C. Hayes">Steven C. Hayes</a>, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.<sup id="cite_ref-161" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-161">[136]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Dialectical_behavior_therapy">Dialectical behavior therapy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=36" title="Edit section: Dialectical behavior therapy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Dialectical_behavior_therapy" title="Dialectical behavior therapy">Dialectical behavior therapy</a></div>
<p>Mindfulness is a "core" exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a psychosocial treatment <a href="/wiki/Marsha_M._Linehan" title="Marsha M. Linehan">Marsha M. Linehan</a> developed for treating people with <a href="/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder" title="Borderline personality disorder">borderline personality disorder</a>. DBT is <a href="/wiki/Dialectic" title="Dialectic">dialectic</a>, explains Linehan,<sup id="cite_ref-162" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-162">[137]</a></sup> in the sense of "the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis." As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:
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<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>This emphasis in DBT on a balance of acceptance and change owes much to my experiences in studying meditation and Eastern spirituality. The DBT tenets of observing, mindfulness, and avoidance of judgment are all derived from the study and practice of Zen meditations.<sup id="cite_ref-163" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-163">[138]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Mode_deactivation_therapy">Mode deactivation therapy</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=37" title="Edit section: Mode deactivation therapy">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Mode_deactivation_therapy" title="Mode deactivation therapy">Mode deactivation therapy</a></div>
<p>Mode deactivation therapy (MDT) is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques.<sup id="cite_ref-MDT_Book_164-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MDT_Book-164">[139]</a></sup> Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by <a href="/wiki/Jack_A._Apsche" title="Jack A. Apsche">Jack A. Apsche</a> and <a href="/wiki/Joan_Swart" title="Joan Swart">Joan Swart</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Swart3_165-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Swart3-165">[140]</a></sup>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_programs">Other programs</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=38" title="Edit section: Other programs">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove" role="presentation"><tbody><tr><td class="mbox-image"><div style="width:52px"><a href="/wiki/File:Question_book-new.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="39" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/75px-Question_book-new.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/100px-Question_book-new.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="399" /></a></div></td><td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-span">This section <b>needs additional citations for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a></b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"> Please help <a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit">improve this article</a> by <a href="/wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing_with_Wiki_Markup/1" title="Help:Introduction to referencing with Wiki Markup/1">adding citations to reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.<br /><small><span class="plainlinks"><i>Find sources:</i> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.google.com/search?as_eq=wikipedia&q=%22Mindfulness%22">"Mindfulness"</a> – <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.google.com/search?tbm=nws&q=%22Mindfulness%22+-wikipedia">news</a> <b>·</b> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.google.com/search?&q=%22Mindfulness%22+site:news.google.com/newspapers&source=newspapers">newspapers</a> <b>·</b> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.google.com/search?tbs=bks:1&q=%22Mindfulness%22+-wikipedia">books</a> <b>·</b> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//scholar.google.com/scholar?q=%22Mindfulness%22">scholar</a> <b>·</b> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=%22Mindfulness%22&acc=on&wc=on">JSTOR</a></span></small></span>  <small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">January 2018</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i> (<a href="/wiki/Help:Maintenance_template_removal" title="Help:Maintenance template removal">Learn how and when to remove this template message</a>)</i></small></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably <a href="/wiki/Chronic_pain" title="Chronic pain">chronic pain</a> (McCracken et al. 2007), <a href="/wiki/Stress_(biological)" class="mw-redirect" title="Stress (biological)">stress</a> (Grossman et al. 2004), anxiety and depression (Hofmann et al. 2010), <a href="/wiki/Substance_abuse" title="Substance abuse">substance abuse</a> (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent <a href="/wiki/Suicidal_behavior" class="mw-redirect" title="Suicidal behavior">suicidal behavior</a> (Williams et al. 2006). Bell (2009) gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly <a href="/wiki/Family_therapy" title="Family therapy">family therapy</a>, starting with a discussion of <a href="/wiki/Mysticism" title="Mysticism">mysticism</a> and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.
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<dl><dt>Morita therapy</dt></dl>
<p>The Japanese psychiatrist <a href="/wiki/Shoma_Morita" title="Shoma Morita">Shoma Morita</a>, who trained in Zen meditation, developed <a href="/wiki/Morita_therapy" title="Morita therapy">Morita therapy</a> upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment.
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<dl><dt>Adaptation Practice</dt></dl>
<p>The British doctor <a href="/wiki/Clive_Sherlock" title="Clive Sherlock">Clive Sherlock</a> developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured program of self-discipline.<sup id="cite_ref-166" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-166">[141]</a></sup>
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<dl><dt>Hakomi therapy</dt></dl>
<p>Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a <a href="/wiki/Somatic_psychology" title="Somatic psychology">somatic psychology</a> based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and <a href="/wiki/Nonviolence" title="Nonviolence">nonviolence</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Hakomi_167-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hakomi-167">[142]</a></sup>
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<dl><dt>IFS</dt></dl>
<p><a href="/wiki/Internal_Family_Systems_Model" title="Internal Family Systems Model">Internal Family Systems Model</a> (IFS), developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one's "spiritual center". The Self is curious about whatever arises in one's present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.<sup id="cite_ref-168" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-168">[143]</a></sup>
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<dl><dt>Mindfulness relaxation</dt></dl>
<p>Mindfulness relaxation uses <a href="/wiki/Breathing" title="Breathing">breathing</a> methods, <a href="/wiki/Guided_imagery" title="Guided imagery">guided imagery</a>, and other practices to <a href="/wiki/Relaxation_(psychology)" title="Relaxation (psychology)">relax</a> the body and mind and help reduce <a href="/wiki/Stress_(medicine)" class="mw-redirect" title="Stress (medicine)">stress</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-169" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-169">[144]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Schools">Schools</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=39" title="Edit section: Schools">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 2012 Congressman <a href="/wiki/Tim_Ryan_(Ohio_politician)" title="Tim Ryan (Ohio politician)">Tim Ryan</a> of Ohio published <i>A Mindful Nation</i>, and has received a $1 million federal grant to teach mindfulness in schools in his home district.<sup id="cite_ref-Time2014_61-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Time2014-61">[56]</a></sup>
</p><p>Mindful Kids Miami is a tax-exempt, <a href="/wiki/501_(c)(3)" class="mw-redirect" title="501 (c)(3)">501 (c)(3)</a>, non-profit corporation established in 2011 dedicated to making age-appropriate mindfulness training available to school children in <a href="/wiki/Miami-Dade_County" class="mw-redirect" title="Miami-Dade County">Miami-Dade County</a> public and private schools. This is primarily accomplished by training educators and other childcare providers to incorporate mindfulness practices in the children's daily activities.<sup id="cite_ref-170" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-170">[145]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2000, <a href="/wiki/Susan_Kaiser_Greenland#Work" title="Susan Kaiser Greenland">The Inner Kids Program</a>, a mindfulness-based program developed for children, was introduced into public and private school curricula in the greater Los Angeles area.<sup id="cite_ref-171" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-171">[146]</a></sup>
</p><p>MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by <a href="/wiki/Goldie_Hawn" title="Goldie Hawn">Goldie Hawn</a>'s Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.<sup id="cite_ref-172" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-172">[147]</a></sup>
</p><p>The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at <a href="/wiki/Patterson_Park_High_School" class="mw-redirect" title="Patterson Park High School">Patterson Park High School</a> in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school's faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.<sup id="cite_ref-173" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-173">[148]</a></sup>
</p><p>Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 501(c)3 based out of <a href="/wiki/Richmond,_California" title="Richmond, California">Richmond, California</a>, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the <a href="/wiki/West_Contra_Costa_Unified_School_District" title="West Contra Costa Unified School District">South Richmond school district</a>. Utilizing curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor <a href="/wiki/Gayle_McLaughlin" title="Gayle McLaughlin">Gayle McLaughlin</a>, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2019)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Education">Education</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=40" title="Edit section: Education">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness practices are becoming more common within educational institutions including <a href="/wiki/Elementary_school_(United_States)" title="Elementary school (United States)">Elementary</a> and <a href="/wiki/Secondary_school" title="Secondary school">Secondary</a> schools. This has been referred to as part of a 'contemplative turn' in education that has emerged since the turn of the millennium.<sup id="cite_ref-Ergas_&_Todd_174-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ergas_&_Todd-174">[149]</a></sup> The applications of mindfulness in schools are aimed at calming and relaxation of students as well as for students and educators to build compassion and empathy for others.<sup id="cite_ref-175" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-175">[150]</a></sup> An additional benefit to Mindfulness in education is for the practice to reduce anxiety and stress in students.<sup id="cite_ref-176" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-176">[151]</a></sup> Based on a broad meta-analytical review, scholars argued that the application of mindfulness practice enhances the goals of education in the 21st century, which include adapting to a rapidly changing world and being a caring and committed citizen. Within educational systems, the application of mindfulness practices shows an improvement of students' attention and focus, emotional regulation, creativity, and problem solving skills.<sup id="cite_ref-Zenner,_Herrnleben-Kurz_&_Walach_2014_177-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Zenner,_Herrnleben-Kurz_&_Walach_2014-177">[152]</a></sup> As discussed by Ergas and Todd, the development of this field since the turn of the millennium has brought diverse possibilities as well as complexities, given the origins of mindfulness within <a href="/wiki/Buddhism" title="Buddhism">Buddhism</a> and the processes of its secularization and measurement based on science.<sup id="cite_ref-ReferenceA_150-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ReferenceA-150">[125]</a></sup>
</p><p>Renshaw and Cook state, “As scientific interest in the utility of Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) in schools grew steadily, popular interest in mindfulness in schools seemed to grow exponentially”.<sup id="cite_ref-Renshaw,_T._L._2016_178-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Renshaw,_T._L._2016-178">[153]</a></sup> Despite research on mindfulness being comparatively unexamined, especially with young students, the practice has seen a spike in use within the educational arena. “A relatively recent addition to discourse around preventing school expulsion and failure, mindfulness is gaining popularity for its potential to improve students’ social, emotional, behavioral, and learning-related cognitive control, thereby improving academic outcomes”.<sup id="cite_ref-Eklund,_K._2016_179-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Eklund,_K._2016-179">[154]</a></sup> Researchers and educators are interested in how mindfulness can provide optimal conditions for a students’ personal development and academic success. Current research on mindfulness in education is limited but can provide insight into the potential benefits for students, and areas of improvement for future studies.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_180-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-180">[155]</a></sup>
</p><p>Mindfulness in the classroom is being touted as a promising new intervention tool for young students. According to Choudhury and Moses, “Although still marginal and in some cases controversial, secular programs of mindfulness have been implemented with ambitious goals of improving attentional focus of pupils, social-emotional learning in “at-risk” children and youth, not least, to intervene in problems of poverty and incarceration”.<sup id="cite_ref-Choudhury_&_Moses_2016_181-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Choudhury_&_Moses_2016-181">[156]</a></sup> Emerging research is concerned with studying teachers and programs using mindfulness practices with students and is discovering tension arising from the moral reframing of eastern practices in western school settings. As cited by Renshaw and Cook, “Unlike most other approaches to contemporary school-based intervention, which are squarely grounded in behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and ecological systems theories, MBIs have their origins in Eastern religious traditions”.<sup id="cite_ref-Renshaw,_T._L._2016_178-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Renshaw,_T._L._2016-178">[153]</a></sup> Some school administrators are concerned about implementing such practices, and parents have been reported to take their children out of mindfulness programs because of their personal religious beliefs. Yet, MBIs continue to be accepted by the mainstream in both primary and secondary schools because, “Mindfulness practices, particularly in relation to children who might otherwise be considered broken or unredeemable, fill a critical niche – one that allows its advocates to imagine a world where people can change, become more compassionate, resilient, reflective, and aware; a world with a viable future”.<sup id="cite_ref-Choudhury_&_Moses_2016_181-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Choudhury_&_Moses_2016-181">[156]</a></sup> As mindfulness in education continues to develop, ethical consequences will remain a controversial issue because the generic description for the “benefits” and “results” of MBIs are largely concerned with individual and inward-focused achievement, rather than the original Buddhist ideal of global human connection.
</p><p>Available research reveals a relationship between mindfulness and attention. Semple, Lee, Rosa, & Miller argue, “Anxiety can impair attention and promote emotionally reactive behaviors that interfere with the development of good study skills, so it seems reasonable that increased mindfulness would be associated with less anxiety”.<sup id="cite_ref-182" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-182">[157]</a></sup> They conducted a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children (MBCT-C) that found promise in managing anxiety for elementary school-aged children, and suggests that those who completed the program displayed fewer attention problems. In addition, Flook shows how an eight-week mindfulness awareness program was evaluated in a random and controlled school setting and measured the effects of awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Their findings concluded, “Participation in the mindfulness awareness program was associated with improvements in behavioral regulation, metacognition, and overall executive functions”.<sup id="cite_ref-183" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-183">[158]</a></sup> In the study by Flook, parents and teachers completed questionnaires which propose that participation in mindfulness programs is associated with improvements in child behavioral regulation. These perspectives are a valuable source of data given that caregivers and educators interact with the children daily and across a variety of settings. According to Eklund, Omalley, and Meyer, “School-based practitioners should find promise in the evidence supporting mindfulness-based practices with children, parents, and educators”.<sup id="cite_ref-Eklund,_K._2016_179-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Eklund,_K._2016-179">[154]</a></sup> Lastly, a third study by Zenner, Herrnleben-Kurz, and Walach concluded, “Analysis suggest that mindfulness-based interventions for children and youths are able to increase cognitive capacity of attending and learning by nearly one standard deviation and yield”.<sup id="cite_ref-Zenner,_Herrnleben-Kurz_&_Walach_2014_177-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Zenner,_Herrnleben-Kurz_&_Walach_2014-177">[152]</a></sup> Application of Mindfulness-Based Interventions continue to increase in popularity and practice.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2017)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>
</p><p>Mindfulness-Based Interventions are rising across western culture, but its effectiveness in school programs is still being determined. Research contends, “Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness among young people”.<sup id="cite_ref-184" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-184">[159]</a></sup> Although much of the available studies find a high number of mindfulness acceptability among students and teachers, more research needs to be conducted on its effects on well-being and mental health for students. In a firmly controlled experiment, Johnson, Burke, Brinkman, and Wade evaluated “the impact of an existing and widely available school-based mindfulness program". According to their research, "no improvements were demonstrated on any outcome measured either immediately post-intervention or at three-month follow-up”.<sup id="cite_ref-185" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-185">[160]</a></sup> Many questions remain on which practices best implement effective and reliable mindfulness programs at schools, and further research is needed to identify the optimal methods and measurement tools for mindfulness in education.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2017)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Business">Business</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=41" title="Edit section: Business">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating mindfulness practices into their culture.<sup id="cite_ref-Good2015_186-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Good2015-186">[161]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-187" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-187">[162]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Carroll,_M._2007_188-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carroll,_M._2007-188">[163]</a></sup> For example, companies such as <a href="/wiki/Google" title="Google">Google</a>, <a href="/wiki/Apple_Inc." title="Apple Inc.">Apple</a>, <a href="/wiki/Procter_%26_Gamble" title="Procter & Gamble">Procter & Gamble</a>, <a href="/wiki/General_Mills" title="General Mills">General Mills</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mayo_Clinic" title="Mayo Clinic">Mayo Clinic</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Army" title="United States Army">U.S. Army</a> offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning.<sup id="cite_ref-Good2015_186-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Good2015-186">[161]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Schultz2015_189-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Schultz2015-189">[164]</a></sup>
</p><p>The introduction of mindfulness in corporate settings still remains in early stages and its potential long-term impact requires further assessment. Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being,<sup id="cite_ref-Janssen2018_190-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Janssen2018-190">[165]</a></sup> lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment.<sup id="cite_ref-Schultz2015_189-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Schultz2015-189">[164]</a></sup> Since high levels of mindfulness correlate with ethical decision-making and increased personal awareness and emotional regulation, mindfulness training has been suggested as a way to promote ethical intentions and behavior for business students.<sup id="cite_ref-Lampe2012_191-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Lampe2012-191">[166]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Law">Law</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=42" title="Edit section: Law">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:<sup id="cite_ref-192" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-192">[167]</a></sup>
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<ul><li>Harvard Law School's <a href="/wiki/Program_on_Negotiation" title="Program on Negotiation">Program on Negotiation</a> hosted a workshop on "Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution."<sup id="cite_ref-193" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-193">[168]</a></sup></li>
<li>Many law firms offer mindfulness classes.<sup id="cite_ref-Carroll,_M._2007_188-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Carroll,_M._2007-188">[163]</a></sup></li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Prison-programs">Prison-programs</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=43" title="Edit section: Prison-programs">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness has been taught in prisons, reducing hostility and mood disturbance among inmates, and improving their self-esteem.<sup id="cite_ref-194" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-194">[169]</a></sup> Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.<sup id="cite_ref-Shonin_195-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Shonin-195">[170]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Dafoe_196-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dafoe-196">[171]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Government">Government</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=44" title="Edit section: Government">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Many government organizations offer mindfulness training.<sup id="cite_ref-197" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-197">[172]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Coping_Strategies" class="mw-redirect" title="Coping Strategies">Coping Strategies</a> is an example of a program utilized by <a href="/wiki/United_States_Armed_Forces" title="United States Armed Forces">United States Armed Forces</a> personnel. The <a href="/wiki/Parliament_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="Parliament of the United Kingdom">British Parliament</a> organized a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by <a href="/wiki/Ruby_Wax" title="Ruby Wax">Ruby Wax</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-198" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-198">[web 7]</a></sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Scientific_research">Scientific research</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=45" title="Edit section: Scientific research">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Research_on_meditation" title="Research on meditation">Research on meditation</a>, <a href="/wiki/Neural_mechanisms_of_mindfulness_meditation" class="mw-redirect" title="Neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation">Neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Brain_activity_and_meditation" title="Brain activity and meditation">Brain activity and meditation</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Effects_and_efficacy_of_mindfulness_practice">Effects and efficacy of mindfulness practice</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=46" title="Edit section: Effects and efficacy of mindfulness practice">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention since 1970<sup id="cite_ref-Harrington2015_21-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Harrington2015-21">[19]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ReferenceA_150-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ReferenceA-150">[125]</a></sup> and has been studied as an intervention for <a href="/wiki/Stress_reduction" class="mw-redirect" title="Stress reduction">stress reduction</a> and treatment of <a href="/wiki/Addiction" title="Addiction">addiction</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Sharma_25-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sharma-25">[23]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Garland_28-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Garland-28">[26]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Sequeira_199-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sequeira-199">[173]</a></sup> A 2015 <a href="/wiki/Systematic_review" title="Systematic review">systematic review</a> and <a href="/wiki/Meta-analysis" title="Meta-analysis">meta-analysis</a> of systematic reviews of <a href="/wiki/Randomized_controlled_trial" title="Randomized controlled trial">RCTs</a> (that included a combined total of 8683 participants consisting of different patient categories as well as healthy adults and children)<sup id="cite_ref-Gotink_200-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gotink-200">[174]</a></sup> reported evidence supporting the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of <a href="/wiki/Mental_disorder" title="Mental disorder">mental</a> and physical disorders. However, in 2019, this study was retracted because of errors in the survey methodology and because of omissions from two of the authors' competing interest statements.<sup id="cite_ref-201" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-201">[175]</a></sup>
</p><p>A meta-analysis on meditation research published in JAMA in 2014,<sup id="cite_ref-PMID_24395196_202-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PMID_24395196-202">[176]</a></sup> (that included a combined total of 3515 participants), found insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. The same meta-analysis also concluded that there is moderate evidence that meditation reduces anxiety, depression, and pain, but there is no evidence that meditation is more effective than active treatment (drugs, exercise, other behavioral therapies). However, this study included a highly heterogeneous group of meditation styles (i.e., it did not focus exclusively on mindfulness meditation), which is a significant limitation of this study.
</p><p>Thousands of studies on meditation have been conducted, though the overall methodological quality of some of the studies is poor. Recent reviews have pointed out many of these issues.<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Tomlinson2017_31-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tomlinson2017-31">[29]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Tang2015_203-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tang2015-203">[177]</a></sup> Nonetheless, mindfulness meditation is a popular subject for research, and many claim potential benefits for a wide array of conditions and outcomes. For example, the practice of mindfulness has been used as a potential tool for weight management,<sup id="cite_ref-Rogers2016_204-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rogers2016-204">[178]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Stanton2016_205-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stanton2016-205">[179]</a></sup> to achieve optimal athletic performance,<sup id="cite_ref-Colzato2017_206-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Colzato2017-206">[180]</a></sup> as a beneficial intervention for children with special needs and their parents,<sup id="cite_ref-Petcharat2017_207-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Petcharat2017-207">[181]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Fuchs2017_208-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fuchs2017-208">[182]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Cachia2016_209-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Cachia2016-209">[183]</a></sup> as a viable treatment option for people with insomnia<sup id="cite_ref-Garland2016_210-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Garland2016-210">[184]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ong2017_211-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ong2017-211">[185]</a></sup> an effective intervention for healthy aging,<sup id="cite_ref-Kurth2017_212-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kurth2017-212">[186]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Xu2017_213-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Xu2017-213">[187]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Acevedo2016_214-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Acevedo2016-214">[188]</a></sup> as a strategy for managing dermatological conditions<sup id="cite_ref-Hutton2016_215-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hutton2016-215">[189]</a></sup> and as a useful intervention during pregnancy and the perinatal period.<sup id="cite_ref-Isgut2017_216-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Isgut2017-216">[190]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Dhillon2017_217-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dhillon2017-217">[191]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-MatvinekoSikar2016_218-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MatvinekoSikar2016-218">[192]</a></sup> Recent studies have also demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates physical pain through multiple, unique mechanisms.<sup id="cite_ref-Zeidan_219-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Zeidan-219">[193]</a></sup>
</p><p>Mindfulness-based approaches have been tested for a range of health problems including anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, ADHD, insomnia, coping with medical conditions, with many populations including children, adolescents, parents, teachers, therapists, and physicians.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2017)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> As a major subject of increasing research interest, 52 papers were published in 2003, rising to 477 by 2012.<sup id="cite_ref-Time2014_61-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Time2014-61">[56]</a></sup> Nearly 100 <a href="/wiki/Randomized_controlled_trial" title="Randomized controlled trial">randomized controlled trials</a> had been published by early 2014.<sup id="cite_ref-NYTimes2014_220-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NYTimes2014-220">[194]</a></sup>
</p><p>A 2013 statement from the <a href="/wiki/American_Heart_Association" title="American Heart Association">American Heart Association</a> said that when it comes to lowering <a href="/wiki/Blood_pressure" title="Blood pressure">blood pressure</a>, behavioral therapies such as transcendental meditation, other meditation techniques, yoga, other relaxation therapies, and biofeedback approaches generally had "modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy." Exercise-based regimens, such as aerobics, had relatively stronger supporting evidence.<sup id="cite_ref-aha_221-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-aha-221">[195]</a></sup>
</p><p>Nevertheless, <a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_stress_reduction" title="Mindfulness-based stress reduction">MBSR</a> can have a beneficial effect helping with the depression and psychological distress associated with chronic illness.<sup id="cite_ref-222" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-222">[196]</a></sup> Meditation also may allow you to modulate pain stronger. When participants in research were exposed to pain from heating, the brainsscans of the mindfulness meditation group (by use of <a href="/wiki/Functional_magnetic_resonance_imaging" title="Functional magnetic resonance imaging">functional magnetic resonance imaging</a>) showed their brains notice the pain equally, however it does not get converted to a perceived pain signal. As such they experienced up to 40–50% less pain.<sup id="cite_ref-223" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-223">[197]</a></sup>
</p><p>Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of <a href="/wiki/Substance_use_disorders" class="mw-redirect" title="Substance use disorders">substance use disorders</a>; however, further study is required.<sup id="cite_ref-224" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-224">[198]</a></sup> MBSR might be beneficial for people with <a href="/wiki/Fibromyalgia" title="Fibromyalgia">fibromyalgia</a>: there is no evidence of long-term benefit, only low-quality evidence of a small short-term benefit exists.<sup id="cite_ref-fibr_225-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fibr-225">[199]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy" title="Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy">Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy</a> (MBCT) is suggested to have positive results for the improvement of attention regulation, intelligence-related measures, creativity, learning ability, cognitive style, motor skills and perceptional abilities.<sup id="cite_ref-226" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-226">[200]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-227" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-227">[201]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-228" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-228">[202]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-229" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-229">[203]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-230" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-230">[204]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-231" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-231">[205]</a></sup>
</p><p>Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is also suggested to enact comparable neurophysiological effects related to attention and self-regulation as pharmacological treatments for ADHD.<sup id="cite_ref-232" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-232">[206]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Brain_studies">Brain studies</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=47" title="Edit section: Brain studies">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Research studies have also focused on the effects of mindfulness on the brain using neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests.<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Sequeira_199-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sequeira-199">[173]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Tang_233-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tang-233">[207]</a></sup> Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation.<sup id="cite_ref-Holzel_234-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Holzel-234">[208]</a></sup> When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity.<sup id="cite_ref-235" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-235">[209]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Crescentini_236-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Crescentini-236">[210]</a></sup> Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the <a href="/wiki/Anterior_cingulate_cortex" title="Anterior cingulate cortex">anterior cingulate cortex</a>, <a href="/wiki/Insular_cortex" title="Insular cortex">insula</a>, <a href="/wiki/Temporo-parietal_junction" class="mw-redirect" title="Temporo-parietal junction">temporo-parietal junction</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Fronto-limbic_network&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Fronto-limbic network (page does not exist)">fronto-limbic network</a> and <a href="/wiki/Default_mode_network" title="Default mode network">default mode network</a> structures."<sup id="cite_ref-Holzel_234-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Holzel-234">[208]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gotink2_237-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gotink2-237">[211]</a></sup> Further, mindfulness meditation may prevent or delay the onset of <a href="/wiki/Mild_cognitive_impairment" title="Mild cognitive impairment">mild cognitive impairment</a> and <a href="/wiki/Alzheimer%27s" class="mw-redirect" title="Alzheimer's">Alzheimer's</a> disease.<sup id="cite_ref-Larouche_238-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Larouche-238">[212]</a></sup> Additionally, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain.<sup id="cite_ref-Gotink2_237-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gotink2-237">[211]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Last2017_239-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Last2017-239">[213]</a></sup> It has also been suggested that the <a href="/wiki/Default_mode_network" title="Default mode network">default mode network</a> of the brain can be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic benefits of meditation.<sup id="cite_ref-biomarker_240-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-biomarker-240">[214]</a></sup> Recent research also suggest that the practice of mindfulness could influence genetic expression leading to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases and favourable changes in biomarkers.<sup id="cite_ref-Buric2017_241-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buric2017-241">[215]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Sanada2017_242-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sanada2017-242">[216]</a></sup>
</p><p>Grey matter concentrations in brain regions that regulate emotion, self-referential processing, learning and memory processes have shown changes in density following MBSR.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2017)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> Additionally, MBSR practice has been associated with improvement of the immune system which could explain the correlation between stress reduction and increased quality of life.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2017)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> Part of these changes are a result of the thickening of the <a href="/wiki/Prefrontal_cortex" title="Prefrontal cortex">prefrontal cortex</a> (executive functioning) and <a href="/wiki/Hippocampus" title="Hippocampus">hippocampus</a> (learning and memorisation ability), the shrinking of the <a href="/wiki/Amygdala" title="Amygdala">amygdala</a> (emotion and stress response) and the strengthening of the connections between brain cells.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid22393318_243-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid22393318-243">[217]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-CRD_244-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CRD-244">[218]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SAMHSA_245-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SAMHSA-245">[219]</a></sup> Long-term meditators have larger amounts of <a href="/wiki/Gyrification" title="Gyrification">gyrification</a> (“folding” of the cortex, which may allow the brain to process information faster) than people who do not meditate. Further, a direct correlation was found between the amount of gyrification and the number of meditation years, possibly providing further proof of the brain's neuroplasticity, or ability to adapt to environmental changes.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid22393318_243-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid22393318-243">[217]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Associations_of_mindfulness_with_other_variables">Associations of mindfulness with other variables</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=48" title="Edit section: Associations of mindfulness with other variables">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Mindfulness (as a trait, distinguished from mindfulness <i>practice</i>) has been linked to many outcomes. In an overview,<sup id="cite_ref-KengSmoskiRobins2011_32-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-KengSmoskiRobins2011-32">[30]</a></sup> Keng, Smoski, and Robins summarize: “Trait mindfulness has been associated with higher levels of life satisfaction, agreeableness, conscientiousness, vitality, self esteem, empathy, sense of autonomy, competence, optimism, and pleasant affect. Studies have also demonstrated significant negative correlations between mindfulness and depression, neuroticism, absentmindedness, dissociation, rumination, cognitive reactivity, social anxiety, difficulties in emotion regulation, experiential avoidance, alexithymia, intensity of delusional experience in the context of psychosis, and general psychological symptoms.” (References to underlying studies omitted from quotation.)
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Effects_on_mindfulness">Effects on mindfulness</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=49" title="Edit section: Effects on mindfulness">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The mechanisms that make people less or more mindful have researched less than the effects of mindfulness programmes, so we do not know much about what are the relevant components of mindfulness practice. For example, meta-analyses have shown that mindfulness practice does increase mindfulness when compared to active control groups,.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_180-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-180">[155]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-246" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-246">[220]</a></sup> This may be because we do not know how to measure mindfulness. It could also be that mindfulness is dose-dependent and increases with more experience <sup id="cite_ref-Baer2006_247-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer2006-247">[221]</a></sup>
,.<sup id="cite_ref-Baer2012_248-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Baer2012-248">[222]</a></sup> To counter that, Bergomi et al.<sup id="cite_ref-Bergomi2015_249-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bergomi2015-249">[223]</a></sup> found that “results provide evidence for the associations between self-reported mindfulness and meditation practice and suggest that mindfulness is particularly associated with continued practice in the present, rather than with accumulated practice over years.”
</p><p>Some research into other mechanisms has been done. One study<sup id="cite_ref-Suelmann2018_250-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Suelmann2018-250">[224]</a></sup> conceptualised such mechanisms in terms of competition for attention. In a test of that framework, mindfulness was found to be associated (as predicted) with having an activated intention to be mindful, with feeling good, and with not being hurried or very busy. Regarding the relationship between feeling good and being mindful, a different study<sup id="cite_ref-Gotink2016_251-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gotink2016-251">[225]</a></sup> found that causality probably works both ways: feeling good increases mindfulness, and mindfulness increases feeling good.
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Concerns_and_criticism">Concerns and criticism</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=50" title="Edit section: Concerns and criticism">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Scholarly_research">Scholarly research</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=51" title="Edit section: Scholarly research">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Many of the above cited review studies however also indicate the necessity for more high-quality research in this field such as conducting intervention studies using larger sample sizes, the use of more randomized controlled studies and the need for providing more methodological details in reported studies.<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-KengSmoskiRobins2011_32-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-KengSmoskiRobins2011-32">[30]</a></sup> The majority of studies also either measure mindfulness as a trait, and in research that use mindfulness interventions in clinical practice, the lack of true randomisation poses a problem for understanding the true effectiveness of mindfulness. Experimental methods using randomised samples, though, suggest that mindfulness as a state or temporary practice can influence felt emotions such as disgust and promote abstract decision-making.<sup id="cite_ref-252" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-252">[226]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-253" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-253">[227]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-254" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-254">[228]</a></sup> There are also a few review studies that have found little difference between mindfulness interventions and control groups, though they did also indicate that their intervention group was treated too shortly for the research to be conclusive.<sup id="cite_ref-McLean2017_255-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McLean2017-255">[229]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Taylor2016_256-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Taylor2016-256">[230]</a></sup> These studies also list the need for more robust research investigations. Several issues pertaining to the assessment of mindfulness have also been identified including the current use of self-report questionnaires.<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-KengSmoskiRobins2011_32-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-KengSmoskiRobins2011-32">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Grossman_2008_257-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Grossman_2008-257">[231]</a></sup> Potential for bias also exists to the extent that researchers in the field are also practitioners and possibly subject to pressures to publish positive or significant results.<sup id="cite_ref-Nisbet_10-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nisbet-10">[9]</a></sup>
</p><p>Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications.<sup id="cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-bishopetal2004-97">[85]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-wallace06_258-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wallace06-258">[232]</a></sup>
These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions.<sup id="cite_ref-wallace06_258-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wallace06-258">[232]</a></sup><sup class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:<span>62</span></sup><sup id="cite_ref-chiesa13_259-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-chiesa13-259">[233]</a></sup> Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities.<sup id="cite_ref-Valerio_1–27_147-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Valerio_1–27-147">[122]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Shortcomings">Shortcomings</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=52" title="Edit section: Shortcomings">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The popularization of mindfulness as a "commodity"<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESafran2014_260-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESafran2014-260">[234]</a></sup> has been criticized, being termed "McMindfulness" by some critics.<sup id="cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McMindfulness-261">[web 8]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-TriMc_262-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TriMc-262">[web 9]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBazzano2014_263-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBazzano2014-263">[235]</a></sup> According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESafran2014_260-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESafran2014-260">[234]</a></sup>
"McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESafran2014_260-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESafran2014-260">[234]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-264" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-264">[236]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-265" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-265">[237]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the "unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,"<sup id="cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McMindfulness-261">[web 8]</a></sup> but reshaped into a "banal, therapeutic, self-help technique" that has the opposite effect of reinforcing those passions.<sup id="cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McMindfulness-261">[web 8]</a></sup> While mindfulness is marketed as a means to reduce stress, in a Buddhist context it is part of an all-embracing ethical program to foster "wise action, social harmony, and compassion."<sup id="cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McMindfulness-261">[web 8]</a></sup> The privatization of mindfulness neglects the societal and organizational causes of stress and discomfort, instead propagating adaptation to these circumstances.<sup id="cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McMindfulness-261">[web 8]</a></sup> According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, "[A]bsent a sharp social critique, Buddhist practices could easily be used to justify and stabilize the status quo, becoming a reinforcement of <a href="/wiki/Consumer_capitalism" title="Consumer capitalism">consumer capitalism</a>."<sup id="cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-McMindfulness-261">[web 8]</a></sup> The popularity of this new brand of mindfulness has resulted in the commercialization of meditation through self-help books, guided meditation classes, and mindfulness retreats.
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<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047036"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p> Mindfulness is said to be a $4bn industry. More than 60,000 books for sale on Amazon have a variant of “mindfulness” in their title, touting the benefits of Mindful Parenting, Mindful Eating, Mindful Teaching, Mindful Therapy, Mindful Leadership, Mindful Finance, a Mindful Nation, and Mindful Dog Owners, to name just a few.<sup id="cite_ref-266" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-266">[238]</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<p>Buddhist commentators have criticized the movement as being presented as equivalent to Buddhist practice, while in reality it is very possibly denatured with undesirable consequences, such as being ungrounded in the traditional reflective morality and therefore, astray from traditional Buddhist ethics. Criticisms suggest it to be either de-moralized or re-moralized into clinically based ethics. The conflict is often presented in concern to the teacher's credentials and qualifications, rather than the student's actual practice. Reformed Buddhist-influenced practices are being standardized and manualized in a clearly distinct separation from Buddhism seen as a religion based in monastic temples, as expressed as mindfulness in a new psychology ethic practiced in modern meditation centers.<sup id="cite_ref-267" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-267">[239]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Risks">Risks</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=53" title="Edit section: Risks">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety, panic or "meltdowns" after practicing, which they suggest could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed <a href="/wiki/PTSD" class="mw-redirect" title="PTSD">PTSD</a> symptoms.<sup id="cite_ref-268" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-268">[240]</a></sup> However, according to published peer-reviewed academic articles, these negative effects of meditation are rare for mindfulness meditation,<sup id="cite_ref-Creswell_4-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Creswell-4">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SHONIN2014_269-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SHONIN2014-269">[241]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Wong2018_270-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wong2018-270">[242]</a></sup> and appear to happen due to a poor understanding of what actually constitutes mindfulness/meditation practices.<sup id="cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SHONIN2014_269-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SHONIN2014-269">[241]</a></sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=54" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=55" title="Edit section: Notes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 35em; -webkit-column-width: 35em; column-width: 35em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-Baer-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Baer cites Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994): <i>Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life</i>. New York: Hyperion, p.4.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">While translated as "mindfulness," and often interpreted as "bare attention," the term <i>sati</i> has broader connotations: "memory,"<sup id="cite_ref-PTS_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PTS-12">[11]</a></sup> "retention,"<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDreyfus201344–48_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDreyfus201344–48-13">[12]</a></sup> "mindfulness, alertness, self-possession."<sup id="cite_ref-PTS_12-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PTS-12">[11]</a></sup> In a Buddhist context it has a wider meaning and purpose, related to <i><a href="/wiki/Vipassana" class="mw-redirect" title="Vipassana">vipassana</a></i>, namely <a href="/wiki/Sampaja%C3%B1%C3%B1a" title="Sampajañña">Sampajañña</a> discerning what is beneficial and what is not, and calming the mind by this discernment.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolak2011153–56_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolak2011153–56-14">[13]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046-15">[14]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuddhadasa_Bhikkhu201479,_101,_117_note_42_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuddhadasa_Bhikkhu201479,_101,_117_note_42-16">[15]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kabat-Zinn, in <i>Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition)</i> (2013), p. lxiv advises to use CD's with guided mindfulness practices: "Almost everybody finds it easier, when embarking for the first time on a daily meditation practice, to listen to an instructor-guided audio program and let it "carry them along" in the early stages, until they get the hang of it from the inside, rather than attempting to follow instructions from a book, however clear and detailed they may be."<br /><br />Compare Rupert Gethin (2004), <i>On the practice of Buddhist meditation</i>, pp. 202–03, noting that the Buddhist sutras hardly explain how to meditate, and then stating that "the effective practice of meditation requires the personal instruction of a teacher." Gethin seems to echo Vetter (1988), <i>The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism</i>, who notes that the <i><a href="/wiki/Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta" title="Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta">Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta</a></i> describes the Buddha as instructing his first followers in turn: instructing two or three of them, while the others go out begging for food, signifying the need for personal instruction to learn ho to practice <i>dhyana</i>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-59">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">See also <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://hfhc.ext.wvu.edu/r/download/114469"><i>Eating One Raisin: A First Taste of Mindfulness</i></a> for a hand-out file</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-72">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Quotes from Gethin, Rupert M.L. (1992), <i>The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiȳa Dhammā</i>. Brill's Indological Library, 7. Leiden and New York: Brill</span>
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<li id="cite_note-74"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-74">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Dreyfus concludes his examination by stating: "[T]he identification of mindfulness with bare attention ignores or, at least, underestimates the cognitive implications of mindfulness, its ability to bring together various aspects of experience so as to lead to the clear comprehension of the nature of mental and bodily states. By over-emphasizing the nonjudgmental nature of mindfulness and arguing that our problems stem from conceptuality, contemporary authors are in danger of leading to a one-sided understanding of mindfulness as a form of therapeutically helpful spacious quietness. I think that it is important not to lose sight that mindfulness is not just a therapeutic technique but is a natural capacity that plays a central role in the cognitive process. It is this aspect that seems to be ignored when mindfulness is reduced to a form of nonjudgmental present-centered form of awareness of one’s experiences.<sup id="cite_ref-Dreyfus_73-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dreyfus-73">[67]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-76"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Sharf: "<a href="/wiki/Mahasi_Sayadaw" title="Mahasi Sayadaw">Mahasi</a>’s technique did not require familiarity with Buddhist doctrine (notably abhidhamma), did not require adherence to strict ethical norms (notably monasticism), and promised astonishingly quick results. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness"—the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning. This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects. Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude."<sup id="cite_ref-Sharf_75-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sharf-75">[web 2]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-83"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-83">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.<sup id="cite_ref-BB_82-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BB-82">[73]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-89"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Black: "[S]everal decades of research methodology and scientific discovery have defrayed these myths; mindfulness is now widely considered to be an inherent quality of human consciousness. That is, a capacity of attention and awareness oriented to the present moment that varies in degree within and between individuals, and can be assessed empirically and independent of religious, spiritual, or cultural beliefs.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20111_87-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20111-87">[77]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-95"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-95">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Mindfulness meditation" may refer to either the secular, western practice of mindfulness,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZgierskaRabagoChawlaKushner2009_91-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZgierskaRabagoChawlaKushner2009-91">[80]</a></sup> or to modern Buddhist <a href="/wiki/Vipassana" class="mw-redirect" title="Vipassana">Vipassana-meditation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDidonna200827_92-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDidonna200827-92">[81]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKristeller2007393_93-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKristeller2007393-93">[82]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGermer200515_94-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGermer200515-94">[83]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-112"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-112">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Vipassana as taught by teachers from the <a href="/wiki/Vipassana_movement" title="Vipassana movement">Vipassana movement</a> is a 19th century development, inspired by and reacting against Western modernism.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110">[95]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B_111-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B-111">[96]</a></sup> See also <a href="/wiki/Buddhist_modernism" title="Buddhist modernism">Buddhist modernism</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Frauwallner-114"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Frauwallner_114-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Frauwallner, E. (1973), <i>History of Indian Philosophy</i>, trans. V.M. Bedekar, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Two volumes., pp.150 ff</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-122"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-122">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">In <a href="/wiki/Mahayana" title="Mahayana">Mahayana</a> contexts, it entails insight into what is variously described as <a href="/wiki/Sunyata" class="mw-redirect" title="Sunyata">sunyata</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dharmata" class="mw-redirect" title="Dharmata">dharmata</a>, the inseparability of appearance and emptiness (<a href="/wiki/Two_truths_doctrine" title="Two truths doctrine">two truths doctrine</a>), clarity and emptiness, or bliss and emptiness.<sup id="cite_ref-121" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-121">[104]</a></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-124"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-124">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Majjhima_Nikaya" class="mw-redirect" title="Majjhima Nikaya">Majjhima Nikaya</a> (MN), sutta number 118. See <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.118.than.html">Thanissaro, 2006</a>. Other discourses that describe the full four tetrads can be found in the <a href="/wiki/Samyutta_Nikaya" class="mw-redirect" title="Samyutta Nikaya">Samyutta Nikaya</a>'s <i>Anapana-samyutta</i> (Ch. 54), such as SN 54.6 (Thanissaro, 2006a), SN 54.8 (Thanissaro, 2006b) and SN 54.13 (Thanissaro, 1995a). The one-tetrad exposition of anapanasati is found, for instance, in the <i>Kayagata-sati Sutta</i> (<a href="/wiki/Majjhima_Nikaya" class="mw-redirect" title="Majjhima Nikaya">MN</a> 119; Thanissaro, 1997), the <i>Maha-satipatthana Sutta</i> (<a href="/wiki/Digha_Nikaya" class="mw-redirect" title="Digha Nikaya">DN</a> 22; Thanissaro, 2000) and the <i><a href="/wiki/Satipatthana_Sutta" title="Satipatthana Sutta">Satipatthana Sutta</a></i> (MN 10; Thanissaro, 1995b).</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-126"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-126">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">[I]n Buddhist discourse, there are three terms that together map the field of mindfulness [...] [in their Sanskrit variants] <i>smṛti</i> (Pali: <i>sati</i>), <i>samprajaña</i> (Pali: <i><a href="/wiki/Sampaja%C3%B1%C3%B1a" title="Sampajañña">Sampajañña</a></i>) and <i><a href="/wiki/Apram%C4%81da" class="mw-redirect" title="Apramāda">apramāda</a></i> (Pali: <i>appamada</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-Subhuti_125-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Subhuti-125">[106]</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-128"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-128">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"> According to this correspondence, Ven. Nyanaponika spent his last ten years living with and being cared for by Bodhi. Bodhi refers to Nyanaponika as "my closest kalyāṇamitta in my life as a monk."</span>
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<li id="cite_note-132"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-132">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The resort to "experience" as the ground for religious truths is a strategy which goes back to Schleiermacher, as a defense against the growing influence of western rationality on the religious life of Europeans in the 19th century. See Sharf (1995), <i>Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B_111-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B-111">[96]</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-jama.ama-assn.org-141"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-jama.ama-assn.org_141-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Historically a Buddhist practice, mindfulness can be considered a universal human capacity proposed to foster clear thinking and open-heartedness. As such, this form of meditation requires no particular religious or cultural belief system." - Mindfulness in Medicine by Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn, available at <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/300/11/1350">jama.ama-assn.org</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-142"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-142">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Kabat-Zinn (2000) suggests that mindfulness practice may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary. Thus, Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins (Kabat-Zinn, 1982;Linehan, 1993b)." - Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer</span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=56" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 32em; -webkit-column-width: 32em; column-width: 32em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-Baer_defines2-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Baer_defines2_1-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf">http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Kabat-Zinn_2013-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-8"><sup><i><b>i</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kabat-Zinn_2013_2-9"><sup><i><b>j</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Kabat-Zinn J (2013). <i>Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness</i>. New York: Bantam Dell. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0345539724" title="Special:BookSources/978-0345539724"><bdi>978-0345539724</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Full+Catastrophe+Living%3A+Using+the+Wisdom+of+Your+Body+and+Mind+to+Face+Stress%2C+Pain%2C+and+Illness&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Bantam+Dell&rft.date=2013&rft.isbn=978-0345539724&rft.aulast=Kabat-Zinn&rft.aufirst=J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r935243608">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Creswell-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Creswell_4-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Creswell JD (January 2017). "Mindfulness Interventions". <i>Annual Review of Psychology</i>. <b>68</b>: 491–516. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1146%2Fannurev-psych-042716-051139">10.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27687118">27687118</a>. <q>Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction).</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Annual+Review+of+Psychology&rft.atitle=Mindfulness+Interventions&rft.volume=68&rft.pages=491-516&rft.date=2017-01&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1146%2Fannurev-psych-042716-051139&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F27687118&rft.aulast=Creswell&rft.aufirst=JD&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">American Psychological Association (APA.org, 2012); Kabat-Zinn, in Purser, 2015; as cited at PositivePsychology.com, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://positivepsychology.com/what-is-mindfulness/"><i>What Is Mindfulness? Definition + Benefits (Incl. Psychology)</i></a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Posner2011-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Posner2011_6-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Slagter HA, Davidson RJ, Lutz A (2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039118">"Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity"</a>. <i>Frontiers in Human Neuroscience</i>. <b>5</b>: 17. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnhum.2011.00017">10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039118">3039118</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21347275">21347275</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Frontiers+in+Human+Neuroscience&rft.atitle=Mental+training+as+a+tool+in+the+neuroscientific+study+of+brain+and+cognitive+plasticity&rft.volume=5&rft.pages=17&rft.date=2011&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3039118&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F21347275&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.3389%2Ffnhum.2011.00017&rft.aulast=Slagter&rft.aufirst=HA&rft.au=Davidson%2C+RJ&rft.au=Lutz%2C+A&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3039118&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Deatherage-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Deatherage_7-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Gary Deatherage (1975). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.atpweb.org/jtparchive/trps-07-75-02-133.pdf">"The clinical use of "mindfulness" meditation techniques in short-term psychotherapy"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Journal of Transpersonal Psychology</i>. <b>7</b> (2): 133–43.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Transpersonal+Psychology&rft.atitle=The+clinical+use+of+%22mindfulness%22+meditation+techniques+in+short-term+psychotherapy&rft.volume=7&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=133-43&rft.date=1975&rft.au=Gary+Deatherage&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.atpweb.org%2Fjtparchive%2Ftrps-07-75-02-133.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Karunamuni2017-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Karunamuni2017_8-8"><sup><i><b>i</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Karunamuni N, Weerasekera R (2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://mindrxiv.org/mfs63/">"Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom"</a>. <i>Current Psychology</i>. <b>38</b> (3): 627–646. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12144-017-9631-7">10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Current+Psychology&rft.atitle=Theoretical+Foundations+to+Guide+Mindfulness+Meditation%3A+A+Path+to+Wisdom&rft.volume=38&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=627-646&rft.date=2017&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1007%2Fs12144-017-9631-7&rft.aulast=Karunamuni&rft.aufirst=Nandini&rft.au=Weerasekera%2C+Rasanjala&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmindrxiv.org%2Fmfs63%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-VanGordon2015-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-VanGordon2015_9-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Van Gordon W, Shonin E, Griffiths MD, <a href="/wiki/Nirbhay_N._Singh" title="Nirbhay N. Singh">Singh NN</a> (2014). "There is Only One Mindfulness: Why Science and Buddhism Need to Work Together". <i>Mindfulness</i>. <b>6</b>: 49–56. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12671-014-0379-y">10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Mindfulness&rft.atitle=There+is+Only+One+Mindfulness%3A+Why+Science+and+Buddhism+Need+to+Work+Together&rft.volume=6&rft.pages=49-56&rft.date=2014&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1007%2Fs12671-014-0379-y&rft.aulast=Van+Gordon&rft.aufirst=William&rft.au=Shonin%2C+Edo&rft.au=Griffiths%2C+Mark+D&rft.au=Singh%2C+Nirbhay+N.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Nisbet-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Nisbet_10-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Nisbet_10-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Nisbet_10-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Nisbet_10-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Nisbet, Matthew (2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20181002171906/https://www.csicop.org/si/show/the_mindfulness_movement">"The Mindfulness Movement: How a Buddhist Practice Evolved into a Scientific Approach to Life"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Skeptical_Inquirer" title="Skeptical Inquirer">Skeptical Inquirer</a></i>. <b>41</b> (3): 24–26. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.csicop.org/si/show/the_mindfulness_movement">the original</a> on 2018-10-02<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 October</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Skeptical+Inquirer&rft.atitle=The+Mindfulness+Movement%3A+How+a+Buddhist+Practice+Evolved+into+a+Scientific+Approach+to+Life&rft.volume=41&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=24-26&rft.date=2017&rft.aulast=Nisbet&rft.aufirst=Matthew&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.csicop.org%2Fsi%2Fshow%2Fthe_mindfulness_movement&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Wilson-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Wilson_11-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Wilson_11-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Wilson_11-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Wilson_11-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Wilson J (2014). <i>Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture</i>. Oxford University Press. p. 35.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindful+America%3A+The+Mutual+Transformation+of+Buddhist+Meditation+and+American+Culture&rft.pages=35&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Wilson&rft.aufirst=Jeff&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-PTS-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-PTS_12-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-PTS_12-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.is/20121212102108/http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:2991.pali">"Sati"</a>. <i>The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary</i>. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:2991.pali">the original</a> on 2012-12-12.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Pali+Text+Society%27s+Pali-English+Dictionary&rft.atitle=Sati&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdsal.uchicago.edu%2Fcgi-bin%2Fphilologic%2Fgetobject.pl%3Fc.3%3A1%3A2991.pali&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDreyfus201344–48-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDreyfus201344–48_13-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFDreyfus2013">Dreyfus 2013</a>, pp. 44–48.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolak2011153–56-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolak2011153–56_14-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFPolak2011">Polak 2011</a>, pp. 153–56.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046_15-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilliamsTribe200046_15-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWilliamsTribe2000">Williams & Tribe 2000</a>, p. 46.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuddhadasa_Bhikkhu201479,_101,_117_note_42-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuddhadasa_Bhikkhu201479,_101,_117_note_42_16-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBuddhadasa_Bhikkhu2014">Buddhadasa Bhikkhu 2014</a>, pp. 79, 101, 117 note 42.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Evan_Thompson" title="Evan Thompson">Thompson, Evan</a> (2020). <i>Why I Am Not a Buddhist</i>. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 120. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-300-22655-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-300-22655-3"><bdi>978-0-300-22655-3</bdi></a>. <q>Buddhism has no single, agreed-upon traditional definition of mindfulness. Rather, Buddhism offers multiple and sometimes incompatible conceptions of mindfulness.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Why+I+Am+Not+a+Buddhist&rft.place=New+Haven+and+London&rft.pages=120&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft.date=2020&rft.isbn=978-0-300-22655-3&rft.aulast=Thompson&rft.aufirst=Evan&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Buchholz2015-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Buchholz2015_19-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Buchholz L (October 2015). "Exploring the Promise of Mindfulness as Medicine". <i>JAMA</i>. <b>314</b> (13): 1327–9. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1001%2Fjama.2015.7023">10.1001/jama.2015.7023</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26441167">26441167</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=JAMA&rft.atitle=Exploring+the+Promise+of+Mindfulness+as+Medicine&rft.volume=314&rft.issue=13&rft.pages=1327-9&rft.date=2015-10&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1001%2Fjama.2015.7023&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F26441167&rft.aulast=Buchholz&rft.aufirst=L&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Davidson2005-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Davidson2005_20-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Davidson R (September 2005). "Meditation and neuroplasticity: training your brain. Interview by Bonnie J. Horrigan". <i>Explore</i>. <b>1</b> (5): 380–8. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.explore.2005.06.013">10.1016/j.explore.2005.06.013</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16781570">16781570</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Explore&rft.atitle=Meditation+and+neuroplasticity%3A+training+your+brain.+Interview+by+Bonnie+J.+Horrigan&rft.volume=1&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=380-8&rft.date=2005-09&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.explore.2005.06.013&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F16781570&rft.aulast=Davidson&rft.aufirst=R&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Harrington2015-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Harrington2015_21-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Harrington2015_21-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Harrington2015_21-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Harrington A, Dunne JD (October 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:25757884">"When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives"</a>. <i>The American Psychologist</i>. <b>70</b> (7): 621–31. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1037%2Fa0039460">10.1037/a0039460</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26436312">26436312</a>. <q>Mindfulness, the argument goes, was never supposed to be about weight loss, better sex, helping children perform better in school, helping employees be more productive in the workplace, or even improving the functioning of anxious, depressed people. It was never supposed to be a merchandized commodity to be bought and sold.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+American+Psychologist&rft.atitle=When+mindfulness+is+therapy%3A+Ethical+qualms%2C+historical+perspectives&rft.volume=70&rft.issue=7&rft.pages=621-31&rft.date=2015-10&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1037%2Fa0039460&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F26436312&rft.aulast=Harrington&rft.aufirst=A&rft.au=Dunne%2C+JD&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnrs.harvard.edu%2Furn-3%3AHUL.InstRepos%3A25757884&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Strauss-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Strauss_22-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Strauss_22-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Strauss C, Cavanagh K, Oliver A, Pettman D (2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3999148">"Mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials"</a>. <i>PLOS ONE</i>. <b>9</b> (4): e96110. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PLoSO...996110S">2014PLoSO...996110S</a>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0096110">10.1371/journal.pone.0096110</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3999148">3999148</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24763812">24763812</a>. <q>This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=PLOS+ONE&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+interventions+for+people+diagnosed+with+a+current+episode+of+an+anxiety+or+depressive+disorder%3A+a+meta-analysis+of+randomised+controlled+trials&rft.volume=9&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=e96110&rft.date=2014&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3999148&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24763812&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0096110&rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2014PLoSO...996110S&rft.aulast=Strauss&rft.aufirst=C&rft.au=Cavanagh%2C+K&rft.au=Oliver%2C+A&rft.au=Pettman%2C+D&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3999148&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Khoury2015-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Khoury2015_23-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Khoury2015_23-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Khoury2015_23-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Khoury B, Sharma M, Rush SE, Fournier C (June 2015). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis". <i>Journal of Psychosomatic Research</i>. <b>78</b> (6): 519–28. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jpsychores.2015.03.009">10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25818837">25818837</a>. <q>We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a review of MBSR for healthy individuals. The meta-analysis included 29 studies enrolling 2668 participants... The results obtained are robust and are maintained at follow-up. When combined, mindfulness and compassion strongly correlated with clinical effects.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Psychosomatic+Research&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+stress+reduction+for+healthy+individuals%3A+A+meta-analysis&rft.volume=78&rft.issue=6&rft.pages=519-28&rft.date=2015-06&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.jpsychores.2015.03.009&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F25818837&rft.aulast=Khoury&rft.aufirst=B&rft.au=Sharma%2C+M&rft.au=Rush%2C+SE&rft.au=Fournier%2C+C&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Jain-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Jain_24-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Jain FA, Walsh RN, Eisendrath SJ, Christensen S, Rael Cahn B (2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0372c9xp">"Critical analysis of the efficacy of meditation therapies for acute and subacute phase treatment of depressive disorders: a systematic review"</a>. <i>Psychosomatics</i>. <b>56</b> (2): 140–52. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.psym.2014.10.007">10.1016/j.psym.2014.10.007</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383597">4383597</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25591492">25591492</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Psychosomatics&rft.atitle=Critical+analysis+of+the+efficacy+of+meditation+therapies+for+acute+and+subacute+phase+treatment+of+depressive+disorders%3A+a+systematic+review&rft.volume=56&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=140-52&rft.date=2015&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4383597&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F25591492&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.psym.2014.10.007&rft.aulast=Jain&rft.aufirst=FA&rft.au=Walsh%2C+RN&rft.au=Eisendrath%2C+SJ&rft.au=Christensen%2C+S&rft.au=Rael+Cahn%2C+B&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.escholarship.org%2Fuc%2Fitem%2F0372c9xp&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Sharma-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Sharma_25-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Sharma_25-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Sharma M, Rush SE (October 2014). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review". <i>Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine</i>. <b>19</b> (4): 271–86. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2156587214543143">10.1177/2156587214543143</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25053754">25053754</a>. <q>Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program... Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Evidence-Based+Complementary+%26+Alternative+Medicine&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+stress+reduction+as+a+stress+management+intervention+for+healthy+individuals%3A+a+systematic+review&rft.volume=19&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=271-86&rft.date=2014-10&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1177%2F2156587214543143&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F25053754&rft.aulast=Sharma&rft.aufirst=M&rft.au=Rush%2C+SE&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Hofmann-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Hofmann_26-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hofmann_26-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D (April 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848393">"The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review"</a>. <i>Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology</i>. <b>78</b> (2): 169–83. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1037%2Fa0018555">10.1037/a0018555</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848393">2848393</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20350028">20350028</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Consulting+and+Clinical+Psychology&rft.atitle=The+effect+of+mindfulness-based+therapy+on+anxiety+and+depression%3A+A+meta-analytic+review&rft.volume=78&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=169-83&rft.date=2010-04&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2848393&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F20350028&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1037%2Fa0018555&rft.aulast=Hofmann&rft.aufirst=SG&rft.au=Sawyer%2C+AT&rft.au=Witt%2C+AA&rft.au=Oh%2C+D&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2848393&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Garland-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Garland_28-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Garland_28-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Garland EL, Froeliger B, Howard MO (January 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887509">"Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface"</a>. <i>Frontiers in Psychiatry</i>. <b>4</b>: 173. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpsyt.2013.00173">10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00173</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887509">3887509</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24454293">24454293</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Frontiers+in+Psychiatry&rft.atitle=Mindfulness+training+targets+neurocognitive+mechanisms+of+addiction+at+the+attention-appraisal-emotion+interface&rft.volume=4&rft.pages=173&rft.date=2014-01&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3887509&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24454293&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.3389%2Ffpsyt.2013.00173&rft.aulast=Garland&rft.aufirst=EL&rft.au=Froeliger%2C+B&rft.au=Howard%2C+MO&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3887509&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Black-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Black_29-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Black DS (April 2014). "Mindfulness-based interventions: an antidote to suffering in the context of substance use, misuse, and addiction". <i>Substance Use & Misuse</i>. <b>49</b> (5): 487–91. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.3109%2F10826084.2014.860749">10.3109/10826084.2014.860749</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24611846">24611846</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Substance+Use+%26+Misuse&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+interventions%3A+an+antidote+to+suffering+in+the+context+of+substance+use%2C+misuse%2C+and+addiction&rft.volume=49&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=487-91&rft.date=2014-04&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.3109%2F10826084.2014.860749&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24611846&rft.aulast=Black&rft.aufirst=DS&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Paulus2016-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Paulus2016_30-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Paulus MP (January 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4677133">"Neural Basis of Mindfulness Interventions that Moderate the Impact of Stress on the Brain"</a>. <i>Neuropsychopharmacology</i>. <b>41</b> (1): 373. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fnpp.2015.239">10.1038/npp.2015.239</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4677133">4677133</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26657952">26657952</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Neuropsychopharmacology&rft.atitle=Neural+Basis+of+Mindfulness+Interventions+that+Moderate+the+Impact+of+Stress+on+the+Brain&rft.volume=41&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=373&rft.date=2016-01&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4677133&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F26657952&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1038%2Fnpp.2015.239&rft.aulast=Paulus&rft.aufirst=MP&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4677133&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Cramer2016-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Cramer2016_37-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Cramer H, Lauche R, Haller H, Langhorst J, Dobos G (January 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756771">"Mindfulness- and Acceptance-based Interventions for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis"</a>. <i>Global Advances in Health and Medicine</i>. <b>5</b> (1): 30–43. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.7453%2Fgahmj.2015.083">10.7453/gahmj.2015.083</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756771">4756771</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26937312">26937312</a>. <q>Moderate evidence was found for short-term effects on total psychotic symptoms, positive symptoms, hospitalization rates, duration of hospitalization, and mindfulness and for long-term effects on total psychotic symptoms and duration of hospitalization.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Global+Advances+in+Health+and+Medicine&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-+and+Acceptance-based+Interventions+for+Psychosis%3A+A+Systematic+Review+and+Meta-analysis&rft.volume=5&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=30-43&rft.date=2016-01&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4756771&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F26937312&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.7453%2Fgahmj.2015.083&rft.aulast=Cramer&rft.aufirst=H&rft.au=Lauche%2C+R&rft.au=Haller%2C+H&rft.au=Langhorst%2C+J&rft.au=Dobos%2C+G&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4756771&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Louise2018-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Louise2018_38-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Louise S, Fitzpatrick M, Strauss C, Rossell SL, Thomas N (February 2018). "Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions for psychosis: Our current understanding and a meta-analysis". <i>Schizophrenia Research</i>. <b>192</b>: 57–63. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.schres.2017.05.023">10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.023</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28545945">28545945</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Schizophrenia+Research&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-+and+acceptance-based+interventions+for+psychosis%3A+Our+current+understanding+and+a+meta-analysis&rft.volume=192&rft.pages=57-63&rft.date=2018-02&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.schres.2017.05.023&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F28545945&rft.aulast=Louise&rft.aufirst=S&rft.au=Fitzpatrick%2C+M&rft.au=Strauss%2C+C&rft.au=Rossell%2C+SL&rft.au=Thomas%2C+N&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Kaplan2018-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Kaplan2018_39-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Kaplan DM, Palitsky R, Carey AL, Crane TE, Havens CM, Medrano MR,  et al. (July 2018). "Maladaptive repetitive thought as a transdiagnostic phenomenon and treatment target: An integrative review". <i>Journal of Clinical Psychology</i>. <b>74</b> (7): 1126–1136. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fjclp.22585">10.1002/jclp.22585</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29342312">29342312</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Clinical+Psychology&rft.atitle=Maladaptive+repetitive+thought+as+a+transdiagnostic+phenomenon+and+treatment+target%3A+An+integrative+review&rft.volume=74&rft.issue=7&rft.pages=1126-1136&rft.date=2018-07&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1002%2Fjclp.22585&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F29342312&rft.aulast=Kaplan&rft.aufirst=DM&rft.au=Palitsky%2C+R&rft.au=Carey%2C+AL&rft.au=Crane%2C+TE&rft.au=Havens%2C+CM&rft.au=Medrano%2C+MR&rft.au=Reznik%2C+SJ&rft.au=Sbarra%2C+DA&rft.au=O%27Connor%2C+MF&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Watkins2015-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Watkins2015_40-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Ed Watkins (2015). "Psychological treatment of depressive rumination". <i>Current Opinion in Psychology</i>. <b>4</b>: 32–36. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.copsyc.2015.01.020">10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.020</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Current+Opinion+in+Psychology&rft.atitle=Psychological+treatment+of+depressive+rumination&rft.volume=4&rft.pages=32-36&rft.date=2015&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.copsyc.2015.01.020&rft.au=Ed+Watkins&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Querstret-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Querstret_41-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Querstret_41-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Querstret D, Cropley M (December 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/805216/6/Querstret%26Cropley_2013.pdf">"Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: a systematic review"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Clinical Psychology Review</i>. <b>33</b> (8): 996–1009. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.cpr.2013.08.004">10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24036088">24036088</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Clinical+Psychology+Review&rft.atitle=Assessing+treatments+used+to+reduce+rumination+and%2For+worry%3A+a+systematic+review&rft.volume=33&rft.issue=8&rft.pages=996-1009&rft.date=2013-12&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.cpr.2013.08.004&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24036088&rft.aulast=Querstret&rft.aufirst=D&rft.au=Cropley%2C+M&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fepubs.surrey.ac.uk%2F805216%2F6%2FQuerstret%2526Cropley_2013.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Gu2015-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Gu2015_42-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Gu J, Strauss C, Bond R, Cavanagh K (April 2015). "How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies". <i>Clinical Psychology Review</i>. <b>37</b>: 1–12. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.cpr.2015.01.006">10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25689576">25689576</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Clinical+Psychology+Review&rft.atitle=How+do+mindfulness-based+cognitive+therapy+and+mindfulness-based+stress+reduction+improve+mental+health+and+wellbeing%3F+A+systematic+review+and+meta-analysis+of+mediation+studies&rft.volume=37&rft.pages=1-12&rft.date=2015-04&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.cpr.2015.01.006&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F25689576&rft.aulast=Gu&rft.aufirst=J&rft.au=Strauss%2C+C&rft.au=Bond%2C+R&rft.au=Cavanagh%2C+K&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Perestelo-Perez2017-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Perestelo-Perez2017_43-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Perestelo-Perez L, Barraca J, Peñate W, Rivero-Santana A, Alvarez-Perez Y (2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220915">"Mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of depressive rumination: Systematic review and meta-analysis"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/International_Journal_of_Clinical_and_Health_Psychology" title="International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology">International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology</a></i>. <b>17</b> (3): 282–295. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ijchp.2017.07.004">10.1016/j.ijchp.2017.07.004</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220915">6220915</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30487903">30487903</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Clinical+and+Health+Psychology&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+interventions+for+the+treatment+of+depressive+rumination%3A+Systematic+review+and+meta-analysis&rft.volume=17&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=282-295&rft.date=2017&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC6220915&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F30487903&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.ijchp.2017.07.004&rft.aulast=Perestelo-Perez&rft.aufirst=L&rft.au=Barraca%2C+J&rft.au=Pe%C3%B1ate%2C+W&rft.au=Rivero-Santana%2C+A&rft.au=Alvarez-Perez%2C+Y&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC6220915&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Tang_2015-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Tang_2015_44-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Tang YY, Leve LD (March 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807201">"A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy"</a>. <i>Translational Behavioral Medicine</i>. <b>6</b> (1): 63–72. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs13142-015-0360-x">10.1007/s13142-015-0360-x</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807201">4807201</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27012254">27012254</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Translational+Behavioral+Medicine&rft.atitle=A+translational+neuroscience+perspective+on+mindfulness+meditation+as+a+prevention+strategy&rft.volume=6&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=63-72&rft.date=2016-03&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4807201&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F27012254&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1007%2Fs13142-015-0360-x&rft.aulast=Tang&rft.aufirst=YY&rft.au=Leve%2C+LD&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4807201&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Cheng2016-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Cheng2016_45-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Cheng FK (2016). "Is meditation conducive to mental well-being for adolescents? An integrative review for mental health nursing". <i>International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences</i>. <b>4</b>: 7–19. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ijans.2016.01.001">10.1016/j.ijans.2016.01.001</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Africa+Nursing+Sciences&rft.atitle=Is+meditation+conducive+to+mental+well-being+for+adolescents%3F+An+integrative+review+for+mental+health+nursing&rft.volume=4&rft.pages=7-19&rft.date=2016&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.ijans.2016.01.001&rft.au=Cheng+FK&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Farias M. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://theconversation.com/mindfulness-has-lost-its-buddhist-roots-and-it-may-not-be-doing-you-good-42526">"Mindfulness Has Lost Its Buddhist Roots, and it may not be doing you good"</a>. <i>The Conversation</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 February</span> 2020</span>. <q>What was once a tool for spiritual exploration has been turned into a panacea for the modern age — a cure-all for common human problems, from stress, to anxiety, to depression. [...] Yet the potential for emotional and psychological disturbance is rarely talked about by mindfulness researchers, the media, or mentioned in training courses. [...] Mindfulness has been separated from its roots, stripped of its ethical and spiritual connotations, and sold to us as a therapeutic tool. [...] Instead, as Giles Coren recently claimed, this technique has been turned into a McMindfulness which only reinforces one’s egocentric drives.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Conversation&rft.atitle=Mindfulness+Has+Lost+Its+Buddhist+Roots%2C+and+it+may+not+be+doing+you+good&rft.aulast=Farias&rft.aufirst=Miguel&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftheconversation.com%2Fmindfulness-has-lost-its-buddhist-roots-and-it-may-not-be-doing-you-good-42526&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">
<cite class="citation podcast">Sam Harris (28 December 2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://samharris.org/podcasts/111-science-meditation/">"The Science of Meditation"</a>. <i>samharris.org</i> (Podcast). Sam Harris.  Event occurs at 1:04.46<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 March</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+Science+of+Meditation&rft.pub=Sam+Harris&rft.date=2017-12-28&rft.au=Sam+Harris&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fsamharris.org%2Fpodcasts%2F111-science-meditation%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Mindfulness_in_plain_English-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Mindfulness_in_plain_English_48-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Mindfulness_in_plain_English_48-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Gunaratana B (2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.wisdompubs.org/sites/default/files/preview/Mindfulness%20in%20Plain%20English%20Book%20Preview.pdf"><i>Mindfulness in plain English</i></a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Boston: Wisdom Publications. p. 21. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0861719068" title="Special:BookSources/978-0861719068"><bdi>978-0861719068</bdi></a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30 January</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+in+plain+English&rft.place=Boston&rft.pages=21&rft.pub=Wisdom+Publications&rft.date=2011&rft.isbn=978-0861719068&rft.aulast=Gunaratana&rft.aufirst=Bhante&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wisdompubs.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fpreview%2FMindfulness%2520in%2520Plain%2520English%2520Book%2520Preview.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kabat-Zinn himself, in <i>Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition)</i> (2013), p. lxiv</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson2014-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson2014_52-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWilson2014">Wilson 2014</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ggia.berkeley.edu/practice/body_scan_meditation">"Body Scan Meditation (Greater Good in Action)"</a>. <i>ggia.berkeley.edu</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ggia.berkeley.edu&rft.atitle=Body+Scan+Meditation+%28Greater+Good+in+Action%29&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fggia.berkeley.edu%2Fpractice%2Fbody_scan_meditation&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/mindfulness-based-programs/mbsr-courses/about-mbsr/history-of-mbsr/">"History of MBSR"</a>. <i>University of Massachusetts Medical School</i>. November 17, 2016.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=University+of+Massachusetts+Medical+School&rft.atitle=History+of+MBSR&rft.date=2016-11-17&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.umassmed.edu%2Fcfm%2Fmindfulness-based-programs%2Fmbsr-courses%2Fabout-mbsr%2Fhistory-of-mbsr%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEIhnenFlynn2008148-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEIhnenFlynn2008148_57-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFIhnenFlynn2008">Ihnen & Flynn 2008</a>, p. 148.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTETeasdaleSegal200755–56-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTETeasdaleSegal200755–56_58-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFTeasdaleSegal2007">Teasdale & Segal 2007</a>, pp. 55–56.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Time2014-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Time2014_61-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Time2014_61-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Time2014_61-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Time2014_61-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Pickert K (February 2014). "The art of being mindful. Finding peace in a stressed-out, digitally dependent culture may just be a matter of thinking differently". <i>Time</i>. <b>183</b> (4): 40–6. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24640415">24640415</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Time&rft.atitle=The+art+of+being+mindful.+Finding+peace+in+a+stressed-out%2C+digitally+dependent+culture+may+just+be+a+matter+of+thinking+differently&rft.volume=183&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=40-6&rft.date=2014-02&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24640415&rft.aulast=Pickert&rft.aufirst=K&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson201454–55-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson201454–55_62-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWilson2014">Wilson 2014</a>, pp. 54–55.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Mahāsi Sayādaw, <i>Manual of Insight, Chapter 5</i></span>
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<li id="cite_note-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Mahasi Sayadaw, <i>Practical Vipassana Instructions</i>, pp. 22–27</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Art-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Art_65-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.dhamma.org/en/art.shtml">"The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation"</a>. Dhamma.org<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2013-05-30</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+Art+of+Living%3A+Vipassana+Meditation&rft.pub=Dhamma.org&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dhamma.org%2Fen%2Fart.shtml&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Brown_et_al_2007-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Brown_et_al_2007_67-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Brown_et_al_2007_67-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Brown_et_al_2007_67-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD (2007). "Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects". <i>Psychological Inquiry</i>. <b>18</b> (4): 211–37. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1080%2F10478400701598298">10.1080/10478400701598298</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Psychological+Inquiry&rft.atitle=Mindfulness%3A+Theoretical+Foundations+and+Evidence+for+its+Salutary+Effects&rft.volume=18&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=211-37&rft.date=2007&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F10478400701598298&rft.aulast=Brown&rft.aufirst=Kirk+Warren&rft.au=Ryan%2C+Richard+M&rft.au=Creswell%2C+J.+David&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014942-68"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014942_68-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014942_68-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSharf2014">Sharf 2014</a>, p. 942.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014942–43-70"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014942–43_70-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSharf2014">Sharf 2014</a>, pp. 942–43.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf2014943-71"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014943_71-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf2014943_71-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSharf2014">Sharf 2014</a>, p. 943.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Dreyfus-73"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Dreyfus_73-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Dreyfus_73-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://info-buddhism.com/Mindfulness_Present-Centered_Nonjudgmental-Attention_Introspection-A-Discussion_Dreyfus.html">"Is Mindfulness Present-Centered and Nonjudgmental? A Discussion of the Cognitive Dimensions of Mindfulness"</a> by Georges Dreyfus</span>
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<li id="cite_note-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">James H. Austin (2014), <i>Zen-Brain Horizons: Toward a Living Zen</i>, MIT Press, p. 83</span>
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<li id="cite_note-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-85">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Hayes AM (2004). "Clarifying the Construct of Mindfulness in the Context of Emotion Regulation and the Process of Change in Therapy". <i>Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice</i>. <b>11</b> (3): 255–62. <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX" title="CiteSeerX">CiteSeerX</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.168.5070">10.1.1.168.5070</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fclipsy%2Fbph080">10.1093/clipsy/bph080</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Clinical+Psychology%3A+Science+and+Practice&rft.atitle=Clarifying+the+Construct+of+Mindfulness+in+the+Context+of+Emotion+Regulation+and+the+Process+of+Change+in+Therapy&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=255-62&rft.date=2004&rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.168.5070&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fclipsy%2Fbph080&rft.aulast=Hayes&rft.aufirst=AM&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGehart20127–8-86"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGehart20127–8_86-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGehart2012">Gehart 2012</a>, pp. 7–8.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20111-87"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20111_87-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20111_87-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBlack2011">Black 2011</a>, p. 1.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack20112-88"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack20112_88-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBlack2011">Black 2011</a>, p. 2.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGehart20127-90"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGehart20127_90-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGehart20127_90-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGehart2012">Gehart 2012</a>, p. 7.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEZgierskaRabagoChawlaKushner2009-91"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZgierskaRabagoChawlaKushner2009_91-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFZgierskaRabagoChawlaKushner2009">Zgierska et al. 2009</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDidonna200827-92"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDidonna200827_92-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFDidonna2008">Didonna 2008</a>, p. 27.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKristeller2007393-93"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKristeller2007393_93-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKristeller2007">Kristeller 2007</a>, p. 393.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGermer200515-94"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGermer200515_94-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGermer2005">Germer 2005</a>, p. 15.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick201010-96"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick201010_96-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick201010_96-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHick2010">Hick 2010</a>, p. 10.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-bishopetal2004-97"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-bishopetal2004_97-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Bishop SR, Lau M, Shapiro S, Carlson L, Anderson ND, Carmody J, Segal ZV, Abbey S, Speca M, Velting D, Devins G (2006). "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition". <i>Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice</i>. <b>11</b> (3): 230–41. <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX" title="CiteSeerX">CiteSeerX</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.168.6212">10.1.1.168.6212</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fclipsy.bph077">10.1093/clipsy.bph077</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Clinical+Psychology%3A+Science+and+Practice&rft.atitle=Mindfulness%3A+A+Proposed+Operational+Definition&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=230-41&rft.date=2006&rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.168.6212&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fclipsy.bph077&rft.aulast=Bishop&rft.aufirst=Scott+R.&rft.au=Lau%2C+Mark&rft.au=Shapiro%2C+Shauna&rft.au=Carlson%2C+Linda&rft.au=Anderson%2C+Nicole+D.&rft.au=Carmody%2C+James&rft.au=Segal%2C+Zindel+V.&rft.au=Abbey%2C+Susan&rft.au=Speca%2C+Michael&rft.au=Velting%2C+Drew&rft.au=Devins%2C+Gerald&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Tanay-98"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Tanay_98-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Tanay G, Bernstein A (December 2013). "State Mindfulness Scale (SMS): development and initial validation". <i>Psychological Assessment</i>. <b>25</b> (4): 1286–99. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1037%2Fa0034044">10.1037/a0034044</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24059475">24059475</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Psychological+Assessment&rft.atitle=State+Mindfulness+Scale+%28SMS%29%3A+development+and+initial+validation&rft.volume=25&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=1286-99&rft.date=2013-12&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1037%2Fa0034044&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24059475&rft.aulast=Tanay&rft.aufirst=G&rft.au=Bernstein%2C+A&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-99"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-99">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Marlatt & Kristeller, 1999, p. 68</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHick20106-100"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHick20106_100-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHick2010">Hick 2010</a>, p. 6.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Bhikkhu_Bodhi-101"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Bhikkhu_Bodhi_101-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Bhikkhu_Bodhi_101-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Bhikkhu Bodhi. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bodhi/waytoend.html">"The Noble Eightfold Path"</a>. Access to Insight<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-16</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+Noble+Eightfold+Path&rft.pub=Access+to+Insight&rft.au=Bhikkhu+Bodhi&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.accesstoinsight.org%2Flib%2Fauthors%2Fbodhi%2Fwaytoend.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-102"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-102">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">From 'See, Hear, Feel: An Introduction', draft 1.8., <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://www.shinzen.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/SeeHearFeelIntroduction_ver1.8.pdf">https://www.shinzen.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/SeeHearFeelIntroduction_ver1.8.pdf</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-103"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-103">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">p. 30, <i>The Mind Illuminated</i>, Culadasa with Immergut and Graves, Hay House, 2015.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-104"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-104">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Oxford English Dictionary</i>, 2nd ed., 2002</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201122–23-106"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201122–23_106-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKabat-Zinn2011">Kabat-Zinn 2011</a>, pp. 22–23.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201365-107"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn201365_107-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKabat-Zinn2013">Kabat-Zinn 2013</a>, p. 65.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008-110"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcMahan2008_110-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMcMahan2008">McMahan 2008</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B-111"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B_111-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESharf1995-B_111-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSharf1995-B">Sharf & 1995-B</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-113"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-113">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140322013413/http://www.mindandlife.org/dialogues/past-conferences/ml18/">"The 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mindandlife.org/dialogues/past-conferences/ml18">the original</a> on 22 March 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+18th+Mind+and+Life+Dialogues+meeting&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mindandlife.org%2Fdialogues%2Fpast-conferences%2Fml18&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEVetter1988-115"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEVetter1988_115-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFVetter1988">Vetter 1988</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-116"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-116">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Rhys Davids T (1959) [1910]. <i>Dialogues of the Buddha, Part II</i>. Oxford, Great Britain: Pali Text Society. pp. 322–346. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86013-034-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-86013-034-7"><bdi>0-86013-034-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Dialogues+of+the+Buddha%2C+Part+II&rft.place=Oxford%2C+Great+Britain&rft.pages=322-346&rft.pub=Pali+Text+Society&rft.date=1959&rft.isbn=0-86013-034-7&rft.aulast=Rhys+Davids&rft.aufirst=T.W.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-hcz2-117"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-hcz2_117-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Brad_Warner" title="Brad Warner">Warner B</a> (2003). <a href="/wiki/Hardcore_Zen" title="Hardcore Zen"><i>Hardcore Zen: Punk Rock, Monster Movies, & the Truth about Reality</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/Wisdom_Publications" class="mw-redirect" title="Wisdom Publications">Wisdom Publications</a>. pp. 189–190. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/086171380X" title="Special:BookSources/086171380X"><bdi>086171380X</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Hardcore+Zen%3A+Punk+Rock%2C+Monster+Movies%2C+%26+the+Truth+about+Reality&rft.pages=189-190&rft.pub=Wisdom+Publications&rft.date=2003&rft.isbn=086171380X&rft.aulast=Warner&rft.aufirst=Brad&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-118"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-118">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Shunry%C5%AB_Suzuki" title="Shunryū Suzuki">Suzuki S</a> (2011). <a href="/wiki/Zen_Mind,_Beginner%27s_Mind" title="Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind"><i>Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/Shambhala_Publications" title="Shambhala Publications">Shambhala Publications</a>. pp. 15–16. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-159030849-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-159030849-3"><bdi>978-159030849-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Zen+Mind%2C+Beginner%27s+Mind&rft.pages=15-16&rft.pub=Shambhala+Publications&rft.date=2011&rft.isbn=978-159030849-3&rft.aulast=Suzuki&rft.aufirst=Shunry%C5%AB&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Analayo_2003-119"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Analayo_2003_119-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Analayo_2003_119-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Analayo_2003_119-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Anālayo B (2003). <i>Satipaṭṭhāna, the direct path to realization</i>. Windhorse Publications.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Satipa%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADh%C4%81na%2C+the+direct+path+to+realization&rft.pub=Windhorse+Publications&rft.date=2003&rft.aulast=An%C4%81layo&rft.aufirst=Bhikku&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Sister_Ayya_Khema-120"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Sister_Ayya_Khema_120-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Sister Ayya Khema. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khema/allofus.html">"All of Us"</a>. Access to Insight<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-03-16</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=All+of+Us&rft.pub=Access+to+Insight&rft.au=Sister+Ayya+Khema&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.accesstoinsight.org%2Flib%2Fauthors%2Fkhema%2Fallofus.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-121"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-121">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Defined by Reginald A. Ray. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140102200123/http://archive.thebuddhadharma.com/issues/2004/summer/dharma_dictionary.htm">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">"</span>Vipashyana," by Reginald A. Ray. <i>Buddhadharma: The Practitioner's Quarterly</i>, Summer 2004"</a>. Archive.thebuddhadharma.com. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://archive.thebuddhadharma.com/issues/2004/summer/dharma_dictionary.htm">the original</a> on 2014-01-02<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2013-05-30</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=%22Vipashyana%2C%22+by+Reginald+A.+Ray.+Buddhadharma%3A+The+Practitioner%27s+Quarterly%2C+Summer+2004&rft.pub=Archive.thebuddhadharma.com&rft.au=Defined+by+Reginald+A.+Ray&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farchive.thebuddhadharma.com%2Fissues%2F2004%2Fsummer%2Fdharma_dictionary.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-123"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-123">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.accesstoinsight.org/theravada.html">"What is Theravada Buddhism?"</a>. <i>Access to Insight</i>. Access to Insight<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 August</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Access+to+Insight&rft.atitle=What+is+Theravada+Buddhism%3F&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.accesstoinsight.org%2Ftheravada.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Subhuti-125"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Subhuti_125-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Subhuti_125-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Satyadarshin. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://madhyamavani.fwbo.org/8/mindfulness.html">"Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO): Buddhism and Mindfulness"</a>. <i>madhyamavani.fwbo.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=madhyamavani.fwbo.org&rft.atitle=Friends+of+the+Western+Buddhist+Order+%28FWBO%29%3A+Buddhism+and+Mindfulness&rft.au=Satyadarshin&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmadhyamavani.fwbo.org%2F8%2Fmindfulness.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-127"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-127">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://shamatha.org/sites/default/files/Bhikkhu_Bodhi_Correspondence.pdf">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">"</span>The Nature of Mindfulness and Its Role in Buddhist Meditation" A Correspondence between B.A. wallace and the Venerable Bikkhu Bodhi, Winter 2006, p.4"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=%22The+Nature+of+Mindfulness+and+Its+Role+in+Buddhist+Meditation%22+A+Correspondence+between+B.A.+wallace+and+the+Venerable+Bikkhu+Bodhi%2C+Winter+2006%2C+p.4&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fshamatha.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2FBhikkhu_Bodhi_Correspondence.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Buddhadasa_Bhikkhu-129"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Buddhadasa_Bhikkhu_129-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBuddhadasa_Bhikkhu2014" class="citation">Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (2014), <i>Heartwood of the Bodhi Tree</i>, Wisdom publications, pp. 79, 101, 117 note 42</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Heartwood+of+the+Bodhi+Tree&rft.pages=79%2C+101%2C+117+note+42&rft.pub=Wisdom+publications&rft.date=2014&rft.au=Buddhadasa+Bhikkhu&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolak2011-130"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolak2011_130-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFPolak2011">Polak 2011</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d.-131"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d._131-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinnn.d._131-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKabat-Zinnn.d.">Kabat-Zinn n.d</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268-133"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268_133-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268_133-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris2009268_133-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHarris2009">Harris 2009</a>, p. 268.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKipf19793-8-135"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKipf19793-8_135-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKipf1979">Kipf 1979</a>, p. 3-8.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKing2001-136"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKing2001_136-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKing2001">King 2001</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson201422-137"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson201422_137-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWilson2014">Wilson 2014</a>, p. 22.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson201417-138"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson201417_138-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWilson2014">Wilson 2014</a>, p. 17.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-139"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-139">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"The Stress Reduction Program, founded by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn in 1979..." - <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/stress/index.aspx">http://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/stress/index.aspx</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-140"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-140">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Much of the interest in the clinical applications of mindfulness has been sparked by the introduction of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a manualized treatment program originally developed for the management of chronic pain (Kabat-Zinn, 1982; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, & Burney, 1985; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, Burney, & Sellers, 1987)." - Bishop et al, 2004, "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition"</span>
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<li id="cite_note-143"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-143">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Drage M (22 February 2018). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://wellcomecollection.org/articles/WoxJxSoAAMLuX7Pl">"A history of mindfulness"</a>. <i>Wellcome Collection</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-12-13</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Wellcome+Collection&rft.atitle=A+history+of+mindfulness&rft.date=2018-02-22&rft.aulast=Drage&rft.aufirst=Matthew&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwellcomecollection.org%2Farticles%2FWoxJxSoAAMLuX7Pl&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-What_Is_Mindfulness-144"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-What_Is_Mindfulness_144-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/topic/mindfulness/definition">"What Is Mindfulness?"</a>. <i>The Greater Good Science Center</i>. The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California, Berkeley<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2014-04-24</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Greater+Good+Science+Center&rft.atitle=What+Is+Mindfulness%3F&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fgreatergood.berkeley.edu%2Ftopic%2Fmindfulness%2Fdefinition&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Israel-145"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Israel_145-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Israel I (30 May 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ira-israel/types-of-mindfulness_b_3347428.html">"What's the Difference Between Mindfulness, Mindfulness Meditation and Basic Meditation?"</a>. <i>The Huffington Post</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Huffington+Post&rft.atitle=What%27s+the+Difference+Between+Mindfulness%2C+Mindfulness+Meditation+and+Basic+Meditation%3F&rft.date=2013-05-30&rft.aulast=Israel&rft.aufirst=Ira&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.huffingtonpost.com%2Fira-israel%2Ftypes-of-mindfulness_b_3347428.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn2000-148"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKabat-Zinn2000_148-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFKabat-Zinn2000">Kabat-Zinn 2000</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-149"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-149">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer</span>
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<li id="cite_note-254"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-254">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Wachs K, Cordova JV (October 2007). "Mindful relating: exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships". <i>Journal of Marital and Family Therapy</i>. <b>33</b> (4): 464–81. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1752-0606.2007.00032.x">10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00032.x</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17935530">17935530</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Marital+and+Family+Therapy&rft.atitle=Mindful+relating%3A+exploring+mindfulness+and+emotion+repertoires+in+intimate+relationships&rft.volume=33&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=464-81&rft.date=2007-10&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.1752-0606.2007.00032.x&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F17935530&rft.aulast=Wachs&rft.aufirst=K&rft.au=Cordova%2C+JV&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-McLean2017-255"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-McLean2017_255-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">McLean G, Lawrence M, Simpson R, Mercer SW (May 2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433018">"Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review"</a>. <i>BMC Neurology</i>. <b>17</b> (1): 92. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1186%2Fs12883-017-0876-4">10.1186/s12883-017-0876-4</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433018">5433018</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28506263">28506263</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=BMC+Neurology&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+stress+reduction+in+Parkinson%27s+disease%3A+a+systematic+review&rft.volume=17&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=92&rft.date=2017-05&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC5433018&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F28506263&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1186%2Fs12883-017-0876-4&rft.aulast=McLean&rft.aufirst=G&rft.au=Lawrence%2C+M&rft.au=Simpson%2C+R&rft.au=Mercer%2C+SW&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC5433018&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Taylor2016-256"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Taylor2016_256-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Lever Taylor B, Cavanagh K, Strauss C (2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4868288">"The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis"</a>. <i>PLOS ONE</i>. <b>11</b> (5): e0155720. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PLoSO..1155720L">2016PLoSO..1155720L</a>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0155720">10.1371/journal.pone.0155720</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4868288">4868288</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27182732">27182732</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=PLOS+ONE&rft.atitle=The+Effectiveness+of+Mindfulness-Based+Interventions+in+the+Perinatal+Period%3A+A+Systematic+Review+and+Meta-Analysis&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=e0155720&rft.date=2016&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4868288&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F27182732&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0155720&rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2016PLoSO..1155720L&rft.aulast=Lever+Taylor&rft.aufirst=B&rft.au=Cavanagh%2C+K&rft.au=Strauss%2C+C&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4868288&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Grossman_2008-257"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Grossman_2008_257-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Grossman P (April 2008). "On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research". <i>Journal of Psychosomatic Research</i>. <b>64</b> (4): 405–8. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jpsychores.2008.02.001">10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.02.001</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18374739">18374739</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Psychosomatic+Research&rft.atitle=On+measuring+mindfulness+in+psychosomatic+and+psychological+research&rft.volume=64&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=405-8&rft.date=2008-04&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.jpsychores.2008.02.001&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F18374739&rft.aulast=Grossman&rft.aufirst=P&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-wallace06-258"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-wallace06_258-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-wallace06_258-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/B._Alan_Wallace" title="B. Alan Wallace">Wallace BA</a> (2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip065/2005037195.html"><i>The attention revolution: Unlocking the power of the focused mind</i></a>. Boston: Wisdom Publications. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0861712762" title="Special:BookSources/978-0861712762"><bdi>978-0861712762</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+attention+revolution%3A+Unlocking+the+power+of+the+focused+mind&rft.place=Boston&rft.pub=Wisdom+Publications&rft.date=2006&rft.isbn=978-0861712762&rft.aulast=Wallace&rft.aufirst=B.+Alan&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.loc.gov%2Fcatdir%2Ftoc%2Fecip065%2F2005037195.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-267"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-267">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Shonin E (August 27, 2015). <i>Buddhist Foundations of Mindfulness (Mindfulness in Behavioral Health)</i> (1st ed.). Springer. pp. 90–94.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Buddhist+Foundations+of+Mindfulness+%28Mindfulness+in+Behavioral+Health%29&rft.pages=90-94&rft.edition=1st&rft.pub=Springer&rft.date=2015-08-27&rft.aulast=Shonin&rft.aufirst=Edo&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-268"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-268">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Foster D (2016-01-23). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/jan/23/is-mindfulness-making-us-ill">"Is mindfulness making us ill?"</a>. theguardian. Guardian News<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2016-01-23</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Is+mindfulness+making+us+ill%3F&rft.date=2016-01-23&rft.aulast=Foster&rft.aufirst=Dawn&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Flifeandstyle%2F2016%2Fjan%2F23%2Fis-mindfulness-making-us-ill&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-SHONIN2014-269"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-SHONIN2014_269-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SHONIN2014_269-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Shonin E, Gordon WV, Griffiths MD (2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/25868/1/221391_2996.pdf">"Are there risks associated with using mindfulness in the treatment of psychopathology?"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Clinical Practice</i>. <b>11</b> (4): 389–92. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2217%2Fcpr.14.23">10.2217/cpr.14.23</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Clinical+Practice&rft.atitle=Are+there+risks+associated+with+using+mindfulness+in+the+treatment+of+psychopathology%3F&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=389-92&rft.date=2014&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2217%2Fcpr.14.23&rft.aulast=Shonin&rft.aufirst=Edo&rft.au=Gordon%2C+William+Van&rft.au=Griffiths%2C+Mark+D&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Firep.ntu.ac.uk%2Fid%2Feprint%2F25868%2F1%2F221391_2996.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Wong2018-270"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Wong2018_270-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Wong SY, Chan JY, Zhang D, Lee EK, Tsoi KK (2018). "The Safety of Mindfulness-Based Interventions: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials". <i>Mindfulness</i>: 1–14.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Mindfulness&rft.atitle=The+Safety+of+Mindfulness-Based+Interventions%3A+a+Systematic+Review+of+Randomized+Controlled+Trials&rft.pages=1-14&rft.date=2018&rft.aulast=Wong&rft.aufirst=SY&rft.au=Chan%2C+JY&rft.au=Zhang%2C+D&rft.au=Lee%2C+EK&rft.au=Tsoi%2C+KK&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=57" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Printed_sources">Printed sources</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=58" title="Edit section: Printed sources">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047268">.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}</style><div class="refbegin reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 32em; -webkit-column-width: 32em; column-width: 32em;">
<ul><li><cite class="citation book">Bazzano M (2014). <i>After Mindfulness: New Perspectives on Psychology and Meditation</i>. Palgrave Macmillan.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=After+Mindfulness%3A+New+Perspectives+on+Psychology+and+Meditation&rft.pub=Palgrave+Macmillan&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Bazzano&rft.aufirst=Manu&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Bell LG (2009). "Mindful Psychotherapy". <i>Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health</i>. <b>11</b> (1–2): 126–44. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1080%2F19349630902864275">10.1080/19349630902864275</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Spirituality+in+Mental+Health&rft.atitle=Mindful+Psychotherapy&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=1%E2%80%932&rft.pages=126-44&rft.date=2009&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F19349630902864275&rft.aulast=Bell&rft.aufirst=Linda+G&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Benhard JD, Kristeller J, Kabat-Zinn J (September 1988). "Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as an adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis". <i>Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology</i>. <b>19</b> (3): 572–4. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0190-9622%2888%2980329-3">10.1016/S0190-9622(88)80329-3</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3049703">3049703</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+American+Academy+of+Dermatology&rft.atitle=Effectiveness+of+relaxation+and+visualization+techniques+as+an+adjunct+to+phototherapy+and+photochemotherapy+of+psoriasis&rft.volume=19&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=572-4&rft.date=1988-09&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2FS0190-9622%2888%2980329-3&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F3049703&rft.aulast=Benhard&rft.aufirst=JD&rft.au=Kristeller%2C+J&rft.au=Kabat-Zinn%2C+J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Bishop SR, Lau M, Shapiro S, Carlson L, Anderson ND, Carmody J, Segal ZV, Abbey S, Speca M, Velting D, Devins G (2006). "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition". <i>Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice</i>. <b>11</b> (3): 230–41. <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX" title="CiteSeerX">CiteSeerX</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.168.6212">10.1.1.168.6212</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fclipsy.bph077">10.1093/clipsy.bph077</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Clinical+Psychology%3A+Science+and+Practice&rft.atitle=Mindfulness%3A+A+Proposed+Operational+Definition&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=230-41&rft.date=2006&rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.168.6212&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fclipsy.bph077&rft.aulast=Bishop&rft.aufirst=Scott+R&rft.au=Lau%2C+Mark&rft.au=Shapiro%2C+Shauna&rft.au=Carlson%2C+Linda&rft.au=Anderson%2C+Nicole+D&rft.au=Carmody%2C+James&rft.au=Segal%2C+Zindel+V&rft.au=Abbey%2C+Susan&rft.au=Speca%2C+Michael&rft.au=Velting%2C+Drew&rft.au=Devins%2C+Gerald&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation web">Black DS (2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mindfulexperience.org/resources/brief_definition.pdf">"A Brief Definition of Mindfulness"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=A+Brief+Definition+of+Mindfulness&rft.date=2011&rft.aulast=Black&rft.aufirst=David+S.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mindfulexperience.org%2Fresources%2Fbrief_definition.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Frank_Jude_Boccio" title="Frank Jude Boccio">Boccio FJ</a> (2004). <i>Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath, Body and Mind</i>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-335-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-86171-335-4"><bdi>0-86171-335-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+Yoga%3A+The+Awakened+Union+of+Breath%2C+Body+and+Mind&rft.date=2004&rft.isbn=0-86171-335-4&rft.aulast=Boccio&rft.aufirst=FJ&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Bowen S, Chawla N, <a href="/wiki/G._Alan_Marlatt" title="G. Alan Marlatt">Marlatt GA</a> (2010). <i>Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Addictive Behaviors: A Clinician's Guide</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-987-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-987-2"><bdi>978-1-60623-987-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness-Based+Relapse+Prevention+for+Addictive+Behaviors%3A+A+Clinician%27s+Guide&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2010&rft.isbn=978-1-60623-987-2&rft.aulast=Bowen&rft.aufirst=S&rft.au=Chawla%2C+N&rft.au=Marlatt%2C+GA&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Brahm A (2005). <i>Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook</i>. Wisdom Publications. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-86171-275-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-86171-275-5"><bdi>978-0-86171-275-5</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness%2C+Bliss%2C+and+Beyond%3A+A+Meditator%27s+Handbook&rft.pub=Wisdom+Publications&rft.date=2005&rft.isbn=978-0-86171-275-5&rft.aulast=Brahm&rft.aufirst=Ajahn&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Brantley J (2007). <i>Calming Your Anxious Mind: How Mindfulness & Compassion Can Free You from Anxiety, Fear, & Panic</i> (2nd ed.). New Harbinger. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-57224-487-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-57224-487-0"><bdi>978-1-57224-487-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Calming+Your+Anxious+Mind%3A+How+Mindfulness+%26+Compassion+Can+Free+You+from+Anxiety%2C+Fear%2C+%26+Panic&rft.edition=2nd&rft.pub=New+Harbinger&rft.date=2007&rft.isbn=978-1-57224-487-0&rft.aulast=Brantley&rft.aufirst=Jeffrey&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Buddhadasa B (2014). <i>Heartwood of the Bodhi Tree</i>. Wisdom publications.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Heartwood+of+the+Bodhi+Tree&rft.pub=Wisdom+publications&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Buddhadasa&rft.aufirst=Bhikkhu&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Deckersbach T, Hölzel B, Eisner L, Lazar SW, Nierenberg AA (2014). <i>Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-1406-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-1406-9"><bdi>978-1-4625-1406-9</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness-Based+Cognitive+Therapy+for+Bipolar+Disorder&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.isbn=978-1-4625-1406-9&rft.aulast=Deckersbach&rft.aufirst=T&rft.au=H%C3%B6lzel%2C+B&rft.au=Eisner%2C+L&rft.au=Lazar%2C+SW&rft.au=Nierenberg%2C+AA&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Didonna F (2008). <i>Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness</i>. Springer Science & Business Media.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Clinical+Handbook+of+Mindfulness&rft.pub=Springer+Science+%26+Business+Media&rft.date=2008&rft.aulast=Didonna&rft.aufirst=Fabrizio&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Dreyfus G (2013). "Is mindfulness present-centered and non-judgmental? A discussion of the cognitive dimensions of mindfulness".  In Williams JM, Kabat-Zinn J (eds.). <i>Mindfulness: Diverse Perspectives on its Meaning, Origins and Applications</i>. Routledge.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Is+mindfulness+present-centered+and+non-judgmental%3F+A+discussion+of+the+cognitive+dimensions+of+mindfulness&rft.btitle=Mindfulness%3A+Diverse+Perspectives+on+its+Meaning%2C+Origins+and+Applications&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.date=2013&rft.aulast=Dreyfus&rft.aufirst=Georges&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Gehart DR (2012). <i>Mindfulness and Acceptance in Couple and Family Therapy</i>. Springer Science & Business Media.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+and+Acceptance+in+Couple+and+Family+Therapy&rft.pub=Springer+Science+%26+Business+Media&rft.date=2012&rft.aulast=Gehart&rft.aufirst=Diane+R.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Germer CK (2005). "Mindfulness. What Is It? What does It Matter?".  In Germer CK, Siegel RD, Fulton PR (eds.). <i>Mindfulness and Psychotherapy</i>. Guilford Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Mindfulness.+What+Is+It%3F+What+does+It+Matter%3F&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+and+Psychotherapy&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2005&rft.aulast=Germer&rft.aufirst=Christopher+K.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Germer CK (2009). <i>The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-59385-975-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-59385-975-6"><bdi>978-1-59385-975-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindful+Path+to+Self-Compassion%3A+Freeing+Yourself+from+Destructive+Thoughts+and+Emotions&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2009&rft.isbn=978-1-59385-975-6&rft.aulast=Germer&rft.aufirst=CK&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Germer CK, Siegel R, Fulton PR, eds. (2013). <i>Mindfulness and Psychotherapy</i> (Second ed.). Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-1137-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-1137-2"><bdi>978-1-4625-1137-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+and+Psychotherapy&rft.edition=Second&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2013&rft.isbn=978-1-4625-1137-2&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Germer CK, Siegel R, Fulton PR (2005). <i>Mindfulness and Psychotherapy</i>. The Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-59385-139-1" title="Special:BookSources/1-59385-139-1"><bdi>1-59385-139-1</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+and+Psychotherapy&rft.pub=The+Guilford+Press&rft.date=2005&rft.isbn=1-59385-139-1&rft.aulast=Germer&rft.aufirst=Christopher+K.&rft.au=Siegel%2C+Ronald&rft.au=Fulton%2C+Paul+R.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/> (The use of mindfulness in psychology, and the history of mindfulness)</li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H (July 2004). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis". <i>Journal of Psychosomatic Research</i>. <b>57</b> (1): 35–43. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0022-3999%2803%2900573-7">10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15256293">15256293</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Psychosomatic+Research&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+stress+reduction+and+health+benefits.+A+meta-analysis&rft.volume=57&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=35-43&rft.date=2004-07&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2FS0022-3999%2803%2900573-7&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F15256293&rft.aulast=Grossman&rft.aufirst=P&rft.au=Niemann%2C+L&rft.au=Schmidt%2C+S&rft.au=Walach%2C+H&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Guenther HV, Kawamura LS (1975). <i>Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding"</i> (Kindle ed.). Dharma Publishing.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mind+in+Buddhist+Psychology%3A+A+Translation+of+Ye-shes+rgyal-mtshan%27s+%22The+Necklace+of+Clear+Understanding%22&rft.edition=Kindle&rft.pub=Dharma+Publishing&rft.date=1975&rft.aulast=Guenther&rft.aufirst=Herbert+V.&rft.au=Kawamura%2C+Leslie+S.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Gunaratana BH (2002). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/mfneng/mind0.htm"><i>Mindfulness in Plain English</i></a>. Wisdom Publications. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-86171-906-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-86171-906-8"><bdi>978-0-86171-906-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+in+Plain+English&rft.pub=Wisdom+Publications&rft.date=2002&rft.isbn=978-0-86171-906-8&rft.aulast=Gunaratana&rft.aufirst=Bhante+Henepola&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.buddhanet.net%2Fbudsas%2Febud%2Fmfneng%2Fmind0.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Hanh TN (1996). <i>The Miracle of Mindfulness: A Manual on Meditation</i>. Beacon Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Miracle+of+Mindfulness%3A+A+Manual+on+Meditation&rft.pub=Beacon+Press&rft.date=1996&rft.aulast=Hanh&rft.aufirst=Thich+Nhat&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Harris MW (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.google.fi/books?hl=en&lr=&id=pk4yL-oB1JQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=The+A+to+Z+of+Unitarian+Universalism&ots=FgkmAXMuCm&sig=eeIGGMhTAtvDxV_JQ0kRaOesPUw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false"><i>The A to Z of Unitarian Universalism</i></a>. Scarecrow Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780810863330" title="Special:BookSources/9780810863330"><bdi>9780810863330</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+A+to+Z+of+Unitarian+Universalism&rft.pub=Scarecrow+Press&rft.date=2009&rft.isbn=9780810863330&rft.aulast=Harris&rft.aufirst=Mark+W.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.fi%2Fbooks%3Fhl%3Den%26lr%3D%26id%3Dpk4yL-oB1JQC%26oi%3Dfnd%26pg%3DPR7%26dq%3DThe%2BA%2Bto%2BZ%2Bof%2BUnitarian%2BUniversalism%26ots%3DFgkmAXMuCm%26sig%3DeeIGGMhTAtvDxV_JQ0kRaOesPUw%26redir_esc%3Dy%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Hayes SC, Follette VM, Linehan MM, eds. (2011). <i>Mindfulness and Acceptance: Expanding the Cognitive-Behavioral Tradition</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-60918-989-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-60918-989-1"><bdi>978-1-60918-989-1</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+and+Acceptance%3A+Expanding+the+Cognitive-Behavioral+Tradition&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2011&rft.isbn=978-1-60918-989-1&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Hick SF (2010). "Cultivating Therapeutic Relationships: The Role of Mindfulness.".  In Hick SF, Bien T (eds.). <i>Mindfulness and the Therapeutic Relationship</i>. Guilford Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Cultivating+Therapeutic+Relationships%3A+The+Role+of+Mindfulness.&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+and+the+Therapeutic+Relationship&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2010&rft.aulast=Hick&rft.aufirst=Steven+F.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D (April 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848393">"The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review"</a>. <i>Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology</i>. <b>78</b> (2): 169–83. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1037%2Fa0018555">10.1037/a0018555</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848393">2848393</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20350028">20350028</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Consulting+and+Clinical+Psychology&rft.atitle=The+effect+of+mindfulness-based+therapy+on+anxiety+and+depression%3A+A+meta-analytic+review&rft.volume=78&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=169-83&rft.date=2010-04&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2848393&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F20350028&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1037%2Fa0018555&rft.aulast=Hofmann&rft.aufirst=SG&rft.au=Sawyer%2C+AT&rft.au=Witt%2C+AA&rft.au=Oh%2C+D&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2848393&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Hoopes A (2007). <i>Zen Yoga: A Path to Enlightenment through Breathing, Movement and Meditation</i>. Kodansha International.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Zen+Yoga%3A+A+Path+to+Enlightenment+through+Breathing%2C+Movement+and+Meditation&rft.pub=Kodansha+International&rft.date=2007&rft.aulast=Hoopes&rft.aufirst=Aaron&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Ihnen A, Flynn C (2008). <i>The Complete Idiot's Guide to Mindfulness</i>. Penguin.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Complete+Idiot%27s+Guide+to+Mindfulness&rft.pub=Penguin&rft.date=2008&rft.aulast=Ihnen&rft.aufirst=Anne&rft.au=Flynn%2C+Carolyn&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFKabat-Zinn2000" class="citation journal">Kabat-Zinn J (July 2000). "Participatory medicine". <i>Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology</i>. <b>14</b> (4): 239–40. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1046%2Fj.1468-3083.2000.00062.x">10.1046/j.1468-3083.2000.00062.x</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11204505">11204505</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+European+Academy+of+Dermatology+and+Venereology&rft.atitle=Participatory+medicine&rft.volume=14&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=239-40&rft.date=2000-07&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1046%2Fj.1468-3083.2000.00062.x&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F11204505&rft.aulast=Kabat-Zinn&rft.aufirst=J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Kabat-Zinn, Jon (2011). <i>Mindfulness for Beginners: Reclaiming the Present Moment--and Your Life</i>. Sounds True.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+for+Beginners%3A+Reclaiming+the+Present+Moment--and+Your+Life&rft.pub=Sounds+True&rft.date=2011&rft.aulast=Kabat-Zinn&rft.aufirst=Jon&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Kabat-Zinn, Jon (2013). <i>Arriving at Your Own Door: 108 Lessons in Mindfulness</i>. Hachette UK.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Arriving+at+Your+Own+Door%3A+108+Lessons+in+Mindfulness&rft.pub=Hachette+UK&rft.date=2013&rft.aulast=Kabat-Zinn&rft.aufirst=Jon&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
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<li><cite class="citation book">Langer EJ (1989). <i>Mindfulness</i>. Merloyd Lawrence.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness&rft.pub=Merloyd+Lawrence&rft.date=1989&rft.aulast=Langer&rft.aufirst=Ellen+J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Linehan M (1993). <i>Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder</i>. Guilford Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Cognitive-Behavioral+Treatment+of+Borderline+Personality+Disorder&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=1993&rft.aulast=Linehan&rft.aufirst=Marsha&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Marlatt GA, Kristeller J (1999). "Mindfulness and meditation".  In Miller WE (ed.). <i>Integrating spirituality in treatment: Resources for practitioners</i>. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books. pp. 67–84.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Mindfulness+and+meditation&rft.btitle=Integrating+spirituality+in+treatment%3A+Resources+for+practitioners&rft.place=Washington%2C+DC&rft.pages=67-84&rft.pub=American+Psychological+Association+Books&rft.date=1999&rft.aulast=Marlatt&rft.aufirst=GA&rft.au=Kristeller%2C+J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">McCracken LM, Gauntlett-Gilbert J, Vowles KE (September 2007). "The role of mindfulness in a contextual cognitive-behavioral analysis of chronic pain-related suffering and disability". <i>Pain</i>. <b>131</b> (1–2): 63–9. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.pain.2006.12.013">10.1016/j.pain.2006.12.013</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17257755">17257755</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Pain&rft.atitle=The+role+of+mindfulness+in+a+contextual+cognitive-behavioral+analysis+of+chronic+pain-related+suffering+and+disability&rft.volume=131&rft.issue=1%E2%80%932&rft.pages=63-9&rft.date=2007-09&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.pain.2006.12.013&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F17257755&rft.aulast=McCracken&rft.aufirst=LM&rft.au=Gauntlett-Gilbert%2C+J&rft.au=Vowles%2C+KE&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">McCown D, Micozzi MS (2011). <i>New World Mindfulness: From the Founding Fathers, Emerson, and Thoreau to Your Personal Practice</i>. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=New+World+Mindfulness%3A+From+the+Founding+Fathers%2C+Emerson%2C+and+Thoreau+to+Your+Personal+Practice&rft.pub=Inner+Traditions+%2F+Bear+%26+Co&rft.date=2011&rft.aulast=McCown&rft.aufirst=Donald&rft.au=Micozzi%2C+Marc+S.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFMcMahan2008" class="citation book">McMahan DL (2008). <i>The Making of Buddhist Modernism</i>. Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0195183276" title="Special:BookSources/978-0195183276"><bdi>978-0195183276</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Making+of+Buddhist+Modernism&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2008&rft.isbn=978-0195183276&rft.aulast=McMahan&rft.aufirst=David+L.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li>Melemis, Steven M. (2008). <i>Make Room for Happiness: 12 Ways to Improve Your Life by Letting Go of Tension. Better Health, Self-Esteem and Relationships</i>. Modern Therapies. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-897572-17-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-897572-17-7">978-1-897572-17-7</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J (May 1995). "Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders". <i>General Hospital Psychiatry</i>. <b>17</b> (3): 192–200. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2F0163-8343%2895%2900025-M">10.1016/0163-8343(95)00025-M</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7649463">7649463</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=General+Hospital+Psychiatry&rft.atitle=Three-year+follow-up+and+clinical+implications+of+a+mindfulness+meditation-based+stress+reduction+intervention+in+the+treatment+of+anxiety+disorders&rft.volume=17&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=192-200&rft.date=1995-05&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2F0163-8343%2895%2900025-M&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F7649463&rft.aulast=Miller&rft.aufirst=JJ&rft.au=Fletcher%2C+K&rft.au=Kabat-Zinn%2C+J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Nyanaponika (1998). <i>Het hart van boeddhistische meditatie</i> [<i>The heart of Buddhist Meditation</i>] (in Dutch). Asoka.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Het+hart+van+boeddhistische+meditatie&rft.pub=Asoka&rft.date=1998&rft.au=Nyanaponika&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Ockene JK, Ockene IS, Kabat-Zinn J, Greene HL, Frid D (1990). "Teaching risk-factor counseling skills to medical students, house staff, and fellows". <i>American Journal of Preventive Medicine</i>. <b>6</b> (2 Suppl): 35–42. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2383411">2383411</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=American+Journal+of+Preventive+Medicine&rft.atitle=Teaching+risk-factor+counseling+skills+to+medical+students%2C+house+staff%2C+and+fellows&rft.volume=6&rft.issue=2+Suppl&rft.pages=35-42&rft.date=1990&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F2383411&rft.aulast=Ockene&rft.aufirst=JK&rft.au=Ockene%2C+IS&rft.au=Kabat-Zinn%2C+J&rft.au=Greene%2C+HL&rft.au=Frid%2C+D&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Ockene JK, Sorensen G, Kabat-Zinn J, Ockene IS, Donnelly G (March 1988). "Benefits and costs of lifestyle change to reduce risk of chronic disease". <i>Preventive Medicine</i>. <b>17</b> (2): 224–34. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2F0091-7435%2888%2990065-5">10.1016/0091-7435(88)90065-5</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3047727">3047727</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Preventive+Medicine&rft.atitle=Benefits+and+costs+of+lifestyle+change+to+reduce+risk+of+chronic+disease&rft.volume=17&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=224-34&rft.date=1988-03&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2F0091-7435%2888%2990065-5&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F3047727&rft.aulast=Ockene&rft.aufirst=JK&rft.au=Sorensen%2C+G&rft.au=Kabat-Zinn%2C+J&rft.au=Ockene%2C+IS&rft.au=Donnelly%2C+G&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Orsillo SM, Roemer L (2011). <i>The Mindful Way through Anxiety: Break Free from Chronic Worry and Reclaim Your Life</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-464-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-464-8"><bdi>978-1-60623-464-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindful+Way+through+Anxiety%3A+Break+Free+from+Chronic+Worry+and+Reclaim+Your+Life&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2011&rft.isbn=978-1-60623-464-8&rft.aulast=Orsillo&rft.aufirst=SM&rft.au=Roemer%2C+L&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Polak G (2011). <i>Reexamining Jhana: Towards a Critical Reconstruction of Early Buddhist Soteriology</i>. UMCS.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Reexamining+Jhana%3A+Towards+a+Critical+Reconstruction+of+Early+Buddhist+Soteriology&rft.pub=UMCS&rft.date=2011&rft.aulast=Polak&rft.aufirst=Grzegorz&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Pollak SM, Pedulla T, Siegel RD (2014). <i>Sitting Together: Essential Skills for Mindfulness-Based Psychotherapy</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-1398-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-1398-7"><bdi>978-1-4625-1398-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Sitting+Together%3A+Essential+Skills+for+Mindfulness-Based+Psychotherapy&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.isbn=978-1-4625-1398-7&rft.aulast=Pollak&rft.aufirst=SM&rft.au=Pedulla%2C+T&rft.au=Siegel%2C+RD&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Safran JD (2014). "Straight Talk. Cutting through the spin on psychotherapy and mental health". <i>Psychology Today</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Psychology+Today&rft.atitle=Straight+Talk.+Cutting+through+the+spin+on+psychotherapy+and+mental+health&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Safran&rft.aufirst=Jeremy+D.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Saxe GA, Hébert JR, Carmody JF, Kabat-Zinn J, Rosenzweig PH, Jarzobski D,  et al. (December 2001). "Can diet in conjunction with stress reduction affect the rate of increase in prostate specific antigen after biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer?". <i>The Journal of Urology</i>. <b>166</b> (6): 2202–7. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0022-5347%2805%2965535-8">10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65535-8</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11696736">11696736</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Journal+of+Urology&rft.atitle=Can+diet+in+conjunction+with+stress+reduction+affect+the+rate+of+increase+in+prostate+specific+antigen+after+biochemical+recurrence+of+prostate+cancer%3F&rft.volume=166&rft.issue=6&rft.pages=2202-7&rft.date=2001-12&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2FS0022-5347%2805%2965535-8&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F11696736&rft.aulast=Saxe&rft.aufirst=GA&rft.au=H%C3%A9bert%2C+JR&rft.au=Carmody%2C+JF&rft.au=Kabat-Zinn%2C+J&rft.au=Rosenzweig%2C+PH&rft.au=Jarzobski%2C+D&rft.au=Reed%2C+GW&rft.au=Blute%2C+RD&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Zindel_Segal" title="Zindel Segal">Segal ZV</a>, <a href="/wiki/J._Mark_G._Williams" title="J. Mark G. Williams">Williams JM</a>, Teasdale JD (2012). <i>Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression</i> (Second ed.). Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-0750-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-0750-4"><bdi>978-1-4625-0750-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness-Based+Cognitive+Therapy+for+Depression&rft.edition=Second&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2012&rft.isbn=978-1-4625-0750-4&rft.aulast=Segal&rft.aufirst=ZV&rft.au=Williams%2C+JM&rft.au=Teasdale%2C+JD&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Sharf, Robert (1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/43810/1/11076_1995_Article_1568527952598549.pdf">"Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Numen</i>. <b>42</b> (3): 228–83. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1163%2F1568527952598549">10.1163/1568527952598549</a>. <a href="/wiki/Handle_System" title="Handle System">hdl</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//hdl.handle.net/2027.42%2F43810">2027.42/43810</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/3270219">3270219</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Numen&rft.atitle=Buddhist+Modernism+and+the+Rhetoric+of+Meditative+Experience&rft.volume=42&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=228-83&rft.date=1995&rft_id=info%3Ahdl%2F2027.42%2F43810&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F3270219&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1163%2F1568527952598549&rft.aulast=Sharf&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fdeepblue.lib.umich.edu%2Fbitstream%2F2027.42%2F43810%2F1%2F11076_1995_Article_1568527952598549.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFSharf2014" class="citation journal">Sharf R (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". <i>Philosophy East and West</i>. <b>64</b> (4): 933–64. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1353%2Fpew.2014.0074">10.1353/pew.2014.0074</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Philosophy+East+and+West&rft.atitle=Mindfulness+and+Mindlessness+in+Early+Chan&rft.volume=64&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=933-64&rft.date=2014&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1353%2Fpew.2014.0074&rft.aulast=Sharf&rft.aufirst=Robert&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Siegel DJ (2007). <i>The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being</i>. Norton. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-393-70470-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-393-70470-9"><bdi>978-0-393-70470-9</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindful+Brain%3A+Reflection+and+Attunement+in+the+Cultivation+of+Well-Being&rft.pub=Norton&rft.date=2007&rft.isbn=978-0-393-70470-9&rft.aulast=Siegel&rft.aufirst=Daniel+J.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Siegel RD (2009). <i>The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-294-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-294-1"><bdi>978-1-60623-294-1</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindfulness+Solution%3A+Everyday+Practices+for+Everyday+Problems&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2009&rft.isbn=978-1-60623-294-1&rft.aulast=Siegel&rft.aufirst=RD&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li>Siegel, Ronald D. (2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mindfulness-solution.com"><i>The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems</i></a>. The Guilford Press. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-294-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-60623-294-1">978-1-60623-294-1</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Tanay G, Bernstein A (December 2013). "State Mindfulness Scale (SMS): development and initial validation". <i>Psychological Assessment</i>. <b>25</b> (4): 1286–99. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1037%2Fa0034044">10.1037/a0034044</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24059475">24059475</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Psychological+Assessment&rft.atitle=State+Mindfulness+Scale+%28SMS%29%3A+development+and+initial+validation&rft.volume=25&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=1286-99&rft.date=2013-12&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1037%2Fa0034044&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24059475&rft.aulast=Tanay&rft.aufirst=G&rft.au=Bernstein%2C+A&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Teasdale JD, Segal ZV (2007). <i>The Mindful Way Through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness</i>. Guilford Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindful+Way+Through+Depression%3A+Freeing+Yourself+from+Chronic+Unhappiness&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2007&rft.aulast=Teasdale&rft.aufirst=John+D.&rft.au=Segal%2C+Zindel+V.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/J._Mark_G._Williams" title="J. Mark G. Williams">Teasdale JD</a>, Williams JM, <a href="/wiki/Zindel_Segal" title="Zindel Segal">Segal ZV</a> (2014). <i>The Mindful Way Workbook: An 8-Week Program to Free Yourself from Depression and Emotional Distress</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-0814-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4625-0814-3"><bdi>978-1-4625-0814-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindful+Way+Workbook%3A+An+8-Week+Program+to+Free+Yourself+from+Depression+and+Emotional+Distress&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.isbn=978-1-4625-0814-3&rft.aulast=Teasdale&rft.aufirst=JD&rft.au=Williams%2C+JM&rft.au=Segal%2C+ZV&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Vetter T (1988). <i>The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism</i>. BRILL.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Ideas+and+Meditative+Practices+of+Early+Buddhism&rft.pub=BRILL&rft.date=1988&rft.aulast=Vetter&rft.aufirst=Tilmann&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Weiss A (2004). <i>Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness</i>. New World Library.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Beginning+Mindfulness%3A+Learning+the+Way+of+Awareness&rft.pub=New+World+Library&rft.date=2004&rft.aulast=Weiss&rft.aufirst=Andrew&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Williams JM, Duggan DS, Crane C, Fennell MJ (February 2006). "Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior". <i>Journal of Clinical Psychology</i>. <b>62</b> (2): 201–10. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fjclp.20223">10.1002/jclp.20223</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16342287">16342287</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Clinical+Psychology&rft.atitle=Mindfulness-based+cognitive+therapy+for+prevention+of+recurrence+of+suicidal+behavior&rft.volume=62&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=201-10&rft.date=2006-02&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1002%2Fjclp.20223&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F16342287&rft.aulast=Williams&rft.aufirst=JM&rft.au=Duggan%2C+DS&rft.au=Crane%2C+C&rft.au=Fennell%2C+MJ&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/J._Mark_G._Williams" title="J. Mark G. Williams">Williams M</a>, <a href="/wiki/John_D._Teasdale" title="John D. Teasdale">Teasdale J</a>, <a href="/wiki/Zindel_Segal" title="Zindel Segal">Segal Z</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jon_Kabat-Zinn" title="Jon Kabat-Zinn">Kabat-Zinn J</a> (2007). <i>The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness</i>. Guilford Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-59385-128-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-59385-128-6"><bdi>978-1-59385-128-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Mindful+Way+through+Depression%3A+Freeing+Yourself+from+Chronic+Unhappiness&rft.pub=Guilford+Press&rft.date=2007&rft.isbn=978-1-59385-128-6&rft.aulast=Williams&rft.aufirst=M&rft.au=Teasdale%2C+J&rft.au=Segal%2C+Z&rft.au=Kabat-Zinn%2C+J&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Williams P, Tribe A (2000). <i>Buddhist Thought</i>. Routledge.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Buddhist+Thought&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.date=2000&rft.aulast=Williams&rft.aufirst=Paul&rft.au=Tribe%2C+Anthony&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Wilson J (2014). <i>Mindful America: Meditation and the Mutual Transformation of Buddhism and American Culture</i>. Oxford University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindful+America%3A+Meditation+and+the+Mutual+Transformation+of+Buddhism+and+American+Culture&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Wilson&rft.aufirst=Jeff&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite id="CITEREFZgierskaRabagoChawlaKushner2009" class="citation journal">Zgierska A, Rabago D, Chawla N, Kushner K, Koehler R, Marlatt A (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2800788">"Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: a systematic review"</a>. <i>Substance Abuse</i>. <b>30</b> (4): 266–94. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1080%2F08897070903250019">10.1080/08897070903250019</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2800788">2800788</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19904664">19904664</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Substance+Abuse&rft.atitle=Mindfulness+meditation+for+substance+use+disorders%3A+a+systematic+review&rft.volume=30&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=266-94&rft.date=2009&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2800788&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F19904664&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F08897070903250019&rft.aulast=Zgierska&rft.aufirst=A&rft.au=Rabago%2C+D&rft.au=Chawla%2C+N&rft.au=Kushner%2C+K&rft.au=Koehler%2C+R&rft.au=Marlatt%2C+A&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2800788&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
</div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Web-sources">Web-sources</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=59" title="Edit section: Web-sources">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references">
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<li id="cite_note-TC-109"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-TC_109-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-TC_109-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-TC_109-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://thesaurus.com/browse/mindfulness">"I found great synonyms for "mindfulness" on the new Thesaurus.com!"</a>. <i>www.thesaurus.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.thesaurus.com&rft.atitle=I+found+great+synonyms+for+%22mindfulness%22+on+the+new+Thesaurus.com%21&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fthesaurus.com%2Fbrowse%2Fmindfulness&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-198"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-198">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Booth R (May 7, 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/may/07/politicians-ruby-wax-parliament-mindfulness-meditation">"Politicians joined by Ruby Wax as parliament pauses for meditation"</a> – via www.theguardian.com.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Politicians+joined+by+Ruby+Wax+as+parliament+pauses+for+meditation&rft.date=2014-05-07&rft.aulast=Booth&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fsociety%2F2014%2Fmay%2F07%2Fpoliticians-ruby-wax-parliament-mindfulness-meditation&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-McMindfulness-261"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McMindfulness_261-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Purser, Ron; Order, ContributorRonald Purser is a professor of management at San Francisco State University He is an ordained teacher in the Korean Buddhist Taego; Loy, co-host of the podcast The Mindful Cranks David; Teacher, ContributorZen (July 1, 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.huffpost.com/entry/beyond-mcmindfulness_b_3519289">"Beyond McMindfulness"</a>. <i>HuffPost</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=HuffPost&rft.atitle=Beyond+McMindfulness&rft.date=2013-07-01&rft.aulast=Purser&rft.aufirst=Ron&rft.au=Order%2C+ContributorRonald+Purser+is+a+professor+of+management+at+San+Francisco+State+University+He+is+an+ordained+teacher+in+the+Korean+Buddhist+Taego&rft.au=Loy%2C+co-host+of+the+podcast+The+Mindful+Cranks+David&rft.au=Teacher%2C+ContributorZen&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.huffpost.com%2Fentry%2Fbeyond-mcmindfulness_b_3519289&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-TriMc-262"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-TriMc_262-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Caring-Lobel A (July 2, 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tricycle.org/trikedaily/trike-contributing-editor-david-loy-takes-mcmindfulness/">"Trike Contributing Editor David Loy takes on "McMindfulness<span class="cs1-kern-right">"</span>"</a>. <i>Tricycle: The Buddhist Review</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Tricycle%3A+The+Buddhist+Review&rft.atitle=Trike+Contributing+Editor+David+Loy+takes+on+%22McMindfulness%22&rft.date=2013-07-02&rft.aulast=Caring-Lobel&rft.aufirst=Alex&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftricycle.org%2Ftrikedaily%2Ftrike-contributing-editor-david-loy-takes-mcmindfulness%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
</ol></div></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading_2">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness&action=edit&section=60" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/34px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="34" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/51px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/68px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="355" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikiquote has quotations related to: <i><b><a href="https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Mindfulness" class="extiw" title="q:Special:Search/Mindfulness">Mindfulness</a></b></i></td></tr>
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/40px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png" decoding="async" width="40" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/60px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/80px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Look up <i><b><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E5%BF%B5" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:念">念</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td></tr>
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/40px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png" decoding="async" width="40" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/60px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/80px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="400" data-file-height="400" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">The Wikibook <i><a href="https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Dialectical_Behavioral_Therapy" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:Dialectical Behavioral Therapy">Dialectical Behavioral Therapy</a></i> has a page on the topic of: <i><b><a href="https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Dialectical_Behavioral_Therapy/Core_Mindfulness_Skills" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:Dialectical Behavioral Therapy/Core Mindfulness Skills">Core Mindfulness Skills</a></b></i></td></tr>
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/40px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png" decoding="async" width="40" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/60px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/80px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Look up <i><b><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Mindfulness" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:Mindfulness">Mindfulness</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td></tr>
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="30" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/45px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/59px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Mindfulness" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Mindfulness"><span style="">Mindfulness</span></a></b></i>.</td></tr>
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<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047268"/><div class="refbegin reflist" style="">
<dl><dt>Origins</dt></dl>
<ul><li><cite class="citation book">McMahan DL (2008). <i>The Making of Buddhist Modernism</i>. Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0195183276" title="Special:BookSources/978-0195183276"><bdi>978-0195183276</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Making+of+Buddhist+Modernism&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2008&rft.isbn=978-0195183276&rft.aulast=McMahan&rft.aufirst=David+L.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Braun EB (2016). <i>The Birth of Insight. Meditation, Modern Buddhism, and the Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw</i>. The University Of Chicago Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Birth+of+Insight.+Meditation%2C+Modern+Buddhism%2C+and+the+Burmese+Monk+Ledi+Sayadaw&rft.pub=The+University+Of+Chicago+Press&rft.date=2016&rft.aulast=Braun&rft.aufirst=Erik+Braun&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Wilson J (2014). <i>Mindful America: Meditation and the Mutual Transformation of Buddhism and American Culture</i>. Oxford University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindful+America%3A+Meditation+and+the+Mutual+Transformation+of+Buddhism+and+American+Culture&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Wilson&rft.aufirst=Jeff&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Buddhism</dt></dl>
<ul><li><cite class="citation book">Nyanaponika. <i>The Heart of Buddhist Meditation: Satipaṭṭhāna : a Handbook of Mental Training Based on the Buddha's Way of Mindfulness, with an Anthology of Relevant Texts Translated from the Pali and Sanskrit</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Heart+of+Buddhist+Meditation%3A+Satipa%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADh%C4%81na+%3A+a+Handbook+of+Mental+Training+Based+on+the+Buddha%27s+Way+of+Mindfulness%2C+with+an+Anthology+of+Relevant+Texts+Translated+from+the+Pali+and+Sanskrit&rft.au=Nyanaponika&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Hart W (2011). <i>The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation As Taught by S.N. Goenka</i>. Pariyatti.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Art+of+Living%3A+Vipassana+Meditation+As+Taught+by+S.N.+Goenka&rft.pub=Pariyatti&rft.date=2011&rft.aulast=Hart&rft.aufirst=William&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Psychology</dt></dl>
<ul><li><cite id="CITEREFDidonna2008" class="citation">Didonna F (2008), <i>Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness</i>, Springer Science & Business Media</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Clinical+Handbook+of+Mindfulness&rft.pub=Springer+Science+%26+Business+Media&rft.date=2008&rft.aulast=Didonna&rft.aufirst=Fabrizio&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Ie A, Ngnoumen CT, Langer EJ (2014). <i>The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness (Two Volumes)</i>. John Wiley & Sons.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Wiley+Blackwell+Handbook+of+Mindfulness+%28Two+Volumes%29&rft.pub=John+Wiley+%26+Sons&rft.date=2014&rft.aulast=Ie&rft.aufirst=Amanda&rft.au=Ngnoumen%2C+Christelle+T.&rft.au=Langer%2C+Ellen+J.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Popular</dt></dl>
<ul><li><cite class="citation book"><i>Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life</i>. Hyperion Books. 2005. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1401307787" title="Special:BookSources/1401307787"><bdi>1401307787</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Wherever+You+Go%2C+There+You+Are%3A+Mindfulness+Meditation+in+Everyday+Life&rft.pub=Hyperion+Books&rft.date=2005&rft.isbn=1401307787&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Critical</dt></dl>
<ul><li><cite class="citation journal">Levman B (2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.jocbs.org/index.php/jocbs/article/view/167">"Putting smṛti back into sati (Putting remembrance back into mindfulness)"</a>. <i>Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies</i>. <b>13</b>: 121–49. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/2047-1076">2047-1076</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+Oxford+Centre+for+Buddhist+Studies&rft.atitle=Putting+sm%E1%B9%9Bti+back+into+sati+%28Putting+remembrance+back+into+mindfulness%29&rft.volume=13&rft.pages=121-49&rft.date=2017&rft.issn=2047-1076&rft.aulast=Levman&rft.aufirst=Bryan&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jocbs.org%2Findex.php%2Fjocbs%2Farticle%2Fview%2F167&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Sharf R (1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/43810/1/11076_1995_Article_1568527952598549.pdf">"Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Numen</i>. <b>42</b> (3): 228–83. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1163%2F1568527952598549">10.1163/1568527952598549</a>. <a href="/wiki/Handle_System" title="Handle System">hdl</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//hdl.handle.net/2027.42%2F43810">2027.42/43810</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/3270219">3270219</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Numen&rft.atitle=Buddhist+Modernism+and+the+Rhetoric+of+Meditative+Experience&rft.volume=42&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=228-83&rft.date=1995&rft_id=info%3Ahdl%2F2027.42%2F43810&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F3270219&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1163%2F1568527952598549&rft.aulast=Sharf&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fdeepblue.lib.umich.edu%2Fbitstream%2F2027.42%2F43810%2F1%2F11076_1995_Article_1568527952598549.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Carrette JR, King R (2005). <i>Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion</i>. Psychology Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Selling+Spirituality%3A+The+Silent+Takeover+of+Religion&rft.pub=Psychology+Press&rft.date=2005&rft.aulast=Carrette&rft.aufirst=Jeremy+R.&rft.au=King%2C+Richard&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Kabat-Zinn J, Williams M (2013). <i>Mindfulness – Diverse perspectives on its meanings, origins and applications</i>. Routledge.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mindfulness+%E2%80%93+Diverse+perspectives+on+its+meanings%2C+origins+and+applications&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.date=2013&rft.aulast=Kabat-Zinn&rft.aufirst=Jon&rft.au=Williams%2C+Mark&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Evan_Thompson" title="Evan Thompson">Thompson, Evan</a> (2020). <i>Why I am Not a Buddhist</i>. Yale University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Why+I+am+Not+a+Buddhist&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft.date=2020&rft.aulast=Thompson&rft.aufirst=Evan&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMindfulness" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
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<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Topics_in_Buddhism" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Buddhism_topics" title="Template:Buddhism topics"><abbr title="View this template" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Buddhism_topics" title="Template talk:Buddhism topics"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Buddhism_topics&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Topics_in_Buddhism" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Topics in <a href="/wiki/Buddhism" title="Buddhism">Buddhism</a></div></th></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;"><div id="*_Outline&#124;16x16px&#124;link=_Outline&#10;*_Glossary&#10;*_Index">
<ul><li><img alt="Outline" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Global_thinking.svg/10px-Global_thinking.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Outline" width="10" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Global_thinking.svg/15px-Global_thinking.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Global_thinking.svg/21px-Global_thinking.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="130" data-file-height="200" /> <a href="/wiki/Outline_of_Buddhism" title="Outline of Buddhism">Outline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_Buddhism" title="Glossary of Buddhism">Glossary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Index_of_Buddhism-related_articles" title="Index of Buddhism-related articles">Index</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Outline_of_Buddhism" title="Outline of Buddhism">Foundations</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths" title="Four Noble Truths">Four Noble Truths</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Refuge_(Buddhism)" title="Refuge (Buddhism)">Three Jewels</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Gautama_Buddha" title="Gautama Buddha">Buddha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">Dharma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sangha" title="Sangha">Sangha</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path" title="Noble Eightfold Path">Noble Eightfold Path</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nirvana" title="Nirvana">Nirvana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Middle_Way" title="Middle Way">Middle Way</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Gautama_Buddha" title="Gautama Buddha">The Buddha</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Tath%C4%81gata" title="Tathāgata">Tathāgata</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddha%27s_Birthday" title="Buddha's Birthday">Birthday</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Four_sights" title="Four sights">Four sights</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Physical_characteristics_of_the_Buddha" title="Physical characteristics of the Buddha">Physical characteristics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddha_footprint" title="Buddha footprint">Footprint</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Relics_associated_with_Buddha" title="Relics associated with Buddha">Relics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Iconography_of_Gautama_Buddha_in_Laos_and_Thailand" title="Iconography of Gautama Buddha in Laos and Thailand">Iconography in Laos and Thailand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Depictions_of_Gautama_Buddha_in_film" title="Depictions of Gautama Buddha in film">Films</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Miracles_of_Gautama_Buddha" title="Miracles of Gautama Buddha">Miracles</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Family_of_Gautama_Buddha" title="Family of Gautama Buddha">Family</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/%C5%9Auddhodana" title="Śuddhodana">Suddhodāna <small>(father)</small></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maya_(mother_of_the_Buddha)" title="Maya (mother of the Buddha)">Māyā <small>(mother)</small></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mahapajapati_Gotami" title="Mahapajapati Gotami">Mahapajapati Gotamī<small> (aunt, adoptive mother)</small></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ya%C5%9Bodhar%C4%81" title="Yaśodharā">Yaśodharā <small>(wife)</small></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/R%C4%81hula" title="Rāhula">Rāhula <small>(son)</small></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C4%80nanda" title="Ānanda">Ānanda <small>(cousin)</small></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Devadatta" title="Devadatta">Devadatta <small>(cousin)</small></a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_places_where_Gautama_Buddha_stayed" title="List of places where Gautama Buddha stayed">Places where the Buddha stayed</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gautama_Buddha_in_world_religions" title="Gautama Buddha in world religions">Buddha in world religions</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Bodhisattva" title="Bodhisattva">Bodhisattvas</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Avalokite%C5%9Bvara" title="Avalokiteśvara">Avalokiteśvara</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Guanyin" title="Guanyin">Guanyin</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Manjushri" title="Manjushri">Mañjuśrī</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mahasthamaprapta" title="Mahasthamaprapta">Mahāsthāmaprāpta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C4%80k%C4%81%C5%9Bagarbha" title="Ākāśagarbha">Ākāśagarbha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/K%E1%B9%A3itigarbha" title="Kṣitigarbha">Kṣitigarbha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samantabhadra" title="Samantabhadra">Samantabhadra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vajrapani" title="Vajrapani">Vajrapāṇi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Skanda_(Buddhism)" title="Skanda (Buddhism)">Skanda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tara_(Buddhism)" title="Tara (Buddhism)">Tārā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maitreya" title="Maitreya">Metteyya/Maitreya</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Category:Disciples_of_Gautama_Buddha" title="Category:Disciples of Gautama Buddha">Disciples</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Kaundinya" title="Kaundinya">Kaundinya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Assaji" title="Assaji">Assaji</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sariputta" class="mw-redirect" title="Sariputta">Sāriputta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maudgalyayana" title="Maudgalyayana">Mahamoggallāna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C4%80nanda" title="Ānanda">Ānanda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mah%C4%81k%C4%81%C5%9Byapa" title="Mahākāśyapa">Mahākassapa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/A%E1%B9%85gulim%C4%81la" title="Aṅgulimāla">Aṅgulimāla</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anuruddha" title="Anuruddha">Anuruddha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Katyayana_(Buddhist)" title="Katyayana (Buddhist)">Mahākaccana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nanda_(half-brother_of_Buddha)" title="Nanda (half-brother of Buddha)">Nanda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subh%C5%ABti" title="Subhūti">Subhūti</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Punna" title="Punna">Punna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Up%C4%81li" title="Upāli">Upāli</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mahapajapati_Gotami" title="Mahapajapati Gotami">Mahapajapati Gotamī</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Khema" title="Khema">Khema</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uppalavanna" title="Uppalavanna">Uppalavanna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asita" title="Asita">Asita</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Channa_(Buddhist)" title="Channa (Buddhist)">Channa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yasa" title="Yasa">Yasa</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_Buddhism" title="Glossary of Buddhism">Key concepts</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Avidy%C4%81_(Buddhism)" title="Avidyā (Buddhism)">Avidyā (Ignorance)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bardo" title="Bardo">Bardo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodhicitta" title="Bodhicitta">Bodhicitta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddha-nature" title="Buddha-nature">Buddha-nature</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dhamma_theory" class="mw-redirect" title="Dhamma theory">Dhamma theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">Dharma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Buddhism" title="Enlightenment in Buddhism">Enlightenment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Five_hindrances" title="Five hindrances">Five hindrances</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indriya" title="Indriya">Indriya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Karma_in_Buddhism" title="Karma in Buddhism">Karma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kleshas_(Buddhism)" title="Kleshas (Buddhism)">Kleshas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mindstream" title="Mindstream">Mindstream</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Parinirvana" title="Parinirvana">Parinirvana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prat%C4%ABtyasamutp%C4%81da" title="Pratītyasamutpāda">Pratītyasamutpāda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rebirth_(Buddhism)" title="Rebirth (Buddhism)">Rebirth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83s%C4%81ra_(Buddhism)" title="Saṃsāra (Buddhism)">Saṃsāra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%85kh%C4%81ra" title="Saṅkhāra">Saṅkhāra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Skandha" title="Skandha">Skandha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%9A%C5%ABnyat%C4%81" title="Śūnyatā">Śūnyatā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ta%E1%B9%87h%C4%81" title="Taṇhā">Taṇhā (Craving)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tath%C4%81t%C4%81" title="Tathātā">Tathātā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fetter_(Buddhism)" title="Fetter (Buddhism)">Ten Fetters</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Three_marks_of_existence" title="Three marks of existence">Three marks of existence</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Anicca" class="mw-redirect" title="Anicca">Anicca</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dukkha" class="mw-redirect" title="Dukkha">Dukkha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anatta" title="Anatta">Anatta</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Two_truths_doctrine" title="Two truths doctrine">Two truths doctrine</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology" title="Buddhist cosmology">Cosmology</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ten_realms" title="Ten realms">Ten spiritual realms</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Six_realms" class="mw-redirect" title="Six realms">Six realms</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Deva_(Buddhism)" title="Deva (Buddhism)">Deva realm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Human_beings_in_Buddhism" title="Human beings in Buddhism">Human realm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asura_(Buddhism)" title="Asura (Buddhism)">Asura realm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Preta" title="Preta">Hungry Ghost realm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Animals_in_Buddhism" title="Animals in Buddhism">Animal realm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Naraka_(Buddhism)" title="Naraka (Buddhism)">Naraka</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trailokya" title="Trailokya">Three planes of existence</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Schools_of_Buddhism" title="Schools of Buddhism">Branches</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Theravada" title="Theravada">Theravada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vajrayana" title="Vajrayana">Vajrayana</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism" title="Tibetan Buddhism">Tibetan Buddhism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shingon_Buddhism" title="Shingon Buddhism">Shingon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dzogchen" title="Dzogchen">Dzogchen</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mahayana" title="Mahayana">Mahayana</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Zen" title="Zen">Zen</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Chan_Buddhism" title="Chan Buddhism">Chinese Chan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Japanese_Zen" title="Japanese Zen">Japanese Zen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Korean_Seon" title="Korean Seon">Korean Seon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vietnamese_Thi%E1%BB%81n" title="Vietnamese Thiền">Vietnamese Thiền</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pure_Land_Buddhism" title="Pure Land Buddhism">Pure Land</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tiantai" title="Tiantai">Tiantai</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nichiren_Buddhism" title="Nichiren Buddhism">Nichiren</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Madhyamaka" title="Madhyamaka">Madhyamaka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yogachara" title="Yogachara">Yogachara</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Navayana" title="Navayana">Navayana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Early_Buddhist_schools" title="Early Buddhist schools">Early Buddhist schools</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pre-sectarian_Buddhism" title="Pre-sectarian Buddhism">Pre-sectarian Buddhism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Basic_points_unifying_Therav%C4%81da_and_Mah%C4%81y%C4%81na" title="Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna">Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Category:Buddhist_practices" title="Category:Buddhist practices">Practices</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bhavana" title="Bhavana">Bhavana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodhipakkhiy%C4%81dhamm%C4%81" title="Bodhipakkhiyādhammā">Bodhipakkhiyādhammā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brahmavihara" title="Brahmavihara">Brahmavihara</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Mett%C4%81" class="mw-redirect" title="Mettā">Mettā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Karu%E1%B9%87%C4%81" title="Karuṇā">Karuṇā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mudita" title="Mudita">Mudita</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Upekkha" class="mw-redirect" title="Upekkha">Upekkha</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddh%C4%81bhi%E1%B9%A3eka" title="Buddhābhiṣeka">Buddhābhiṣeka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/D%C4%81na" title="Dāna">Dāna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_devotion" title="Buddhist devotion">Devotion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dhy%C4%81na_in_Buddhism" title="Dhyāna in Buddhism">Dhyāna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Faith_in_Buddhism" title="Faith in Buddhism">Faith</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Five_Strengths" title="Five Strengths">Five Strengths</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Iddhipada" title="Iddhipada">Iddhipada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_meditation" title="Buddhist meditation">Meditation</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Mantra#Buddhism" title="Mantra">Mantras</a></li>
<li><i lang="sa-Latn" title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit transliteration"><a href="/wiki/Kamma%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADh%C4%81na" title="Kammaṭṭhāna">Kammaṭṭhāna</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anussati" title="Anussati">Recollection</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Simran" title="Simran">Smarana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anapanasati" title="Anapanasati">Anapanasati</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samatha" title="Samatha">Samatha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vipassan%C4%81" title="Vipassanā">Vipassanā</a> (<a href="/wiki/Vipassana_movement" title="Vipassana movement">Vipassana movement</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shikantaza" title="Shikantaza">Shikantaza</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zazen" title="Zazen">Zazen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/K%C5%8Dan" title="Kōan">Kōan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mandala" title="Mandala">Mandala</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tonglen" title="Tonglen">Tonglen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tantra" title="Tantra">Tantra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tert%C3%B6n" title="Tertön">Tertön</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Terma_(religion)" title="Terma (religion)">Terma</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Merit_(Buddhism)" title="Merit (Buddhism)">Merit</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Mindfulness</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Satipatthana" title="Satipatthana">Satipatthana</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nekkhamma" title="Nekkhamma">Nekkhamma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/P%C4%81ramit%C4%81" title="Pāramitā">Pāramitā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Paritta" title="Paritta">Paritta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_devotion" title="Buddhist devotion">Puja</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Offering_(Buddhism)" title="Offering (Buddhism)">Offerings</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prostration_(Buddhism)" title="Prostration (Buddhism)">Prostration</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_chant" title="Buddhist chant">Chanting</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Refuge_(Buddhism)" title="Refuge (Buddhism)">Refuge</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Satya" title="Satya">Satya</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sacca" title="Sacca">Sacca</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Seven_Factors_of_Awakening" title="Seven Factors of Awakening">Seven Factors of Enlightenment</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sati_(Buddhism)" title="Sati (Buddhism)">Sati</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dhamma_vicaya" title="Dhamma vicaya">Dhamma vicaya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/P%C4%ABti" title="Pīti">Pīti</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Passaddhi" title="Passaddhi">Passaddhi</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_ethics" title="Buddhist ethics">Śīla</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Five_precepts" title="Five precepts">Five precepts</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eight_precepts" title="Eight precepts">Eight precepts</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodhisattva_vow" title="Bodhisattva vow">Bodhisattva vow</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pratimok%E1%B9%A3a" title="Pratimokṣa">Pratimokṣa</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Threefold_Training" title="Threefold Training">Threefold Training</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_ethics" title="Buddhist ethics">Śīla</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samadhi" title="Samadhi">Samadhi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Praj%C3%B1%C4%81_(Buddhism)" title="Prajñā (Buddhism)">Prajñā</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/V%C4%ABrya" title="Vīrya">Vīrya</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Four_Right_Exertions" title="Four Right Exertions">Four Right Exertions</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Nirvana" title="Nirvana">Nirvana</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Buddhism" title="Enlightenment in Buddhism">Bodhi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodhisattva" title="Bodhisattva">Bodhisattva</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhahood" title="Buddhahood">Buddhahood</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pratyekabuddha" title="Pratyekabuddha">Pratyekabuddha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Four_stages_of_enlightenment" title="Four stages of enlightenment">Four stages of enlightenment</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sot%C4%81panna" title="Sotāpanna">Sotāpanna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sakadagami" title="Sakadagami">Sakadagami</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/An%C4%81g%C4%81mi" title="Anāgāmi">Anāgāmi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Arhat" title="Arhat">Arhat</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_monasticism" title="Buddhist monasticism">Monasticism</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bhikkhu" title="Bhikkhu">Bhikkhu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bhikkhun%C4%AB" title="Bhikkhunī">Bhikkhunī</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samanera" title="Samanera">Śrāmaṇera</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samanera" title="Samanera">Śrāmaṇerī</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anagarika" class="mw-redirect" title="Anagarika">Anagarika</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ajahn" title="Ajahn">Ajahn</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sayadaw" title="Sayadaw">Sayadaw</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zen_master" title="Zen master">Zen master</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/R%C5%8Dshi" title="Rōshi">Rōshi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lama" title="Lama">Lama</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rinpoche" title="Rinpoche">Rinpoche</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Geshe" title="Geshe">Geshe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tulku" title="Tulku">Tulku</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism)" title="Householder (Buddhism)">Householder</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Up%C4%81saka_and_Up%C4%81sik%C4%81" title="Upāsaka and Upāsikā">Upāsaka and Upāsikā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%9Ar%C4%81vaka" title="Śrāvaka">Śrāvaka</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ten_Principal_Disciples" title="Ten Principal Disciples">The ten principal disciples</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shaolin_Monastery" title="Shaolin Monastery">Shaolin Monastery</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Buddhists" title="List of Buddhists">Major figures</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Gautama_Buddha" title="Gautama Buddha">Gautama Buddha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhaghosa" title="Buddhaghosa">Buddhaghosa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nagasena" title="Nagasena">Nagasena</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodhidharma" title="Bodhidharma">Bodhidharma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nagarjuna" title="Nagarjuna">Nagarjuna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asanga" title="Asanga">Asanga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vasubandhu" title="Vasubandhu">Vasubandhu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhap%C4%81lita" title="Buddhapālita">Buddhapālita</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ati%C5%9Ba" title="Atiśa">Atiśa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Padmasambhava" title="Padmasambhava">Padmasambhava</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nichiren" title="Nichiren">Nichiren</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/B._R._Ambedkar" title="B. R. Ambedkar">B. R. Ambedkar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Songtsen_Gampo" title="Songtsen Gampo">Songtsen Gampo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Emperor_Wen_of_Sui" title="Emperor Wen of Sui">Emperor Wen of Sui</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dalai_Lama" title="Dalai Lama">Dalai Lama</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Panchen_Lama" title="Panchen Lama">Panchen Lama</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Karmapa" title="Karmapa">Karmapa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shamarpa" title="Shamarpa">Shamarpa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Naropa" title="Naropa">Naropa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Xuanzang" title="Xuanzang">Xuanzang</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zhiyi" title="Zhiyi">Zhiyi</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_texts" title="Buddhist texts">Texts</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Early_Buddhist_Texts" title="Early Buddhist Texts">Early Buddhist Texts</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tripi%E1%B9%ADaka" title="Tripiṭaka">Tripiṭaka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mahayana_sutras" title="Mahayana sutras">Mahayana sutras</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/P%C4%81li_Canon" title="Pāli Canon">Pāli Canon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chinese_Buddhist_canon" title="Chinese Buddhist canon">Chinese Buddhist canon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhist_canon" title="Tibetan Buddhist canon">Tibetan Buddhist canon</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Dhammapada" title="Dhammapada">Dhammapada</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sutra" title="Sutra">Sutra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vinaya" title="Vinaya">Vinaya</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Madhyamak%C4%81la%E1%B9%83k%C4%81ra" title="Madhyamakālaṃkāra">Madhyamakālaṃkāra</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Abhidharmad%C4%ABpa" title="Abhidharmadīpa">Abhidharmadīpa</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_by_country" title="Buddhism by country">Countries</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Afghanistan" title="Buddhism in Afghanistan">Afghanistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Bangladesh" title="Buddhism in Bangladesh">Bangladesh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Bhutan" title="Buddhism in Bhutan">Bhutan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Cambodia" title="Buddhism in Cambodia">Cambodia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chinese_Buddhism" title="Chinese Buddhism">China</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Buddhism_in_India" title="History of Buddhism in India">India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Indonesia" title="Buddhism in Indonesia">Indonesia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Japan" title="Buddhism in Japan">Japan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Korean_Buddhism" title="Korean Buddhism">Korea</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Laos" title="Buddhism in Laos">Laos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Malaysia" title="Buddhism in Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_Maldives" title="Buddhism in the Maldives">Maldives</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Mongolia" title="Buddhism in Mongolia">Mongolia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Myanmar" title="Buddhism in Myanmar">Myanmar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Nepal" title="Buddhism in Nepal">Nepal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Pakistan" title="Buddhism in Pakistan">Pakistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_Philippines" title="Buddhism in the Philippines">Philippines</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Russia" title="Buddhism in Russia">Russia</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Kalmykia" title="Buddhism in Kalmykia">Kalmykia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Buryatia" title="Buddhism in Buryatia">Buryatia</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Singapore" title="Buddhism in Singapore">Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Sri_Lanka" title="Buddhism in Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Taiwan" title="Buddhism in Taiwan">Taiwan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Thailand" title="Buddhism in Thailand">Thailand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism" title="Tibetan Buddhism">Tibet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Vietnam" title="Buddhism in Vietnam">Vietnam</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_Middle_East" title="Buddhism in the Middle East">Middle East</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Iran" title="Buddhism in Iran">Iran</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_West" title="Buddhism in the West">Western countries</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Argentina" title="Buddhism in Argentina">Argentina</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Australia" title="Buddhism in Australia">Australia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Brazil" title="Buddhism in Brazil">Brazil</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_France" title="Buddhism in France">France</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_United_Kingdom" title="Buddhism in the United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_United_States" title="Buddhism in the United States">United States</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Venezuela" title="Buddhism in Venezuela">Venezuela</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/History_of_Buddhism" title="History of Buddhism">History</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_Buddhism" title="Timeline of Buddhism">Timeline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ashoka" title="Ashoka">Ashoka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_councils" title="Buddhist councils">Buddhist councils</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Buddhism_in_India" title="History of Buddhism in India">History of Buddhism in India</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Decline_of_Buddhism_in_the_Indian_subcontinent" title="Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent">Decline of Buddhism in India</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Great_Anti-Buddhist_Persecution" title="Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution">Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Greco-Buddhism" title="Greco-Buddhism">Greco-Buddhism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_the_Roman_world" title="Buddhism and the Roman world">Buddhism and the Roman world</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_West" title="Buddhism in the West">Buddhism in the West</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Silk_Road_transmission_of_Buddhism" title="Silk Road transmission of Buddhism">Silk Road transmission of Buddhism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Buddhists" title="Persecution of Buddhists">Persecution of Buddhists</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Banishment_of_Buddhist_monks_from_Nepal" title="Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal">Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_crisis" title="Buddhist crisis">Buddhist crisis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sinhalese_Buddhist_nationalism" title="Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism">Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_modernism" title="Buddhist modernism">Buddhist modernism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vipassana_movement" title="Vipassana movement">Vipassana movement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/969_Movement" title="969 Movement">969 Movement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Women_in_Buddhism" title="Women in Buddhism">Women in Buddhism</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_philosophy" title="Buddhist philosophy">Philosophy</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Abhidharma" title="Abhidharma">Abhidharma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_atomism" title="Buddhist atomism">Atomism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_studies" title="Buddhist studies">Buddhology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Creator_in_Buddhism" title="Creator in Buddhism">Creator</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_democracy" title="Buddhism and democracy">Buddhism and democracy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_economics" title="Buddhist economics">Economics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eight_Consciousnesses" title="Eight Consciousnesses">Eight Consciousnesses</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Engaged_Buddhism" title="Engaged Buddhism">Engaged Buddhism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_eschatology" title="Buddhist eschatology">Eschatology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_ethics" title="Buddhist ethics">Ethics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_evolution" title="Buddhism and evolution">Evolution</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Humanistic_Buddhism" title="Humanistic Buddhism">Humanism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_logico-epistemology" title="Buddhist logico-epistemology">Logic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reality_in_Buddhism" title="Reality in Buddhism">Reality</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Secular_Buddhism" title="Secular Buddhism">Secular Buddhism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_socialism" title="Buddhist socialism">Socialism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_unanswered_questions" title="The unanswered questions">The unanswered questions</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Culture_of_Buddhism" title="Culture of Buddhism">Culture</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_architecture" title="Buddhist architecture">Architecture</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_temple" title="Buddhist temple">Temple</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vihara" class="mw-redirect" title="Vihara">Vihara</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kyaung" title="Kyaung">Kyaung</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wat" title="Wat">Wat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stupa" title="Stupa">Stupa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pagoda" title="Pagoda">Pagoda</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Burmese_pagoda" title="Burmese pagoda">Burmese pagoda</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Candi_of_Indonesia" title="Candi of Indonesia">Candi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dzong_architecture" title="Dzong architecture">Dzong architecture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Japanese_Buddhist_architecture" title="Japanese Buddhist architecture">Japanese Buddhist architecture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Korean_Buddhist_temples" title="Korean Buddhist temples">Korean Buddhist temples</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thai_temple_art_and_architecture" title="Thai temple art and architecture">Thai temple art and architecture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhist_architecture" title="Tibetan Buddhist architecture">Tibetan Buddhist architecture</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_art" title="Buddhist art">Art</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Greco-Buddhist_art" title="Greco-Buddhist art">Greco-Buddhist</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodhi_Tree" title="Bodhi Tree">Bodhi Tree</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Budai" title="Budai">Budai</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddharupa" title="Buddharupa">Buddharupa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_calendar" title="Buddhist calendar">Calendar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_cuisine" title="Buddhist cuisine">Cuisine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_funeral" title="Buddhist funeral">Funeral</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_holidays" title="Buddhist holidays">Holidays</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Vesak" title="Vesak">Vesak</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uposatha" title="Uposatha">Uposatha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Magha_Puja" class="mw-redirect" title="Magha Puja">Magha Puja</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asalha_Puja" title="Asalha Puja">Asalha Puja</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vassa" title="Vassa">Vassa</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jaya_Sri_Maha_Bodhi" title="Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi">Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kasaya_(clothing)" title="Kasaya (clothing)">Kasaya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mahabodhi_Temple" title="Mahabodhi Temple">Mahabodhi Temple</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mantra" title="Mantra">Mantra</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Om_mani_padme_hum" title="Om mani padme hum">Om mani padme hum</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mudra" title="Mudra">Mudra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_music" title="Buddhist music">Music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_pilgrimage_sites" title="Buddhist pilgrimage sites">Pilgrimage</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Lumbini" title="Lumbini">Lumbini</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maya_Devi_Temple,_Lumbini" title="Maya Devi Temple, Lumbini">Maya Devi Temple</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bodh_Gaya" title="Bodh Gaya">Bodh Gaya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sarnath" title="Sarnath">Sarnath</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kushinagar" title="Kushinagar">Kushinagar</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_poetry" title="Buddhist poetry">Poetry</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_prayer_beads" class="mw-redirect" title="Buddhist prayer beads">Prayer beads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hama_Yumi" title="Hama Yumi">Hama Yumi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prayer_wheel" title="Prayer wheel">Prayer wheel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_symbolism" title="Buddhist symbolism">Symbolism</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Dharmachakra" title="Dharmachakra">Dharmachakra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_flag" title="Buddhist flag">Flag</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bhavacakra" title="Bhavacakra">Bhavacakra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Swastika" title="Swastika">Swastika</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thangka" title="Thangka">Thangka</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Temple_of_the_Tooth" title="Temple of the Tooth">Temple of the Tooth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_vegetarianism" title="Buddhist vegetarianism">Vegetarianism</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Index_of_Buddhism-related_articles" title="Index of Buddhism-related articles">Miscellaneous</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Abhij%C3%B1%C4%81" title="Abhijñā">Abhijñā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Amit%C4%81bha" title="Amitābha">Amitābha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brahm%C4%81_(Buddhism)" title="Brahmā (Buddhism)">Brahmā</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dharma_talk" title="Dharma talk">Dharma talk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hinayana" title="Hinayana">Hinayana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kalpa_(aeon)" title="Kalpa (aeon)">Kalpa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Koliya" title="Koliya">Koliya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lineage_(Buddhism)" title="Lineage (Buddhism)">Lineage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mara_(demon)" title="Mara (demon)">Māra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%E1%B9%9Addhi" title="Ṛddhi">Ṛddhi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Siddhi" title="Siddhi">Siddhi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sacred_language" title="Sacred language">Sacred languages</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Pali" title="Pali">Pāḷi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Category:Comparative_Buddhism" title="Category:Comparative Buddhism">Comparison</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bah%C3%A1%27%C3%AD_Faith_and_Buddhism" class="mw-redirect" title="Bahá'í Faith and Buddhism">Bahá'í Faith</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Christianity" title="Buddhism and Christianity">Christianity</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_influences_on_Christianity" title="Buddhist influences on Christianity">Influences</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_Buddhism_and_Christianity" title="Comparison of Buddhism and Christianity">Comparison</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Eastern_religions" title="Buddhism and Eastern religions">East Asian religions</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Gnosticism" title="Buddhism and Gnosticism">Gnosticism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Hinduism" title="Buddhism and Hinduism">Hinduism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Jainism" title="Buddhism and Jainism">Jainism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jewish_Buddhist" title="Jewish Buddhist">Judaism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_psychology" title="Buddhism and psychology">Psychology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_science" title="Buddhism and science">Science</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Theosophy" title="Buddhism and Theosophy">Theosophy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_violence" title="Buddhism and violence">Violence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_and_Western_philosophy" title="Buddhism and Western philosophy">Western philosophy</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Category:Buddhism-related_lists" title="Category:Buddhism-related lists">Lists</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_bodhisattvas" title="List of bodhisattvas">Bodhisattvas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_books_related_to_Buddhism" title="List of books related to Buddhism">Books</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Buddhas" title="List of Buddhas">Buddhas</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_the_named_Buddhas" title="List of the named Buddhas">named</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Buddhists" title="List of Buddhists">Buddhists</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_suttas" title="List of suttas">Suttas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sutra" title="Sutra">Sutras</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Buddhist_temples" title="List of Buddhist temples">Temples</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Buddhist_festivals" title="List of Buddhist festivals">Festivals</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2" style="background-color:#FFE8A6;"><div>
<ul><li><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" /> <a href="/wiki/Category:Buddhism" title="Category:Buddhism">Category</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/File:P_religion_world.svg" class="image"><img alt="P religion world.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/P_religion_world.svg/31px-P_religion_world.svg.png" decoding="async" width="31" height="28" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/P_religion_world.svg/47px-P_religion_world.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/P_religion_world.svg/62px-P_religion_world.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="400" data-file-height="360" /></a> <a href="/wiki/Portal:Religion" title="Portal:Religion">Religion portal</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Meditation" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Meditation" title="Template:Meditation"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Meditation" title="Template talk:Meditation"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Meditation&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Meditation" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Meditation" title="Meditation">Meditation</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Main topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Brain_activity_and_meditation" title="Brain activity and meditation">Brain activity and meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_meditation" title="History of meditation">History of meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meditation_in_popular_culture" class="mw-redirect" title="Meditation in popular culture">Meditation in popular culture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mind%E2%80%93body_interventions" title="Mind–body interventions">Mind–body interventions</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Research_on_meditation" title="Research on meditation">Research on meditation</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Traditions</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Anapanasati" title="Anapanasati">Anapanasati (Buddhist breathing meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buddhist_meditation" title="Buddhist meditation">Buddhist meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Christian_meditation" title="Christian meditation">Christian meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Taoist_meditation" title="Taoist meditation">Taoist meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dancemeditation" title="Dancemeditation">Dancemeditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dhy%C4%81na_in_Buddhism" title="Dhyāna in Buddhism">Dhyāna (Buddhist meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dhyana_in_Hinduism" title="Dhyana in Hinduism">Dhyāna (Hindu meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Islamic_meditation" class="mw-redirect" title="Islamic meditation">Islamic meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jain_meditation" title="Jain meditation">Jain meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jewish_meditation" title="Jewish meditation">Jewish meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Muraqabah" title="Muraqabah">Muraqabah (Sufi meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meditation#New_Age" title="Meditation">New Age meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Naam_Japo" title="Naam Japo">Naam Japo (Sikism meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Neigong" title="Neigong">Neigong</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pranayama" title="Pranayama">Pranayama (yoga breathing practice)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Qigong" title="Qigong">Qigong</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shikantaza" title="Shikantaza">Shikantaza (Zen Buddhist seated meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Silva_Method" title="Silva Method">Silva Method</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tantra" title="Tantra">Tantra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Transcendental_Meditation" title="Transcendental Meditation">Transcendental meditation (TM)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vipassan%C4%81" title="Vipassanā">Vipassanā (Silent meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yoga" title="Yoga">Yoga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zazen" title="Zazen">Zazen (Zen Buddhist seated meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zhan_zhuang" title="Zhan zhuang">Zhan zhuang (Qigong standing meditation)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/5Rhythms" title="5Rhythms">5Rhythms</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Techniques</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Biofeedback" title="Biofeedback">Biofeedback</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brainwave_entrainment" title="Brainwave entrainment">Brainwave entrainment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Diaphragmatic_breathing" title="Diaphragmatic breathing">Breathing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chant" title="Chant">Chanting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dh%C4%81ra%E1%B9%87%C4%81" title="Dhāraṇā">Concentration</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%9A%C5%ABnyat%C4%81" title="Śūnyatā">Emptiness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Guided_meditation" title="Guided meditation">Guided meditation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Higher_consciousness" title="Higher consciousness">Higher consciousness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mantra" title="Mantra">Mantra</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Mindfulness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mudra" title="Mudra">Mudra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meditation_music" title="Meditation music">Music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samadhi" title="Samadhi">Oneness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meditative_poetry" title="Meditative poetry">Poetry</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meditative_postures" title="Meditative postures">Postures</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prayer" title="Prayer">Prayer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Relaxation_technique" title="Relaxation technique">Relaxation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samyama" title="Samyama">Samyama</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Neotantra" title="Neotantra">Sexuality</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vipassan%C4%81" title="Vipassanā">Silence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meditation#Sound-based_meditation" title="Meditation">Sound</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trance" title="Trance">Trance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mental_image" title="Mental image">Visualization</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Leaders</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li>Focused attention
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Th%C3%ADch_Nh%E1%BA%A5t_H%E1%BA%A1nh" title="Thích Nhất Hạnh">Thich Nhat Hanh</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Open awareness
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Jon_Kabat-Zinn" title="Jon Kabat-Zinn">Jon Kabat-Zinn</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sam_Harris" title="Sam Harris">Sam Harris</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Multiple methods
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Pema_Ch%C3%B6dr%C3%B6n" title="Pema Chödrön">Pema Chödrön</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Susan_Piver" title="Susan Piver">Susan Piver</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/S._N._Goenka" title="S. N. Goenka">S. N. Goenka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Joseph_Goldstein_(writer)" title="Joseph Goldstein (writer)">Joseph Goldstein</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yuval_Noah_Harari" title="Yuval Noah Harari">Yuval Harari</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/14th_Dalai_Lama" title="14th Dalai Lama">14th Dalai Lama</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Matthieu_Ricard" title="Matthieu Ricard">Matthieu Ricard</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sharon_Salzberg" title="Sharon Salzberg">Sharon Salzberg</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Daniel_Goleman" title="Daniel Goleman">Daniel Goleman</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thubten_Chodron" title="Thubten Chodron">Thubten Chodron</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Martine_Batchelor" title="Martine Batchelor">Martine Batchelor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Batchelor_(author)" title="Stephen Batchelor (author)">Stephen Batchelor</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow hlist" colspan="2"><div>
<ul><li><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" /> <a href="/wiki/Category:Meditation" title="Category:Meditation">Category</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<table class="infobox" style="width:22em;width:100%; margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 0;"><tbody><tr><th scope="row">Classification</th><td style="text-align:left;"><div style="position:relative; float:right; font-size:0.8em;"><a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q341045" class="extiw" title="d:Q341045">D</a></div><div class="hlist hlist-separated" style="text-align:left;"><ul><li><b><a href="/wiki/Medical_Subject_Headings" title="Medical Subject Headings">MeSH</a></b>: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2015/MB_cgi?field=uid&term=D064866">D064866</a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox authority-control" aria-labelledby="Authority_control_frameless_&#124;text-top_&#124;10px_&#124;alt=Edit_this_at_Wikidata_&#124;link=https&#58;//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q341045&#124;Edit_this_at_Wikidata" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th id="Authority_control_frameless_&#124;text-top_&#124;10px_&#124;alt=Edit_this_at_Wikidata_&#124;link=https&#58;//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q341045&#124;Edit_this_at_Wikidata" scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Help:Authority_control" title="Help:Authority control">Authority control</a> <a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q341045" title="Edit this at Wikidata"><img alt="Edit this at Wikidata" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg/10px-OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg.png" decoding="async" width="10" height="10" style="vertical-align: text-top" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg/15px-OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg/20px-OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" /></a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Biblioteca_Nacional_de_Espa%C3%B1a" title="Biblioteca Nacional de España">BNE</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://catalogo.bne.es/uhtbin/authoritybrowse.cgi?action=display&authority_id=XX5629396">XX5629396</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Biblioth%C3%A8que_nationale_de_France" title="Bibliothèque nationale de France">BNF</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb16578854c">cb16578854c</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb16578854c">(data)</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Integrated_Authority_File" title="Integrated Authority File">GND</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://d-nb.info/gnd/4297929-8">4297929-8</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Library_of_Congress_Control_Number" title="Library of Congress Control Number">LCCN</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2015000815">sh2015000815</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Syst%C3%A8me_universitaire_de_documentation" title="Système universitaire de documentation">SUDOC</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.idref.fr/184184347">184184347</a></span></span></li></ul>
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