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	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Quipu</h1>
	
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		<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For the Quipu X.500 Directory System, see <a href="/wiki/Quipu_Directory" class="mw-redirect" title="Quipu Directory">Quipu Directory</a>.</div><div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Inca_Quipu.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Inca_Quipu.jpg/300px-Inca_Quipu.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="182" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Inca_Quipu.jpg/450px-Inca_Quipu.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Inca_Quipu.jpg/600px-Inca_Quipu.jpg 2x" data-file-width="625" data-file-height="380" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Inca_Quipu.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>An example of a <i>quipu</i> from the Inca Empire, currently in the <a href="/wiki/Larco_Museum" title="Larco Museum">Larco Museum</a> Collection.</div></div></div>
<table class="infobox" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;padding:0.25em; background:white; color:black;;">Quipu, Khipu<br /><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047488">.mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}</style><span class="nobold"></span></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.6em;">Type</th><td><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;line-height:1.25em">     other 
          </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.6em;">Languages</th><td><a href="/wiki/Aymara_language" title="Aymara language">Aymara</a>, <a href="/wiki/Quechua_language" class="mw-redirect" title="Quechua language">Quechua</a>, <a href="/wiki/Puquina_language" title="Puquina language">Puquina</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.6em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Time period</div></th><td>3rd millennium BCE – 17th century (some variants are used today)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.6em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Sister systems</div></th><td><a href="/wiki/Chinese_knotting" title="Chinese knotting">Chinese knots</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wampum" title="Wampum">Wampum</a></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="noprint selfref navbox-abovebelow" style="text-align:center;padding:0.3em 0.5em;text-align:left;line-height:1.3;"><span class="nowrap"><b>This article contains <a href="/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" title="International Phonetic Alphabet">IPA</a> phonetic symbols.</b></span> Without proper <a href="/wiki/Help:IPA#Rendering_issues" title="Help:IPA">rendering support</a>, you may see <a href="/wiki/Replacement_character" class="mw-redirect" title="Replacement character">question marks, boxes, or other symbols</a> instead of <a href="/wiki/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a> characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see <a href="/wiki/Help:IPA" title="Help:IPA">Help:IPA</a>.</td></tr></tbody></table>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu,_Casa_Concha,_Cusco.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/18/Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu%2C_Casa_Concha%2C_Cusco.jpg/300px-Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu%2C_Casa_Concha%2C_Cusco.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="169" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/18/Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu%2C_Casa_Concha%2C_Cusco.jpg/450px-Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu%2C_Casa_Concha%2C_Cusco.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/18/Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu%2C_Casa_Concha%2C_Cusco.jpg/600px-Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu%2C_Casa_Concha%2C_Cusco.jpg 2x" data-file-width="5312" data-file-height="2988" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Quipo_in_the_Museo_Machu_Picchu,_Casa_Concha,_Cusco.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Quipu in the Museo Machu Picchu, Casa Concha, Cusco</div></div></div>
<p><b>Quipu</b> (also spelled <b>khipu</b>) are recording devices fashioned from <a href="/wiki/String_(structure)" title="String (structure)">strings</a> historically used by a number of cultures in the region of <a href="/wiki/Andes" title="Andes">Andean</a> <a href="/wiki/South_America" title="South America">South America</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT-20160102_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NYT-20160102-1">[1]</a></sup> Knotted strings were used by many other cultures such as the <a href="/wiki/Ancient_China" class="mw-redirect" title="Ancient China">ancient Chinese</a> and <a href="/wiki/Native_Hawaiians" title="Native Hawaiians">native Hawaiians</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">[2]</a></sup> but such practices should not be confused with the quipu, which refers only to the Andean device.
</p><p>A <i>quipu</i> usually consisted of cotton or <a href="/wiki/Camelidae" title="Camelidae">camelid</a> fiber strings. The <a href="/wiki/Inca_people" class="mw-redirect" title="Inca people">Inca people</a> used them for collecting data and keeping records, monitoring tax obligations, properly collecting <a href="/wiki/Census" title="Census">census</a> records, calendrical information, and for military organization.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup> The cords stored numeric and other values <a href="/wiki/Encoded" class="mw-redirect" title="Encoded">encoded</a> as knots, often in a <a href="/wiki/Decimal" title="Decimal">base ten</a> <a href="/wiki/Positional_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Positional system">positional system</a>. A <i>quipu</i> could have only a few or thousands of cords.<sup id="cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AncientScripts-4">[4]</a></sup> The configuration of the <i>quipus</i> has been "compared to string mops."<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup> Archaeological evidence has also shown the use of finely carved wood as a supplemental, and perhaps more sturdy, base to which the <a href="/wiki/Color-coded" class="mw-redirect" title="Color-coded">color-coded</a> cords would be attached.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">[6]</a></sup> A relatively small number have survived.
</p><p>Objects that can be identified unambiguously as quipus first appear in the archaeological record in the first millennium AD. They subsequently played a key part in the administration of the <a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Cusco" title="Kingdom of Cusco">Kingdom of Cusco</a> and later <a href="/wiki/Tawantinsuyu" class="mw-redirect" title="Tawantinsuyu">Tawantinsuyu</a>, the empire controlled by the <a href="/wiki/Inca" class="mw-redirect" title="Inca">Inca</a> ethnic group, flourishing across the <a href="/wiki/Andes" title="Andes">Andes</a> from c. 1100 to 1532 AD. As the region was subsumed under the invading <a href="/wiki/Spanish_Empire" title="Spanish Empire">Spanish Empire</a>, the quipu faded from use, to be replaced by European writing and numeral systems. However, in several villages, quipu continued to be important items for the local community, albeit for <a href="/wiki/Ritual" title="Ritual">ritual</a> rather than practical use. It is unclear as to where and how many intact quipus still exist, as many have been stored away in <a href="/wiki/Mausoleum" title="Mausoleum">mausoleums</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">[7]</a></sup>
</p><p><i>Quipu</i> is the <a href="/wiki/Spanish_language" title="Spanish language">Spanish</a> spelling and the most common spelling in <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English language">English</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8">[8]</a></sup> <i>Khipu</i> (pronounced <small></small><span title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA"><a href="/wiki/Help:IPA/Quechua" title="Help:IPA/Quechua">[ˈkʰɪpʊ]</a></span>, plural: <i>khipukuna</i>) is the word for "<a href="/wiki/Knot" title="Knot">knot</a>" in <a href="/wiki/Qusqu-Qullaw" class="mw-redirect" title="Qusqu-Qullaw">Cusco Quechua</a>. In most Quechua varieties, the term is <i>kipu</i>.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Purpose"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Purpose</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Numerial_system"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Numerial system</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Literary_uses"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Literary uses</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Tawantin_Suyu"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Tawantin Suyu</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Spanish_invasion"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Spanish invasion</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Contemporary_social_importance"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Contemporary social importance</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Tupicocha,_Peru"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Tupicocha, Peru</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#San_Cristóbal_de_Rapaz,_Peru"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">San Cristóbal de Rapaz, Peru</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#Archaeological_investigation"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Archaeological investigation</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Preservation"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Preservation</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Footnotes"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Footnotes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Bibliography"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Bibliography</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Discovery_of_"Puruchuco"_toponym"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Discovery of "Puruchuco" toponym</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Etymology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The word "khipu", meaning "knot" or "to knot", comes from the <a href="/wiki/Quechua_language" class="mw-redirect" title="Quechua language">Quechua language</a> word: quipu, 1704, the "lingua franca and language of administration" of <a href="/wiki/Tawantin_Suyu" class="mw-redirect" title="Tawantin Suyu">Tawantin Suyu</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="quotebox pullquote floatright" style="width:30em; border-width: 1px; font-size: 85%; background-color: #c6dbf7;"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r887775652">.mw-parser-output .quotebox{background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%;max-width:100%}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft{margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright{margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered{margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-title{background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .quotebox cite{display:block;font-style:normal}@media screen and (max-width:360px){.mw-parser-output .quotebox{min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important}}</style>
<div class="quotebox-quote left-aligned" style="">"The khipu were knotted-string devices that were used for recording both statistical and narrative information, most notably by the Inca but also by other peoples of the central Andes from pre-Incaic times, through the colonial and republican eras, and even – in a considerably transformed and attenuated form – down to the present day."</div>
<p><cite class="right-aligned" style="">Archaeologist <a href="/wiki/Gary_Urton" title="Gary Urton">Gary Urton</a>, 2003.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">[10]</a></sup></cite>
</p>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Purpose">Purpose</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Purpose">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_(1936_facsimile)_p360.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_%281936_facsimile%29_p360.png/220px-Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_%281936_facsimile%29_p360.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="316" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_%281936_facsimile%29_p360.png/330px-Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_%281936_facsimile%29_p360.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_%281936_facsimile%29_p360.png 2x" data-file-width="407" data-file-height="584" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno_(1936_facsimile)_p360.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A <i>quipucamayoc</i> in <i><a href="/wiki/El_primer_nueva_cor%C3%B3nica_y_buen_gobierno" title="El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno">El primer nueva corónica</a></i>. On the lower left is a <a href="/wiki/Yupana" title="Yupana">yupana</a> – an Inca calculating device.</div></div></div>
<p>Most information recorded on the <i>quipus</i> consists of numbers in a decimal system,<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">[11]</a></sup> such as "Indian chiefs ascertain[ing] which province had lost more than another and balanc[ing] the losses between them" after the Spanish invasion.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">[12]</a></sup>
In the early years of the <a href="/wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_Peru" title="Spanish conquest of Peru">Spanish conquest of Peru</a>, Spanish officials often relied on the quipus to settle disputes over local <a href="/wiki/Tribute_payment" class="mw-redirect" title="Tribute payment">tribute payments</a> or goods production. <i>Quipucamayocs</i> (<a href="/wiki/Quechuan_languages" title="Quechuan languages">Quechua</a> <i>khipu kamayuq</i> "khipu specialist", plural: <i>khipu kamayuqkuna</i>) could be summoned to court, where their bookkeeping was recognised as valid documentation of past payments.
</p><p>Some of the knots, as well as other features, such as color, are thought to represent non-numeric information, which has not been deciphered. It is generally thought that the system did not include phonetic symbols analogous to letters of the alphabet. However <a href="/wiki/Gary_Urton" title="Gary Urton">Gary Urton</a> has suggested that the <i>quipus</i> used a binary system which could record <a href="/wiki/Phonology" title="Phonology">phonological</a> or <a href="/wiki/Logogram" title="Logogram">logographic</a> data.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">[13]</a></sup> His student Manny Medrano has gone further to find <i>quipus</i> that decode to match census data.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">[15]</a></sup>
</p><p>The lack of a clear link between any indigenous Peruvian languages and the <i>quipus</i> has historically led to the supposition that <i>quipus</i> are not a glottographic writing system and have no <a href="/wiki/Phonetic" class="mw-redirect" title="Phonetic">phonetic</a> referent.<sup id="cite_ref-Adams11_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Adams11-16">[16]</a></sup> Frank Salomon at the University of Wisconsin has argued that <i>quipus</i> are actually a <a href="/wiki/Semasiographic" class="mw-redirect" title="Semasiographic">semasiographic</a> language, a system of representative symbols – such as <a href="/wiki/Music_notation" class="mw-redirect" title="Music notation">music notation</a> or <a href="/wiki/Numeral_system" title="Numeral system">numerals</a> – that relay information but are not directly related to the speech sounds of a particular language.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[17]</a></sup> The Khipu Database Project (KDP), begun by Gary Urton, may have already decoded the first word from a quipu–the name of a village, <a href="/wiki/Puruchuco" title="Puruchuco">Puruchuco</a>–which Urton believes was represented by a three-number sequence, similar to a <a href="/wiki/ZIP_code" class="mw-redirect" title="ZIP code">ZIP code</a>. If this conjecture is correct, <i>quipus</i> are the only known example of a complex language recorded in a <a href="/wiki/Three-dimensional_space" title="Three-dimensional space">3-D</a> system.<sup id="cite_ref-Adams11_16-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Adams11-16">[16]</a></sup>
</p><p>Most recently, <a href="/wiki/Sabine_Hyland" title="Sabine Hyland">Sabine Hyland</a> has made the first phonetic decipherment of a <i>quipu,</i> challenging the assumption that <i>quipus</i> do not represent information phonetically. After being contacted by local woman Meche Moreyra Orozco, the head of the Association of Collatinos in Lima, Hyland was granted access to the <a href="/wiki/Epistle" title="Epistle">epistolary</a> <i>quipus</i> of San Juan de Collata. These <i>quipus</i> were exchanged during an 18th century rebellion against the Spanish government. A combination of color, fiber and <a href="/wiki/Ply_(layer)" title="Ply (layer)">ply</a> direction leads to a total of 95 combinations in these <i>quipus</i>, which is within the range of a logosyllabic <a href="/wiki/Writing_system" title="Writing system">writing system</a>. Exchanging information about the rebellion through <i>quipus</i> would have prevented the Spanish authorities from understanding the messages if they were intercepted, and the Collata <i>quipus</i> are non-numeric. With the help of local leaders, who described the <i>quipu</i> as "a language of animals", Hyland was able to translate the names of the two <i>ayllus</i>, or family lineages, who received and sent the <i>quipu</i>. The translation relied on phonetic references to the animal fibers and colors of the relevant <i>quipu</i> cords. Future research will attempt to determine whether Hyland's findings are applicable to <i>quipus</i> from the Inca period and earlier.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">[19]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Numerial_system">Numerial system</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Numerial system">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks navbox hlist" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%"><tbody><tr><th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em"><a href="/wiki/Numeral_system" title="Numeral system">Numeral systems</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;padding:5px"><a href="/wiki/File:Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg" class="image"><img alt="Numeral Systems of the World.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg/200px-Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="139" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg/300px-Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg/400px-Numeral_Systems_of_the_World.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="357" /></a></td></tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<a href="/wiki/Hindu%E2%80%93Arabic_numeral_system" title="Hindu–Arabic numeral system">Hindu–Arabic numeral system</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="hlist">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Arabic_numerals" title="Arabic numerals">Western Arabic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eastern_Arabic_numerals" title="Eastern Arabic numerals">Eastern Arabic</a></li></ul>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bengali_numerals" title="Bengali numerals">Bengali</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Devanagari_numerals" title="Devanagari numerals">Devanagari</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gurmukhi_numerals" title="Gurmukhi numerals">Gurmukhi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sinhala_numerals" title="Sinhala numerals">Sinhala</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tamil_numerals" title="Tamil numerals">Tamil</a></li></ul>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Balinese_numerals" title="Balinese numerals">Balinese</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Burmese_numerals" title="Burmese numerals">Burmese</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dzongkha_numerals" title="Dzongkha numerals">Dzongkha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gujarati_numerals" title="Gujarati numerals">Gujarati</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Javanese_numerals" title="Javanese numerals">Javanese</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Khmer_numerals" title="Khmer numerals">Khmer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lao_alphabet#Numerals" class="mw-redirect" title="Lao alphabet">Lao</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mongolian_numerals" title="Mongolian numerals">Mongolian</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thai_numerals" title="Thai numerals">Thai</a></li></ul>
</div></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
East Asian</th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Chinese_numerals" title="Chinese numerals">Chinese</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Suzhou_numerals" title="Suzhou numerals">Suzhou</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hokkien_numerals" title="Hokkien numerals">Hokkien</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Japanese_numerals" title="Japanese numerals">Japanese</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Korean_numerals" title="Korean numerals">Korean</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vietnamese_numerals" title="Vietnamese numerals">Vietnamese</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tangut_numerals" title="Tangut numerals">Tangut</a></li></ul>
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Counting_rods" title="Counting rods">Counting rods</a></i></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<a href="/wiki/Alphabetic_numeral_system" title="Alphabetic numeral system">Alphabetic</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Abjad_numerals" title="Abjad numerals">Abjad</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Armenian_numerals" title="Armenian numerals">Armenian</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C4%80ryabha%E1%B9%ADa_numeration" title="Āryabhaṭa numeration">Āryabhaṭa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cyrillic_numerals" title="Cyrillic numerals">Cyrillic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ge%27ez_script#Numerals" class="mw-redirect" title="Ge'ez script">Ge'ez</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Georgian_numerals" title="Georgian numerals">Georgian</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Greek_numerals" title="Greek numerals">Greek</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hebrew_numerals" title="Hebrew numerals">Hebrew</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Roman_numerals" title="Roman numerals">Roman</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
Former</th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Aegean_numerals" title="Aegean numerals">Aegean</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Attic_numerals" title="Attic numerals">Attic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Babylonian_numerals" class="mw-redirect" title="Babylonian numerals">Babylonian</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brahmi_numerals" title="Brahmi numerals">Brahmi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chuvash_numerals" title="Chuvash numerals">Chuvash</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Egyptian_numerals" title="Egyptian numerals">Egyptian</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Etruscan_numerals" title="Etruscan numerals">Etruscan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cyrillic_numerals#Glagolitic_numerals" title="Cyrillic numerals">Glagolitic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kaktovik_Inupiaq_numerals" title="Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals">Inuit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kharosthi_numerals" class="mw-redirect" title="Kharosthi numerals">Kharosthi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maya_numerals" title="Maya numerals">Mayan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Muisca_numerals" title="Muisca numerals">Muisca</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Quipu</a></li></ul>
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Prehistoric_numerals" title="Prehistoric numerals">Prehistoric</a></i></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<a href="/wiki/Positional_notation" title="Positional notation">Positional systems</a> by <a href="/wiki/Radix" title="Radix">base</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Binary_number" title="Binary number">2</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ternary_numeral_system" title="Ternary numeral system">3</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quaternary_numeral_system" title="Quaternary numeral system">4</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quinary" title="Quinary">5</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Senary" title="Senary">6</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Octal" title="Octal">8</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Decimal" title="Decimal">10</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Duodecimal" title="Duodecimal">12</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hexadecimal" title="Hexadecimal">16</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vigesimal" title="Vigesimal">20</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sexagesimal" title="Sexagesimal">60</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<a href="/wiki/Non-standard_positional_numeral_systems" title="Non-standard positional numeral systems">Non-standard positional numeral systems</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bijective_numeration" title="Bijective numeration">Bijective numeration</a> (<a href="/wiki/Unary_numeral_system" title="Unary numeral system">1</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Signed-digit_representation" title="Signed-digit representation">Signed-digit representation</a> (<a href="/wiki/Balanced_ternary" title="Balanced ternary">Balanced ternary</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mixed_radix" title="Mixed radix">mixed</a> (<a href="/wiki/Factorial_number_system" title="Factorial number system">factorial</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Negative_base" title="Negative base">negative</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Complex-base_system" title="Complex-base system">Complex-base system</a> (<a href="/wiki/Quater-imaginary_base" title="Quater-imaginary base">2<i>i</i></a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Non-integer_representation" title="Non-integer representation">Non-integer representation</a> (<a href="/wiki/Golden_ratio_base" title="Golden ratio base">φ</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asymmetric_numeral_systems" title="Asymmetric numeral systems">Asymmetric numeral systems</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0.3em 0.4em 0.3em;font-weight:bold;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">
<a href="/wiki/List_of_numeral_systems" title="List of numeral systems">List of numeral systems</a></td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Numeral_systems" title="Template:Numeral systems"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Numeral_systems" title="Template talk:Numeral systems"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Numeral_systems&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>Marcia and Robert Ascher, after having analyzed several hundred <i>quipus</i>, have shown that most information on <i>quipus</i> is numeric, and these numbers can be read. Each cluster of knots is a digit, and there are three main types of knots: simple <a href="/wiki/Overhand_knot" title="Overhand knot">overhand knots</a>; "long knots", consisting of an overhand knot with one or more additional <a href="/wiki/Turn_(knot)" title="Turn (knot)">turns</a>; and <a href="/wiki/Figure-eight_knot" title="Figure-eight knot">figure-eight knots</a>. In the Aschers’ system, a fourth type of knot—figure-of-eight knot with an extra twist—is referred to as "EE". A number is represented as a sequence of knot clusters in base 10.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">[20]</a></sup>
</p>
<ul><li>Powers of ten are shown by position along the string, and this position is aligned between successive strands.</li>
<li>Digits in positions for 10 and higher powers are represented by clusters of simple knots (e.g., 40 is four simple knots in a row in the "tens" position).</li>
<li>Digits in the "ones" position are represented by long knots (e.g., 4 is a knot with four turns).  Because of the way the knots are tied, the digit 1 cannot be shown this way and is represented in this position by a figure-of-eight knot.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zero" class="mw-redirect" title="Zero">Zero</a> is represented by the absence of a knot in the appropriate position.</li>
<li>Because the ones digit is shown in a distinctive way, it is clear where a number ends.  One strand on a <i>quipu</i> can therefore contain several numbers.</li></ul>
<p>For example, if 4s represents four simple knots, 3L represents a long knot with three turns, E represents a figure-of-eight knot and X represents a space:
</p>
<ul><li>The number 731 would be represented by 7s, 3s, E.</li>
<li>The number 804 would be represented by 8s, X, 4L.</li>
<li>The number 107 followed by the number 51 would be represented by 1s, X, 7L, 5s, E.</li></ul>
<p>This reading can be confirmed by a fortunate fact: <i>quipus</i> regularly contain sums in a systematic way. For instance, a cord may contain the sum of the next <i>n</i> cords, and this relationship is repeated throughout the <i>quipu</i>. Sometimes there are sums of sums as well. Such a relationship would be very improbable if the knots were incorrectly read.<sup id="cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AncientScripts-4">[4]</a></sup>
</p><p>Some data items are not numbers but what Ascher and Ascher call <i>number labels</i>. They are still composed of digits, but the resulting number seems to be used as a code, much as we use numbers to identify individuals, places, or things. Lacking the context for individual quipus, it is difficult to guess what any given code might mean. Other aspects of a <i>quipu</i> could have communicated information as well: color-coding, relative placement of cords, spacing, and the structure of cords and sub-cords.<sup id="cite_ref-Locke,_1912_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Locke,_1912-21">[21]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Literary_uses">Literary uses</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: Literary uses">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Some have argued that far more than numeric information is present and that <i>quipus</i> are a <a href="/wiki/Writing_system" title="Writing system">writing system</a>. This would be an especially important discovery as there is no surviving record of written Quechua predating the <a href="/wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_Peru" title="Spanish conquest of Peru">Spanish invasion</a>. Possible reasons for this apparent absence of a written language include an actual absence of a written language, destruction by the Spanish of all written records, or the successful concealment by the Inca peoples of those records.  Making the matter even more complex, the Inca 'kept separate "khipu" for each province, on which a pendant string recorded the number of people belonging to each category.'<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">[22]</a></sup>  This creates yet another step in the process of decryption in addition to the Spanish attempts at eradicating the system.<sup id="cite_ref-suppress_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-suppress-23">[23]</a></sup> Historians Edward Hyams and George Ordish believe quipus were recording devices, similar to musical notation, in that the notes on the page present basic information, and the performer would then bring those details to life.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">[24]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2003, while checking the geometric signs that appear on drawings of Inca dresses from the <i><a href="/wiki/Primer_Nueva_Cor%C3%B3nica_y_Buen_Gobierno" class="mw-redirect" title="Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno">First New Chronicle and Good Government</a></i>, written by <a href="/wiki/Felipe_Guaman_Poma_de_Ayala" title="Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala">Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala</a> in 1615, <a href="/wiki/William_Burns_Glynn" title="William Burns Glynn">William Burns Glynn</a> found a pattern that seems to decipher some words from <i>quipus</i> by matching knots to colors of strings.
</p><p>The August 12, 2005, edition of the journal <i><a href="/wiki/Science_(journal)" title="Science (journal)">Science</a></i> includes a report titled "Khipu Accounting in Ancient Peru" by anthropologist <a href="/wiki/Gary_Urton" title="Gary Urton">Gary Urton</a> and mathematician <a href="/w/index.php?title=Carrie_J._Brezine&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Carrie J. Brezine (page does not exist)">Carrie J. Brezine</a>. Their work may represent the first identification of a <i>quipu</i> element for a non-numeric concept, a sequence of three figure-of-eight knots at the start of a <i>quipu</i> that seems to be a unique signifier. It could be a <a href="/wiki/Toponym" class="mw-redirect" title="Toponym">toponym</a> for the city of Puruchuco (near <a href="/wiki/Lima" title="Lima">Lima</a>), or the name of the <i>quipu</i> keeper who made it, or its subject matter, or even a time designator.<sup id="cite_ref-Urton_&_Brezine_(2005)_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Urton_&_Brezine_(2005)-25">[25]</a></sup>
</p><p>Beynon-Davies considers <i>quipus</i> as a sign system and develops an interpretation of their physical structure in terms of the concept of a <a href="/wiki/Data_system" title="Data system">data system</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">[26]</a></sup>
</p><p><i>Khipu kamayuqkuna</i> (knot makers/keepers, i.e., the former Inca record keepers) supplied colonial administrators with a variety and quantity of information pertaining to censuses, tribute, ritual and calendrical organization, genealogies, and other such matters from Inka times. Performing a number of statistical tests for quipu sample VA 42527, one study led by Alberto Sáez-Rodríguez discovered that the distribution and patterning of S- and Z-knots can organize the information system from a real star map of the <a href="/wiki/Pleiades" title="Pleiades">Pleiades</a> cluster.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">[27]</a></sup>
</p><p>Laura Minelli, a professor of <a href="/wiki/Pre-Columbian" class="mw-redirect" title="Pre-Columbian">pre-Columbian</a> studies at the <a href="/wiki/University_of_Bologna" title="University of Bologna">University of Bologna</a>, has discovered something which she believed to be a seventeenth-century <a href="/wiki/Jesuit" class="mw-redirect" title="Jesuit">Jesuit</a> manuscript that describes literary <i>quipus</i>, titled <i lang="la" title="Latin language text">Historia et Rudimenta Linguae Piruanorum</i>. This manuscript consists of nine <a href="/wiki/Folios" class="mw-redirect" title="Folios">folios</a> with Spanish, <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin</a>, and ciphered Italian texts. Owned by the family of Neapolitan historian Clara Miccinelli, the manuscript also includes a wool <i>quipu</i> fragment. Miccinelli believes that the text was written by two Italian Jesuit missionaries, Joan Antonio Cumis and Giovanni Anello Oliva, around 1610–1638, and <a href="/wiki/Blas_Valera" title="Blas Valera">Blas Valera</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Mestizo" title="Mestizo">mestizo</a> Jesuit sometime before 1618. Along with the details of reading literary <i>quipus</i>, the documents also discuss the events and people of the Spanish conquest of <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a>. According to Cumis, since so many <i>quipus</i> were burned by the Spanish, very few remained for him to analyze. As related in the manuscript, the word <a href="/wiki/Pacha_Kamaq" title="Pacha Kamaq">Pacha Kamaq</a>, the Inca deity of earth and time, was used many times in these <i>quipus</i>, where the syllables were represented by symbols formed in the knots. Following the analysis of the use of "Pacha Kamaq", the manuscript offers a list of many words present in <i>quipus</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28">[28]</a></sup> However, Bruce Mannheim, the director of the Center for Latin American Studies at the <a href="/wiki/University_of_Michigan" title="University of Michigan">University of Michigan</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Colgate_University" title="Colgate University">Colgate University</a>'s Gary Urton, question its origin and authenticity. These documents seem to be inspired freely by a 1751 writing of <a href="/wiki/Raimondo_di_Sangro" title="Raimondo di Sangro">Raimondo di Sangro, Prince of Sansevero</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AncientScripts-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29">[29]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">[30]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: History">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Tawantin_Suyu">Tawantin Suyu</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=6" title="Edit section: Tawantin Suyu">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Inca_education" title="Inca education">Inca education</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Quipu.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Quipu.png/170px-Quipu.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="255" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Quipu.png/255px-Quipu.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Quipu.png 2x" data-file-width="299" data-file-height="449" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Quipu.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Representation of a <i>quipu</i> (1888)</div></div></div>
<p><i>Quipucamayocs</i> (Quechua <i>khipu kamayuq</i>, "khipu-authority"), the accountants of <a href="/wiki/Tawantin_Suyu" class="mw-redirect" title="Tawantin Suyu">Tawantin Suyu</a>, created and deciphered the quipu knots. <i>Quipucamayocs</i> could carry out basic <a href="/wiki/Arithmetic" title="Arithmetic">arithmetic</a> operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They kept track of <a href="/wiki/Mita_(Inca)" class="mw-redirect" title="Mita (Inca)">mita</a>, a form of <a href="/wiki/Taxation" class="mw-redirect" title="Taxation">taxation</a>. The <i>quipucamayocs</i> also tracked the type of <a href="/wiki/Labour_(economics)" class="mw-redirect" title="Labour (economics)">labor</a> being performed, maintained a record of <a href="/wiki/Economic_output" class="mw-redirect" title="Economic output">economic output</a>, and ran a <a href="/wiki/Census" title="Census">census</a> that counted everyone from infants to "old blind men over 80". The system was also used to keep track of the calendar. According to Guaman Poma, <i>quipucamayocs</i> could "read" the quipus with their eyes closed.<sup id="cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AncientScripts-4">[4]</a></sup>
</p><p><i>Quipucamayocs</i> were from a class of people, "males, fifty to sixty",<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">[31]</a></sup> and were not the only members of <a href="/wiki/Inca#Society" class="mw-redirect" title="Inca">Inca society</a> to use quipus. Inca <a href="/wiki/Historians" class="mw-redirect" title="Historians">historians</a> used quipus when telling the Spanish about Tawantin Suyu history (whether they only recorded important numbers or actually contained the story itself is unknown). Members of the ruling class were usually taught to read quipus in the Inca equivalent of a university, the <i>yachay wasi</i> (literally, "house of teaching"), in the third year of schooling, for the higher classes who would eventually become the bureaucracy.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">[32]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Spanish_invasion">Spanish invasion</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: Spanish invasion">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 1532, the <a href="/wiki/Spanish_Empire" title="Spanish Empire">Spanish Empire</a>'s conquest of the Andean region began, with several Spanish conquerors making note of the existence of quipus in their written records about the invasion. The earliest known example comes from <a href="/wiki/Hernando_Pizarro" title="Hernando Pizarro">Hernando Pizarro</a>, the brother of the Spanish military leader <a href="/wiki/Francisco_Pizarro" title="Francisco Pizarro">Francisco Pizarro</a>, who recorded an encounter that he and his men had in 1533 as they traveled along the royal road from the highlands to the central coast.<sup id="cite_ref-Locke,_1912_21-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Locke,_1912-21">[21]</a></sup> It was during this journey that they encountered several quipu keepers, later relating that these keepers "untied some of the knots which they had in the deposits section [of the khipu], and they [re-]tied them in another section [of the khipu]."<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">[33]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">[34]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">[35]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">[36]</a></sup>
</p><p>The Spanish authorities quickly suppressed the use of <i>quipus</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-suppress_23-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-suppress-23">[23]</a></sup>
Christian officials of the <a href="/wiki/Third_Council_of_Lima" title="Third Council of Lima">Third Council of Lima</a> banned and ordered the burning of all Quipus in 1583 because they were used to record offerings to non-Christian gods and were therefore considered idolatrous objects and an obstacle to religious conversion.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">[37]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Contemporary_social_importance">Contemporary social importance</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=8" title="Edit section: Contemporary social importance">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The <i>quipu</i> system operated as both a method of calculation and social organization, regulating regional governance and land use.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38">[38]</a></sup>  While evidence for the latter is still under the critical eye of scholars around the world, the very fact that they are kept to this day without any confirmed level of fluent literacy in the system is testament to its historical 'moral authority.'<sup id="cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93-39">[39]</a></sup>  Today, "khipu" is regarded as a powerful symbol of heritage, only 'unfurled' and handled by 'pairs of [contemporary] dignitaries,' as the system and its 'construction embed' modern 'cultural knowledge.'<sup id="cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93-39">[39]</a></sup>  Ceremonies in which they are 'curated, even though they can no longer be read,' is even further support for the case of societal honor and significance associated with the quipu.<sup id="cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93-39">[39]</a></sup>  Even today, 'the knotted cords must be present and displayed when village officers leave or begin service, and draping the cords over the incoming office holders instantiates the moral and political authority of the past.'<sup id="cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93-39">[39]</a></sup>  These examples are indicative of how the <i>quipu</i> system is not only fundamental mathematically or linguistically for the original Inca, but also for the cultural preservation of the original empire's descendants.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Anthropologists" class="mw-redirect" title="Anthropologists">Anthropologists</a> and <a href="/wiki/Archaeologists" class="mw-redirect" title="Archaeologists">archaeologists</a> working in <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a> have highlighted two known cases where <i>quipus</i> have continued to be used by contemporary communities, albeit as ritual items seen as "communal patrimony" rather than as devices for recording information.<sup id="cite_ref-Peters_and_Salomon_41_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Peters_and_Salomon_41-40">[40]</a></sup> The khipu system, being the efficient method of social management it was for the Inca, is also a link to the Cuzco census, as it was one of the primary methods of population calculation.<sup id="cite_ref-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001-41">[41]</a></sup> This also has allowed historians and anthropologists to understand both the census and the "decimal hierarchy" system the Inca used, and that they were actually 'initiated together,' due to the fact that they were 'conceptually so closely linked.'<sup id="cite_ref-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001_41-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001-41">[41]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Tupicocha.2C_Peru"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Tupicocha,_Peru">Tupicocha, Peru</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=9" title="Edit section: Tupicocha, Peru">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 1994, the American cultural anthropologist Frank Salomon conducted a study in the Peruvian village of Tupicocha, where <i>quipus</i> are still an important part of the social life of the village.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">[42]</a></sup> As of 1994, this was the only village where quipus with a structure similar to pre-Columbian <i>quipus</i> were still used for official local government record-keeping and functions, although the villagers did not associate their quipus with Inca artifacts.<sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43">[43]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="San_Crist.C3.B3bal_de_Rapaz.2C_Peru"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="San_Cristóbal_de_Rapaz,_Peru">San Cristóbal de Rapaz, Peru</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=10" title="Edit section: San Cristóbal de Rapaz, Peru">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The villagers of San Cristóbal de Rapaz (known as Rapacinos), located in the <a href="/wiki/Oy%C3%B3n_Province" title="Oyón Province">Province of Oyón</a>, keep a quipu in an old ceremonial building, the <i>Kaha Wayi</i>, that is itself surrounded by a walled architectural complex. Also within the complex is a disused communal storehouse, known as the <i>Pasa Qullqa</i>, which was formerly used to protect and redistribute the local crops, and some Rapacinos believe that the <i>quipu</i> was once a record of this process of collecting and redistributing food.<sup id="cite_ref-Locke,_1912_21-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Locke,_1912-21">[21]</a></sup> The entire complex was important to the villagers, being "the seat of traditional control over land use, and the centre of communication with the deified mountains who control weather".<sup id="cite_ref-Peters_and_Salomon_41_40-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Peters_and_Salomon_41-40">[40]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2004, the archaeologist Renata Peeters (of the <a href="/wiki/UCL_Institute_of_Archaeology" title="UCL Institute of Archaeology">UCL Institute of Archaeology</a> in London) and the cultural anthropologist Frank Salomon (of the <a href="/wiki/University_of_Wisconsin" class="mw-redirect" title="University of Wisconsin">University of Wisconsin</a>) undertook a project to conserve both the <i>quipus</i> in Rapaz and the building that it was in, due to their increasingly poor condition.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">[44]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Archaeological_investigation">Archaeological investigation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=11" title="Edit section: Archaeological investigation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The archaeologist <a href="/wiki/Gary_Urton" title="Gary Urton">Gary Urton</a> noted in his 2003 book <i>Signs of the Inka Khipu</i> that he estimated "from my own studies and from the published works of other scholars that there are about 600 extant <i>quipu</i> in public and private collections around the world."<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">[45]</a></sup>
</p><p>According to the Khipu Database Project<sup id="cite_ref-khipudatabase_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-khipudatabase-46">[46]</a></sup> undertaken by <a href="/wiki/Harvard_University" title="Harvard University">Harvard University</a> professor Gary Urton and his colleague Carrie Brezine, 751 quipus have been reported to exist across the globe. Their whereabouts range from <a href="/wiki/Europe" title="Europe">Europe</a> to <a href="/wiki/North_America" title="North America">North</a> and <a href="/wiki/South_America" title="South America">South America</a>. Most are housed in museums outside of their native countries, however some reside in their native locations under the care of the descendants of those who made the knot records. A table of the largest collections is shown below.
</p>
<table class="wikitable">

<tbody><tr>
<th>Museum Collection</th>
<th>Location</th>
<th>Quipus
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ethnological_Museum_of_Berlin" title="Ethnological Museum of Berlin">Ethnological Museum of Berlin</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Berlin" title="Berlin">Berlin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Germany" title="Germany">Germany</a></td>
<td>298
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Museum_Five_Continents" title="Museum Five Continents">Museum Five Continents</a><sup id="cite_ref-munich_47-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-munich-47">[47]</a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Munich" title="Munich">Munich</a>, <a href="/wiki/Germany" title="Germany">Germany</a></td>
<td>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Pachacamac" title="Pachacamac">Pachacamac</a><sup id="cite_ref-muspachacamac_48-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-muspachacamac-48">[48]</a></sup></td>
<td>near <a href="/wiki/Lima" title="Lima">Lima</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a></td>
<td>35
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Museo_Nacional_de_Arqueolog%C3%ADa,_Antropolog%C3%ADa_e_Historia_del_Per%C3%BA" class="mw-redirect" title="Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú">Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú</a><sup id="cite_ref-museonantarc_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-museonantarc-49">[49]</a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Lima" title="Lima">Lima</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a></td>
<td>35
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Centro Mallqui<sup id="cite_ref-centromallquicultura_50-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-centromallquicultura-50">[50]</a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Leimebamba" class="mw-redirect" title="Leimebamba">Leimebamba</a>, <a href="/wiki/Amazonas_Region" class="mw-redirect" title="Amazonas Region">Amazonas</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a></td>
<td>32
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Museo Temple Radicati, <a href="/wiki/National_University_of_San_Marcos" title="National University of San Marcos">National University of San Marcos</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Lima" title="Lima">Lima</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a></td>
<td>26
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/w/index.php?title=Museo_Regional_de_Ica&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Museo Regional de Ica (page does not exist)">Museo Regional de Ica</a><span class="noprint" style="font-size:85%; font-style: normal;"> [<a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museo_Regional_de_Ica" class="extiw" title="es:Museo Regional de Ica">es</a>]</span></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ica,_Peru" title="Ica, Peru">Ica</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a></td>
<td>25
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Museo Puruchuco<sup id="cite_ref-puruchuco_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-puruchuco-51">[51]</a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ate_District" title="Ate District">Ate District</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lima" title="Lima">Lima</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a></td>
<td>23
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>While patrimonial quipu collections have not been accounted for in this database, their numbers are likely to be unknown. One prominent patrimonial collection held by the <a href="/w/index.php?title=Rapazian&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Rapazian (page does not exist)">Rapazians</a> of Rapaz, Peru, was recently researched by <a href="/wiki/University_of_Wisconsin%E2%80%93Madison" title="University of Wisconsin–Madison">University of Wisconsin–Madison</a> professor, Frank Salomon.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">[52]</a></sup> The Anthropology/Archaeology department at the <a href="/wiki/University_of_California_at_Santa_Barbara" class="mw-redirect" title="University of California at Santa Barbara">University of California at Santa Barbara</a> also holds one <i>quipu</i>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2012)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Preservation">Preservation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=12" title="Edit section: Preservation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p><i>Quipus</i> are made of <a href="/wiki/Fiber" title="Fiber">fibers</a>, either spun and plied thread such as <a href="/wiki/Wool" title="Wool">wool</a> or <a href="/wiki/Hair" title="Hair">hair</a> from <a href="/wiki/Alpaca" title="Alpaca">alpaca</a>, <a href="/wiki/Llama" title="Llama">llama</a>, <a href="/wiki/Guanaco" title="Guanaco">guanaco</a> or <a href="/wiki/Vicu%C3%B1a" title="Vicuña">vicuña</a>, though are also commonly made of <a href="/wiki/Cellulose" title="Cellulose">cellulose</a> like <a href="/wiki/Cotton" title="Cotton">cotton</a>. The <a href="/wiki/Knot" title="Knot">knotted</a> strings of <i>quipus</i> were often made with an "elaborate system of knotted cords, dyed in various colors, the significance of which was known to the <a href="/wiki/Magistrates" class="mw-redirect" title="Magistrates">magistrates</a>".<sup id="cite_ref-Bingham_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bingham-53">[53]</a></sup> Fading of <a href="/wiki/Color" title="Color">color</a>, natural or dyed, cannot be reversed, and may indicate further damage to the fibers. Colors can darken if attacked by dust or by certain <a href="/wiki/Dyes" class="mw-redirect" title="Dyes">dyes</a> and <a href="/wiki/Mordants" class="mw-redirect" title="Mordants">mordants</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-CanadaCITextile_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CanadaCITextile-54">[54]</a></sup> <i>Quipus</i> have been found with adornments, such as <a href="/wiki/Animal_shell" class="mw-redirect" title="Animal shell">animal shells</a>, attached to the cords, and these non-textile materials may require additional preservation measures.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2012)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>
</p><p><i>Quipus</i> are now preserved using techniques that will minimise their future degradation. <a href="/wiki/Museum" title="Museum">Museums</a>, <a href="/wiki/Archive" title="Archive">archives</a> and special collections have adopted preservation guidelines from <a href="/wiki/Textile" title="Textile">textile</a> practices.
</p><p>Environmental controls are used to monitor and control <a href="/wiki/Temperature" title="Temperature">temperature</a>, <a href="/wiki/Humidity" title="Humidity">humidity</a> and <a href="/wiki/Light" title="Light">light</a> exposure of storage areas. As with all textiles, cool, clean, dry and dark environments are most suitable. The heating, ventilating and air conditioning, or <a href="/wiki/HVAC" class="mw-redirect" title="HVAC">HVAC</a> systems, of buildings that house quipu knot records are usually automatically regulated. Relative humidity should be 60% or lower, with low temperatures, as high temperatures can damage the fibres and make them brittle. Damp conditions and high humidity can damage protein-rich material. <a href="/wiki/Textiles" class="mw-redirect" title="Textiles">Textiles</a> suffer damage from <a href="/wiki/Ultraviolet" title="Ultraviolet">ultraviolet</a> (UV) light, which can include fading and weakening of the fibrous material. When quipus are on display, their exposure to ambient conditions is usually minimized and closely monitored.<sup id="cite_ref-CanadaCITextile_54-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CanadaCITextile-54">[54]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-conservationregister_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-conservationregister-55">[55]</a></sup>
</p><p>Damage can occur during storage. The more accessible the items are during storage, the greater the chance of early detection.<sup id="cite_ref-conservationregister_55-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-conservationregister-55">[55]</a></sup>  Storing quipus horizontally on boards covered with a neutral <a href="/wiki/PH" title="PH">pH</a> paper (paper that is neither <a href="/wiki/Acid" title="Acid">acid</a> or <a href="/wiki/Alkaline" class="mw-redirect" title="Alkaline">alkaline</a>) to prevent potential acid transfer is a preservation technique that extends the life of a collection. The fibers can be abraded by rubbing against each other or, for those attached to sticks or rods, by their own weight if held in an upright position. Extensive handling of <i>quipus</i> can also increase the risk of further damage.<sup id="cite_ref-storage_56-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-storage-56">[56]</a></sup>
</p><p><i>Quipus</i> are also closely monitored for <a href="/wiki/Mold" title="Mold">mold</a>, as well as <a href="/wiki/Insect" title="Insect">insects</a> and their <a href="/wiki/Larva" title="Larva">larvae</a>. As with all textiles, these are major problems. <a href="/wiki/Fumigation" title="Fumigation">Fumigation</a> may not be recommended for fiber textiles displaying mold or insect <a href="/wiki/Ectoparasitic_infestation" title="Ectoparasitic infestation">infestations</a>, although it is common practice for ridding <a href="/wiki/Paper" title="Paper">paper</a> of mold and insects.
</p><p>Conservators in the field of <a href="/wiki/Library_science" title="Library science">library science</a> have the skills to handle a variety of situations. Even though some quipus have hundreds of cords, each cord should be assessed and treated individually. <i>Quipu</i> cords can be "mechanically cleaned with brushes, small tools and light vacuuming".<sup id="cite_ref-Salomon_57-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Salomon-57">[57]</a></sup> Just as the application of <a href="/wiki/Fungicides" class="mw-redirect" title="Fungicides">fungicides</a> is not recommended to rid quipus of mold, neither is the use of <a href="/wiki/Solvents" class="mw-redirect" title="Solvents">solvents</a> to clean them.
</p><p>Even when people have tried to preserve <i>quipus</i>, corrective care may still be required. If <i>quipus</i> are to be conserved close to their place of origin, local camelid or wool fibres in natural colors can be obtained and used to mend breaks and splits in the cords.<sup id="cite_ref-Salomon_57-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Salomon-57">[57]</a></sup>   Rosa Choque Gonzales and Rosalia Choque Gonzales, conservators from southern Peru, worked to conserve the Rapaz patrimonial quipus in the Andean village of Rapaz, Peru. These <i>quipus</i> had undergone repair in the past, so this conservator team used new local camelid and wool fibers to spin around the area under repair in a similar fashion to the earlier repairs found on the quipu.<sup id="cite_ref-Salomon_57-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Salomon-57">[57]</a></sup>
</p><p>When Gary Urton, professor of <a href="/wiki/Anthropology" title="Anthropology">Anthropology</a> at Harvard, was asked "Are they [quipus] fragile?", he answered, "some of them are, and you can't touch them – they would break or turn into dust. Many are quite well preserved, and you can actually study them without doing them any harm. Of course, any time you touch an ancient fabric like that, you're doing some damage, but these strings are generally quite durable."<sup id="cite_ref-string_58-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-string-58">[58]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Ruth_Shady" title="Ruth Shady">Ruth Shady</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peruvian</a> <a href="/wiki/Archeologist" class="mw-redirect" title="Archeologist">archeologist</a>, has discovered a <i>quipu</i> or perhaps <i>proto-quipu</i> believed to be around 5,000 years old in the coastal city of <a href="/wiki/Caral" title="Caral">Caral</a>. It was in quite good condition, with "brown cotton strings wound around thin sticks", along with "a series of offerings, including mysterious fiber balls of different sizes wrapped in 'nets' and pristine reed baskets. Piles of raw cotton – uncombed and containing seeds, though turned a dirty brown by the ages – and a ball of cotton thread" were also found preserved. The good condition of these articles can be attributed to the <a href="/wiki/Arid" title="Arid">arid</a> condition of Caral.<sup id="cite_ref-proto-quipu_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-proto-quipu-59">[59]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=13" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Footnotes">Footnotes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=14" title="Edit section: Footnotes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 23em; -webkit-column-width: 23em; column-width: 23em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-NYT-20160102-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-NYT-20160102_1-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Neuman, William (January 2, 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/03/world/americas/untangling-an-accounting-tool-and-an-ancient-incan-mystery.html">"Untangling an Accounting Tool and an Ancient Inca Mystery"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/New_York_Times" class="mw-redirect" title="New York Times">New York Times</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">January 8,</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=New+York+Times&rft.atitle=Untangling+an+Accounting+Tool+and+an+Ancient+Inca+Mystery&rft.date=2016-01-02&rft.aulast=Neuman&rft.aufirst=William&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2016%2F01%2F03%2Fworld%2Famericas%2Funtangling-an-accounting-tool-and-an-ancient-incan-mystery.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r935243608">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
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<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Jacobsen, Lyle E. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.accountingin.com/accounting-historians-journal/volume-10-number-2/use-of-knotted-string-accounting-records-in-old-hawaii-and-ancient-china/">"Use of Knotted String Accounting Records in Old Hawaii and Ancient China"</a>. <i>Accounting Historians Journal</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 August</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Accounting+Historians+Journal&rft.atitle=Use+of+Knotted+String+Accounting+Records+in+Old+Hawaii+and+Ancient+China&rft.aulast=Jacobsen&rft.aufirst=Lyle+E.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.accountingin.com%2Faccounting-historians-journal%2Fvolume-10-number-2%2Fuse-of-knotted-string-accounting-records-in-old-hawaii-and-ancient-china%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">D'altroy, Terence N. (2001). 18</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-AncientScripts-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AncientScripts_4-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ancientscripts.com/quipu.html">"Ancient Scripts: Quipu"</a>. <i>www.ancientscripts.com</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.ancientscripts.com&rft.atitle=Ancient+Scripts%3A+Quipu&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ancientscripts.com%2Fquipu.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Urton, Gary, Carrie Brezine. Harvard University. (2009)</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">D'altroy, Terence N. (2001). 16–17</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Urton, Gary. (2011). "Tying the Archive in Knots, or: Dying to Get into the Archive in Ancient Peru</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFReference-OED-quipu" class="citation"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/156742">"quipu"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Oxford_English_Dictionary" title="Oxford English Dictionary">Oxford English Dictionary</a></i> (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=quipu&rft.btitle=Oxford+English+Dictionary&rft.edition=3rd&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2005-09&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oed.com%2Fview%2FEntry%2F156742&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/> <span style="font-size:0.95em; font-size:90%; color:#555">(Subscription or <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.oed.com/public/login/loggingin#withyourlibrary">UK public library membership</a> required.)</span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Urt03">Urton 2003</a>. p. 1.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Urt03">Urton 2003</a>. pp. 1–2.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Ordish, George; Hyams, Edward (1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/80"><i>The last of the Incas: the rise and fall of an American empire</i></a>. New York: Barnes & Noble. pp. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/80">80</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6"><bdi>978-0-88029-595-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+last+of+the+Incas%3A+the+rise+and+fall+of+an+American+empire&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=80&rft.pub=Barnes+%26+Noble&rft.date=1996&rft.isbn=978-0-88029-595-6&rft.au=Ordish%2C+George&rft.au=Hyams%2C+Edward&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Flastofincasrisef0000hyam%2Fpage%2F80&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Benson, E. (1975). "The Quipu: "Written" Texts in Ancient Peru". <i>The Princeton University Library Chronicle</i>. <b>37</b> (1): 11–23. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F26403946">10.2307/26403946</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/26403946">26403946</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Princeton+University+Library+Chronicle&rft.atitle=The+Quipu%3A+%22Written%22+Texts+in+Ancient+Peru&rft.volume=37&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=11-23&rft.date=1975&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F26403946&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F26403946&rft.aulast=Benson&rft.aufirst=E.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Urt03">Urton 2003</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/08/a-students-mines-voices-from-the-incan-past/">"A student mines voices from the Incan past"</a>. <i>Harvard Gazette</i>. 25 August 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Harvard+Gazette&rft.atitle=A+student+mines+voices+from+the+Incan+past&rft.date=2017-08-25&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fnews.harvard.edu%2Fgazette%2Fstory%2F2017%2F08%2Fa-students-mines-voices-from-the-incan-past%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Medrano, Manuel; Urton, Gary (1 January 2018). "Toward the Decipherment of a Set of Mid-Colonial Khipus from the Santa Valley, Coastal Peru". <i>Ethnohistory</i>. <b>65</b> (1): 1–23. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1215%2F00141801-4260638">10.1215/00141801-4260638</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Ethnohistory&rft.atitle=Toward+the+Decipherment+of+a+Set+of+Mid-Colonial+Khipus+from+the+Santa+Valley%2C+Coastal+Peru&rft.volume=65&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=1-23&rft.date=2018-01-01&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1215%2F00141801-4260638&rft.aulast=Medrano&rft.aufirst=Manuel&rft.au=Urton%2C+Gary&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Adams11-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Adams11_16-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Adams11_16-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Adams, Mark (12 July 2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://slate.com/human-interest/2011/07/inca-paradox-maybe-the-pre-columbian-civilization-did-have-writing.html">"Questioning the Inca Paradox: Maybe the pre-Columbian civilization did have writing?"</a>. <i>Slate Magazine</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Slate+Magazine&rft.atitle=Questioning+the+Inca+Paradox%3A+Maybe+the+pre-Columbian+civilization+did+have+writing%3F&rft.date=2011-07-12&rft.aulast=Adams&rft.aufirst=Mark&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fslate.com%2Fhuman-interest%2F2011%2F07%2Finca-paradox-maybe-the-pre-columbian-civilization-did-have-writing.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Salomon, Frank (2013). "The Twisting Paths of Recall: Khipu (Andean cord notation) as artifact". <i>Writing as Material Practice</i>. Ubiquity Press. pp. 15–44. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781909188242" title="Special:BookSources/9781909188242"><bdi>9781909188242</bdi></a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv3t5r28.7">j.ctv3t5r28.7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=The+Twisting+Paths+of+Recall%3A+Khipu+%28Andean+cord+notation%29+as+artifact&rft.btitle=Writing+as+Material+Practice&rft.pages=15-44&rft.pub=Ubiquity+Press&rft.date=2013&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2Fj.ctv3t5r28.7&rft.isbn=9781909188242&rft.aulast=Salomon&rft.aufirst=Frank&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Alex, Bridget (4 January 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://discovermagazine.com/2017/oct/unraveling-a-secret">"The Inka Empire Recorded Their World In Knotted Cords Called Khipu"</a>. <i>Discover</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Discover&rft.atitle=The+Inka+Empire+Recorded+Their+World+In+Knotted+Cords+Called+Khipu&rft.date=2019-01-04&rft.aulast=Alex&rft.aufirst=Bridget&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdiscovermagazine.com%2F2017%2Foct%2Funraveling-a-secret&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Hyland, Sabine (11 November 2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/unraveling-an-ancient-code-written-in-strings/">"Unraveling an Ancient Code Written in Strings"</a>. <i>Scientific American</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Scientific+American&rft.atitle=Unraveling+an+Ancient+Code+Written+in+Strings&rft.date=2017-11-11&rft.aulast=Hyland&rft.aufirst=Sabine&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.scientificamerican.com%2Farticle%2Funraveling-an-ancient-code-written-in-strings%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Quipu" (2012)</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Locke,_1912-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Locke,_1912_21-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Locke,_1912_21-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Locke,_1912_21-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Locke, 1912</span>
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<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">D'altroy, Terrence N. "The Incas." 234–235</span>
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<li id="cite_note-suppress-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-suppress_23-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-suppress_23-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.today/20120628235258/http://kuprienko.info/fernando-murillo-de-la-cerda-carta-sobre-los-caracteres-usados-por-los-indios-antes-de-la-conquista-1589/">"Fernando Murillo de la Serda. Carta sobre los caracteres, 1589"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://kuprienko.info/fernando-murillo-de-la-cerda-carta-sobre-los-caracteres-usados-por-los-indios-antes-de-la-conquista-1589/">the original</a> on 28 June 2012.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Fernando+Murillo+de+la+Serda.+Carta+sobre+los+caracteres%2C+1589&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fkuprienko.info%2Ffernando-murillo-de-la-cerda-carta-sobre-los-caracteres-usados-por-los-indios-antes-de-la-conquista-1589%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Ordish, George; Hyams, Edward (1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/84"><i>The last of the Incas: the rise and fall of an American empire</i></a>. New York: Barnes & Noble. pp. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/84">84</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6"><bdi>978-0-88029-595-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+last+of+the+Incas%3A+the+rise+and+fall+of+an+American+empire&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=84&rft.pub=Barnes+%26+Noble&rft.date=1996&rft.isbn=978-0-88029-595-6&rft.au=Ordish%2C+George&rft.au=Hyams%2C+Edward&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Flastofincasrisef0000hyam%2Fpage%2F84&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Urton_&_Brezine_(2005)-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Urton_&_Brezine_(2005)_25-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Urton, Gary; Brezine, Carrie J. (12 August 2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://semanticscholar.org/paper/ae260ea1657249f73bd3b744a01c5af1d4d17fd7">"Khipu Accounting in Ancient Peru"</a>. <i>Science</i>. <b>309</b> (5737): 1065–1067. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Sci...309.1065U">2005Sci...309.1065U</a>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.1113426">10.1126/science.1113426</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16099983">16099983</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Science&rft.atitle=Khipu+Accounting+in+Ancient+Peru&rft.volume=309&rft.issue=5737&rft.pages=1065-1067&rft.date=2005-08-12&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F16099983&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1126%2Fscience.1113426&rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2005Sci...309.1065U&rft.aulast=Urton&rft.aufirst=Gary&rft.au=Brezine%2C+Carrie+J.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fsemanticscholar.org%2Fpaper%2Fae260ea1657249f73bd3b744a01c5af1d4d17fd7&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Beynon-Davies, P (2009). "Significant threads: the nature of data". <i>International Journal of Information Management</i>. <b>29</b> (3): 170–188. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ijinfomgt.2008.12.003">10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2008.12.003</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Information+Management&rft.atitle=Significant+threads%3A+the+nature+of+data&rft.volume=29&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=170-188&rft.date=2009&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.ijinfomgt.2008.12.003&rft.aulast=Beynon-Davies&rft.aufirst=P&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Saez-Rodríguez, Alberto (2012). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.redalyc.org/html/2740/274021551003/">"An Ethnomathematics Exercise for Analyzing a Khipu Sample from Pachacamac (Perú)"</a>. <i>Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática</i>. <b>5</b> (1): 62–88.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Revista+Latinoamericana+de+Etnomatem%C3%A1tica&rft.atitle=An+Ethnomathematics+Exercise+for+Analyzing+a+Khipu+Sample+from+Pachacamac+%28Per%C3%BA%29&rft.volume=5&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=62-88&rft.date=2012&rft.aulast=Saez-Rodr%C3%ADguez&rft.aufirst=Alberto&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.redalyc.org%2Fhtml%2F2740%2F274021551003%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Laurencich-Minelli, Laura (28 March 1998). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://revistas.pucp.edu.pe/index.php/anthropologica/article/view/1561">"Historia et Rudimenta Linguae Piruanorum ¿un estorbo o un acontecimiento?"</a>. <i>Anthropologica del Departamento de Ciencias Sociales</i> (in Spanish). <b>16</b> (16): 349–367. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/2224-6428">2224-6428</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Anthropologica+del+Departamento+de+Ciencias+Sociales&rft.atitle=Historia+et+Rudimenta+Linguae+Piruanorum+%C2%BFun+estorbo+o+un+acontecimiento%3F&rft.volume=16&rft.issue=16&rft.pages=349-367&rft.date=1998-03-28&rft.issn=2224-6428&rft.aulast=Laurencich-Minelli&rft.aufirst=Laura&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Frevistas.pucp.edu.pe%2Findex.php%2Fanthropologica%2Farticle%2Fview%2F1561&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.archaeology.org/9611/abstracts/inka.html">"Talking Knots of the Inka"</a>. <i>Archaeology Magazine Archive</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 May</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Archaeology+Magazine+Archive&rft.atitle=Talking+Knots+of+the+Inka&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.archaeology.org%2F9611%2Fabstracts%2Finka.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Domenici, Viviano and Davide, 1996</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Ordish, George; Hyams, Edward (1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/69"><i>The last of the Incas: the rise and fall of an American empire</i></a>. New York: Barnes & Noble. pp. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/69">69</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6"><bdi>978-0-88029-595-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+last+of+the+Incas%3A+the+rise+and+fall+of+an+American+empire&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=69&rft.pub=Barnes+%26+Noble&rft.date=1996&rft.isbn=978-0-88029-595-6&rft.au=Ordish%2C+George&rft.au=Hyams%2C+Edward&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Flastofincasrisef0000hyam%2Fpage%2F69&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Ordish, George; Hyams, Edward (1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/113"><i>The last of the Incas: the rise and fall of an American empire</i></a>. New York: Barnes & Noble. pp. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/lastofincasrisef0000hyam/page/113">113</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-88029-595-6"><bdi>978-0-88029-595-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+last+of+the+Incas%3A+the+rise+and+fall+of+an+American+empire&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=113&rft.pub=Barnes+%26+Noble&rft.date=1996&rft.isbn=978-0-88029-595-6&rft.au=Ordish%2C+George&rft.au=Hyams%2C+Edward&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Flastofincasrisef0000hyam%2Fpage%2F113&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Urt03">Urton 2003</a>. p. 3.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>A los Señores Oydores de la Audiencia Real de Su Magestad</i>. In <i>Informaciones sobre el antiguo Perú</i>, edited by Horacio H. Urteaga, 16–180. Colección de Libros y Documentos Referentes a la Historia del Perú 3 (Second Series). Lima: Imprenta y Librería Sanmartí, pages 175 and 178</span>
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<li id="cite_note-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://kuprienko.info/letter-from-hernando-pizarro-to-the-royal-audience-of-santo-domingo-november-1533/">Letter from Hernando Pizarro to the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo</a>, November 1533</span>
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<li id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Markham, Clements R., Francisco De Xerez, Miguel De Estete, Hernando Pizarro, and Pedro Sancho. Reports on the Discovery of Peru. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1872</span>
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<li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Frank L. Salomon, 2004: The Cord Keepers. Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village; Duke University Press; <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0822333902" title="Special:BookSources/0822333902">0822333902</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Niles, Susan A. (2007). Considering <i>Quipus:</i> Andean Knotted String Records in Analytical Context. 92–93</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Niles,_Susan_A._2007._93_39-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Niles, Susan A. (2007). 93</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Peters_and_Salomon_41-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Peters_and_Salomon_41_40-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Peters_and_Salomon_41_40-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Pet06/07">Peters and Salomon 2006/2007</a>. p. 41.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001_41-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-D'Altroy,_Terence_N._2001_41-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">D'Altroy, Terence N. (2001). 234–235</span>
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<li id="cite_note-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Domenici, 1996</span>
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<li id="cite_note-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Sal04">Salomon 2004</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Pet06/07">Peters and Salomon 2006/2007</a>. pp. 41–44.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#Urt03">Urton 2003</a>. p. 2.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-khipudatabase-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-khipudatabase_46-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://khipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu/index.html">"Khipu Database Project"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Khipu+Database+Project&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fkhipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu%2Findex.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-munich-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-munich_47-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.voelkerkundemuseum-muenchen.de/">"State Museum of Ethnography"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=State+Museum+of+Ethnography&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.voelkerkundemuseum-muenchen.de%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-muspachacamac-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-muspachacamac_48-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20010311155114/http://pachacamac.perucultural.org.pe/puert.htm">"Museo de Pachacamac"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://pachacamac.perucultural.org.pe/puert.htm">the original</a> on 2001-03-11.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Museo+de+Pachacamac&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fpachacamac.perucultural.org.pe%2Fpuert.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-museonantarc-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-museonantarc_49-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20050312223321/http://museonacional.perucultural.org.pe/">"Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Antropologia e Historia"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://museonacional.perucultural.org.pe/">the original</a> on 2005-03-12.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Museo+Nacional+de+Arqueologia%2C+Antropologia+e+Historia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmuseonacional.perucultural.org.pe%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-centromallquicultura-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-centromallquicultura_50-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070808202924/http://centromallqui.org.pe/ley_index_en.htm">"Centro Mallqui Cultura"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://centromallqui.org.pe/ley_index_en.htm">the original</a> on 2007-08-08.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Centro+Mallqui+Cultura&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcentromallqui.org.pe%2Fley_index_en.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-puruchuco-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-puruchuco_51-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20000930025402/http://museopuruchuco.perucultural.org.pe/">"Museo Puruchuco"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://museopuruchuco.perucultural.org.pe/">the original</a> on 2000-09-30.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Museo+Puruchuco&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmuseopuruchuco.perucultural.org.pe%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Salomon, F (2004).</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Bingham-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Bingham_53-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Hiram_Bingham_III" title="Hiram Bingham III">Bingham, Hiram</a> (1948). <i>Lost City of the Incas, The Story of Machu Picchu and its Builders</i>. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce. <a href="/wiki/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/486224">486224</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Lost+City+of+the+Incas%2C+The+Story+of+Machu+Picchu+and+its+Builders&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Duell%2C+Sloan+%26+Pearce&rft.date=1948&rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F486224&rft.aulast=Bingham&rft.aufirst=Hiram&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-CanadaCITextile-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-CanadaCITextile_54-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CanadaCITextile_54-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Canadian Conservation Institute (11 May 2018). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/conservation-institute/services/preventive-conservation/guidelines-collections/textiles-costumes.html">"Caring for textiles and costumes - Preventive conservation guidelines for collections"</a>. <i>Preventive conservation guidelines for collections</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 May</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Preventive+conservation+guidelines+for+collections&rft.atitle=Caring+for+textiles+and+costumes+-+Preventive+conservation+guidelines+for+collections&rft.date=2018-05-11&rft.au=Canadian+Conservation+Institute&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.canada.ca%2Fen%2Fconservation-institute%2Fservices%2Fpreventive-conservation%2Fguidelines-collections%2Ftextiles-costumes.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-conservationregister-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-conservationregister_55-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-conservationregister_55-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110725152220/http://www.conservationregister.com/christening.asp?id=4">"Care and conservation of costume and textiles"</a>. <i>Conservation Register</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.conservationregister.com/christening.asp?id=4">the original</a> on 2011-07-25.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Conservation+Register&rft.atitle=Care+and+conservation+of+costume+and+textiles&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationregister.com%2Fchristening.asp%3Fid%3D4&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-storage-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-storage_56-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Piechota, Dennis (1978). "Storage Containerization Archaeological Textile Collections". <i>Journal of the American Institute for Conservation</i>. <b>18</b> (1): 10–18. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F3179387">10.2307/3179387</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/3179387">3179387</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+American+Institute+for+Conservation&rft.atitle=Storage+Containerization+Archaeological+Textile+Collections&rft.volume=18&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=10-18&rft.date=1978&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F3179387&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F3179387&rft.aulast=Piechota&rft.aufirst=Dennis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Salomon-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Salomon_57-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Salomon_57-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Salomon_57-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Salomon, Frank; Peters, Renata (2007). <i><span></span></i>Governance and Conservation of the Rapaz Khipu Patrimony.<i><span></span></i>. Archaeology International #10.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Governance+and+Conservation+of+the+Rapaz+Khipu+Patrimony.&rft.pub=Archaeology+International+%2310.&rft.date=2007&rft.aulast=Salomon&rft.aufirst=Frank&rft.au=Peters%2C+Renata&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-string-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-string_58-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.archaeology.org/0511/etc/conversations.html">"Conversations String Theorist"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Conversations+String+Theorist&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archaeology.org%2F0511%2Fetc%2Fconversations.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-proto-quipu-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-proto-quipu_59-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Mann, Charles (2005). "Unraveling Khipu's Secrets". <i>Science</i>. <b>309</b> (5737): 1008–1009. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.309.5737.1008">10.1126/science.309.5737.1008</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16099962">16099962</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Science&rft.atitle=Unraveling+Khipu%27s+Secrets&rft.volume=309&rft.issue=5737&rft.pages=1008-1009&rft.date=2005&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1126%2Fscience.309.5737.1008&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F16099962&rft.aulast=Mann&rft.aufirst=Charles&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/> <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.charlesmann.org/articles/Science-khipu-decipher-08-05.pdf">"proto-quipu"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=proto-quipu&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.charlesmann.org%2Farticles%2FScience-khipu-decipher-08-05.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Bibliography">Bibliography</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=15" title="Edit section: Bibliography">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047268">.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}</style><div class="refbegin reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
<ul><li><cite class="citation book">Adrien, Kenneth (2001). <i>Andean Worlds: Indigenous History, Culture and Consciousness</i>. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8263-2359-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8263-2359-0"><bdi>978-0-8263-2359-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Andean+Worlds%3A+Indigenous+History%2C+Culture+and+Consciousness&rft.place=Albuquerque&rft.pub=University+of+New+Mexico+Press&rft.date=2001&rft.isbn=978-0-8263-2359-0&rft.au=Adrien%2C+Kenneth&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">The Archaeological Institute of America (November–December 2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.archaeology.org/0511/etc/conversations.html">"Conversations: String Theorist"</a>. <i>Archaeology</i>. <b>58</b> (6). <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0003-8113">0003-8113</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Archaeology&rft.atitle=Conversations%3A+String+Theorist&rft.volume=58&rft.issue=6&rft.date=2005-11%2F2005-12&rft.issn=0003-8113&rft.au=The+Archaeological+Institute+of+America&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archaeology.org%2F0511%2Fetc%2Fconversations.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Ascher, Marcia; Robert Ascher (1978). <i>Code of the Quipu: Databook</i>. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ASIN B0006X3SV4.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Code+of+the+Quipu%3A+Databook&rft.place=Ann+Arbor&rft.pub=University+of+Michigan+Press&rft.date=1978&rft.au=Ascher%2C+Marcia&rft.au=Robert+Ascher&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Ascher, Marcia; Robert Ascher (1980). <i>Code of the Quipu: A Study in Media, Mathematics, and Culture</i>. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-472-09325-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-472-09325-0"><bdi>978-0-472-09325-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Code+of+the+Quipu%3A+A+Study+in+Media%2C+Mathematics%2C+and+Culture&rft.place=Ann+Arbor&rft.pub=University+of+Michigan+Press&rft.date=1980&rft.isbn=978-0-472-09325-0&rft.au=Ascher%2C+Marcia&rft.au=Robert+Ascher&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Brokaw, Galen (2010). <i>A History of the Khipu</i>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-521-19779-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-521-19779-3"><bdi>978-0-521-19779-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=A+History+of+the+Khipu&rft.place=Cambridge&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft.date=2010&rft.isbn=978-0-521-19779-3&rft.au=Brokaw%2C+Galen&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal"><a href="/wiki/Gareth_Cook" title="Gareth Cook">Cook, Gareth</a> (January 2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.01/khipu.html">"Untangling the Mystery of the Inca"</a>. <i>Wired</i>. <b>15</b> (1). <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/1059-1028">1059-1028</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Wired&rft.atitle=Untangling+the+Mystery+of+the+Inca&rft.volume=15&rft.issue=1&rft.date=2007-01&rft.issn=1059-1028&rft.aulast=Cook&rft.aufirst=Gareth&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.wired.com%2Fwired%2Farchive%2F15.01%2Fkhipu.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">D'Altroy, Terrence N. (2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/incasthepeopleso00tere"><i>The Incas</i></a>. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-631-17677-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-631-17677-0"><bdi>978-0-631-17677-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Incas&rft.place=Victoria%2C+Australia&rft.pub=Blackwell+Publishing&rft.date=2001&rft.isbn=978-0-631-17677-0&rft.aulast=D%27Altroy&rft.aufirst=Terrence+N.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fincasthepeopleso00tere&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Day, Cyrus Lawrence (1967). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/quipuswitcheskno0000dayc"><i>Quipus and witches' knots; the role of the knot in primitive and ancient cultures</i></a></span>. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. <a href="/wiki/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/1446690">1446690</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Quipus+and+witches%27+knots%3B+the+role+of+the+knot+in+primitive+and+ancient+cultures&rft.place=Lawrence&rft.pub=University+of+Kansas+Press&rft.date=1967&rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F1446690&rft.au=Day%2C+Cyrus+Lawrence&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fquipuswitcheskno0000dayc&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li>Hyland, Sabine. 2017. Writing with Twisted Cords: The Inscriptive Capacity of Andean Khipus. <i>Current Anthropology 58(3). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://st-andrews.academia.edu/SabineHyland">Web access</a></i></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Niles, Susan A. (2007). "Considering Quipus: Andean Knotted String Records in Analytical Context". <i>Reviews in Anthropology</i>. Taylor and Francis. <b>36</b>: 85–102. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1080%2F00938150601177629">10.1080/00938150601177629</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0093-8157">0093-8157</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Reviews+in+Anthropology&rft.atitle=Considering+Quipus%3A+Andean+Knotted+String+Records+in+Analytical+Context&rft.volume=36&rft.pages=85-102&rft.date=2007&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F00938150601177629&rft.issn=0093-8157&rft.au=Niles%2C+Susan+A.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Nordenskiold, Erland (1925). <i><span></span></i>The Secret of the Peruvian Quipus<i><span></span></i>. <a href="/wiki/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/2887018">2887018</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Secret+of+the+Peruvian+Quipus&rft.date=1925&rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F2887018&rft.aulast=Nordenskiold&rft.aufirst=Erland&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite id="Pet06/07" class="citation news">Peters, Renata; Salomon, Frank (2006–2007). "Patrimony and partnership: conserving the <i>khipu</i> legacy of Rapaz, Peru". <i>Archaeology International</i>. London: UCL Institute of Archaeology. pp. 41–44. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/1463-1725">1463-1725</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Archaeology+International&rft.atitle=Patrimony+and+partnership%3A+conserving+the+khipu+legacy+of+Rapaz%2C+Peru&rft.pages=41-44&rft.date=2006%2F2007&rft.issn=1463-1725&rft.aulast=Peters&rft.aufirst=Renata&rft.au=Salomon%2C+Frank&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Piechota, Dennis (1978). "Storage Containerization Archaeological Textile Collections". <i>Journal of the American Institute for Conservation</i>. <b>18</b> (1): 10–18. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F3179387">10.2307/3179387</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/3179387">3179387</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+American+Institute+for+Conservation&rft.atitle=Storage+Containerization+Archaeological+Textile+Collections&rft.volume=18&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=10-18&rft.date=1978&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F3179387&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F3179387&rft.aulast=Piechota&rft.aufirst=Dennis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li>Saez-Rodríguez, A. (2012). An Ethnomathematics Exercise for Analyzing a Khipu Sample from Pachacamac (Perú). Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática. 5(1), 62–88.</li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Salomon, Frank (2001). "How an Andean 'Writing Without Words' Works". <i>Current Anthropology</i>. <b>42</b> (1): 1–27. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1086%2F318435">10.1086/318435</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Current+Anthropology&rft.atitle=How+an+Andean+%27Writing+Without+Words%27+Works&rft.volume=42&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=1-27&rft.date=2001&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1086%2F318435&rft.aulast=Salomon&rft.aufirst=Frank&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Salomon, Frank (2004). <i>The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village</i>. Durham: Duke University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8223-3379-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8223-3379-1"><bdi>978-0-8223-3379-1</bdi></a>. <a href="/wiki/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/54929904">54929904</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Cord+Keepers%3A+Khipus+and+Cultural+Life+in+a+Peruvian+Village&rft.place=Durham&rft.pub=Duke+University+Press&rft.date=2004&rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F54929904&rft.isbn=978-0-8223-3379-1&rft.aulast=Salomon&rft.aufirst=Frank&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Salomon, Frank; Peters, Renata (31 March 2007). Collaboration of Carrie Brezine, Gino de las Casas Ríos, Víctor Falcón Huayta, Rosa Choque Gonzales, and Rosalía Choque Gonzales. "Governance and Conservation of the Rapaz Khipu Patrimony". <i>Paper Delivered at Interdisciplinary Workshop on Intangible Heritage</i>. Collaborative for Cultural Heritage and Museum Practices, Urbana-Champaign, IL.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Paper+Delivered+at+Interdisciplinary+Workshop+on+Intangible+Heritage&rft.atitle=Governance+and+Conservation+of+the+Rapaz+Khipu+Patrimony&rft.date=2007-03-31&rft.aulast=Salomon&rft.aufirst=Frank&rft.au=Peters%2C+Renata&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal"><a href="/wiki/Gary_Urton" title="Gary Urton">Urton, Gary</a> (1998). "From Knots to Narratives: Reconstructing the Art of Historical Record Keeping in the Andes from Spanish Transcriptions of Inka <i>Khipus</i>". <i>Ethnohistory</i>. <b>45</b> (5): 409–438. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F483319">10.2307/483319</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/483319">483319</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Ethnohistory&rft.atitle=From+Knots+to+Narratives%3A+Reconstructing+the+Art+of+Historical+Record+Keeping+in+the+Andes+from+Spanish+Transcriptions+of+Inka+Khipus&rft.volume=45&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=409-438&rft.date=1998&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F483319&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F483319&rft.aulast=Urton&rft.aufirst=Gary&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite id="Urt03" class="citation book">Urton, Gary (2003). <i>Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records</i>. Austin: University of Texas Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-292-78539-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-292-78539-7"><bdi>978-0-292-78539-7</bdi></a>. <a href="/wiki/OCLC" title="OCLC">OCLC</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/50323023">50323023</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Signs+of+the+Inka+Khipu%3A+Binary+Coding+in+the+Andean+Knotted-String+Records&rft.place=Austin&rft.pub=University+of+Texas+Press&rft.date=2003&rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F50323023&rft.isbn=978-0-292-78539-7&rft.aulast=Urton&rft.aufirst=Gary&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation web">Urton, Gary; Carrie Brezine (2003–2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060427121825/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">"The Khipu Database Project"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://khipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu/">the original</a> on April 27, 2006.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+Khipu+Database+Project&rft.date=2003%2F2004&rft.au=Urton%2C+Gary&rft.au=Carrie+Brezine&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fkhipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Urton, Gary (2011). "Tying the Archive in Knots, or: Dying to get into the Archive in Ancient Peru". Routledge, Taylor and Francis Groupe. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0037-9816">0037-9816</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Tying+the+Archive+in+Knots%2C+or%3A+Dying+to+get+into+the+Archive+in+Ancient+Peru&rft.date=2011&rft.issn=0037-9816&rft.aulast=Urton&rft.aufirst=Gary&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li>Urton, Gary. 2017. <i>Inka history in knots</i>. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.</li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Domenici, Davide (1996). "Talking Knots of the Inka". <i>Archaeology</i>. <b>49</b> (6): 13–24.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Archaeology&rft.atitle=Talking+Knots+of+the+Inka&rft.volume=49&rft.issue=6&rft.pages=13-24&rft.date=1996&rft.aulast=Domenici&rft.aufirst=Davide&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Locke, Leland (1912). "The Ancient Quipu, a Peruvian Knot Record". <i>American Anthropologist</i>. <b>14</b> (2): 325–332. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1525%2Faa.1912.14.2.02a00070">10.1525/aa.1912.14.2.02a00070</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=American+Anthropologist&rft.atitle=The+Ancient+Quipu%2C+a+Peruvian+Knot+Record&rft.volume=14&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=325-332&rft.date=1912&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1525%2Faa.1912.14.2.02a00070&rft.aulast=Locke&rft.aufirst=Leland&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation web">National Geographic (1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160408060621/http://www.nationalgeographic.com/inca/inca_culture_3.html">"Accounting Cords"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nationalgeographic.com/inca/inca_culture_3.html">the original</a> on 2016-04-08<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2016-03-31</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Accounting+Cords&rft.date=1996&rft.au=National+Geographic&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Finca%2Finca_culture_3.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=16" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000">
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="30" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/45px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/59px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Quipu" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Quipu"><span style="">Quipu</span></a></b></i>.</td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000">
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<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/38px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="38" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/57px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/76px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="410" data-file-height="430" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist"><a href="/wiki/Wikisource" title="Wikisource">Wikisource</a> has the text of the <a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edition" title="Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition">1911 <i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i></a> article  <i><b><a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Quipus" class="extiw" title="wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Quipus">Quipus</a></b></i>.</td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://khipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu/">The Khipu Database Project at </a><a href="/wiki/Harvard_University" title="Harvard University">Harvard University</a> (gallery, archives, references, researchers, etc.)</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sfu.ca/archaeology-old/museum/laarch/inca/quipue.html">Quipu: A Modern Mystery</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060427121825/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">Speaking of Graphics: The Quipu and Statistical Graphics</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.01/khipu.html">Untangling the Mystery of the Inca</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Urton, Gary (1998). "From Knots to Narratives: Reconstructing the Art of Historical Record Keeping in the Andes from Spanish Transcriptions of Inka Khipus". <i>Ethnohistory</i>. <b>45</b> (3): 409–438. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F483319">10.2307/483319</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/483319">483319</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Ethnohistory&rft.atitle=From+Knots+to+Narratives%3A+Reconstructing+the+Art+of+Historical+Record+Keeping+in+the+Andes+from+Spanish+Transcriptions+of+Inka+Khipus&rft.volume=45&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=409-438&rft.date=1998&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F483319&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F483319&rft.aulast=Urton&rft.aufirst=Gary&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/310/5756/1903d">Science: Inka Accounting Practices</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060427121825/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">Open / Popular (Ad Hoc) Khipu Decipherment Project</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.facebook.com/pages/Open-Popular-Ad-Hoc-Khipu-Decipherment-Project/301063891939">Open / Popular (Ad Hoc) Khipu Decipherment Project (now on FACEBOOK)</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060427121825/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">History of Counting-PlainMath.Net</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/world/americas/17peru.html">High in the Andes, Keeping an Incan Mystery Alive (New York Times, August 16, 2010)</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060427121825/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">The Khipu of San Cristobal de Rapaz</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://vistas.ace.fordham.edu/themes/pre-columbian-surveying">“Making Sense of the Pre-Columbian,” <i>Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520–1820.</i></a></li></ul>
<h3><span id="Discovery_of_.22Puruchuco.22_toponym"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Discovery_of_"Puruchuco"_toponym">Discovery of "Puruchuco" toponym</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Quipu&action=edit&section=17" title="Edit section: Discovery of "Puruchuco" toponym">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4143968.stm">Experts 'decipher' Inca strings</a> – BBC</li>
<li><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20050722013255/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">"Peruvian 'writing' system goes back 5,000 years"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8633818/">the original</a> on July 22, 2005<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">January 22,</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Peruvian+%27writing%27+system+goes+back+5%2C000+years&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmsnbc.msn.com%2Fid%2F8633818%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AQuipu" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/> – MSNBC</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070610050002/http://www.athm.org/home_framemiddle1.htm">American Textile History Museum</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://aic.stanford.edu/">American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works</a></li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Knots" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Knots" title="Template:Knots"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Knots" title="Template talk:Knots"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Knots&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Knots" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Knot" title="Knot">Knots</a></div></th></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div id="*_Bight&#10;*_Loop&#10;*_Turn&#10;*_List_of_knots&#10;*_List_of_knot_terminology">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bight_(knot)" title="Bight (knot)">Bight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Loop_(knot)" class="mw-redirect" title="Loop (knot)">Loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turn_(knot)" title="Turn (knot)">Turn</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_knots" title="List of knots">List of knots</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_knot_terminology" title="List of knot terminology">List of knot terminology</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="By_type" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">By type</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_bend_knots" title="List of bend knots">Bends</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Adjustable_bend" title="Adjustable bend">Adjustable</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Albright_special" title="Albright special">Albright special</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ashley%27s_bend" title="Ashley's bend">Ashley's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Butterfly_bend" title="Butterfly bend">Alpine butterfly</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Basket_weave_knot" title="Basket weave knot">Basket weave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Beer_knot" title="Beer knot">Beer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Blood_knot" title="Blood knot">Blood</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Carrick_bend" title="Carrick bend">Carrick</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_fisherman%27s_knot" title="Double fisherman's knot">Double fisherman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fisherman%27s_knot" title="Fisherman's knot">Fisherman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flemish_bend" title="Flemish bend">Flemish</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Grief_knot" title="Grief knot">Grief</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Halyard_bend" title="Halyard bend">Halyard</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Harness_bend" title="Harness bend">Harness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heaving_line_bend" title="Heaving line bend">Heaving line</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hunter%27s_bend" title="Hunter's bend">Hunter's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nail_knot" title="Nail knot">Nail</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/One-sided_overhand_bend" class="mw-redirect" title="One-sided overhand bend">One-sided overhand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Racking_bend" title="Racking bend">Racking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sheet_bend" title="Sheet bend">Sheet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shoelace_knot" title="Shoelace knot">Shoelace</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shroud_knot" title="Shroud knot">Shroud</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Simple_Simon_under" title="Simple Simon under">Simple Simon under</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Single_carrick_bend" title="Single carrick bend">Single carrick</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Surgeon%27s_knot" title="Surgeon's knot">Surgeon's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Surgeon%27s_loop" title="Surgeon's loop">Surgeon's loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Triple_fisherman%27s_knot" title="Triple fisherman's knot">Triple fisherman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/True_lover%27s_knot" title="True lover's knot">True lover's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Water_knot" title="Water knot">Water</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zeppelin_bend" title="Zeppelin bend">Zeppelin</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_binding_knots" title="List of binding knots">Binding</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Boa_knot" title="Boa knot">Boa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bottle_sling" title="Bottle sling">Bottle sling</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Constrictor_knot" title="Constrictor knot">Constrictor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Corned_beef_knot" title="Corned beef knot">Corned beef</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Granny_knot" title="Granny knot">Granny</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ground-line_hitch" title="Ground-line hitch">Ground-line hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jamming_knot" title="Jamming knot">Jamming</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Miller%27s_knot" title="Miller's knot">Miller's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Packer%27s_knot" title="Packer's knot">Packer's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reef_knot" title="Reef knot">Reef</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Strangle_knot" title="Strangle knot">Strangle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thief_knot" title="Thief knot">Thief</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Transom_knot" title="Transom knot">Transom</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_climbing_knots" title="List of climbing knots">Climbing</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Autoblock" title="Autoblock">Autoblock</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bachmann_knot" title="Bachmann knot">Bachmann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Beer_knot" title="Beer knot">Beer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bowline_on_a_bight" title="Bowline on a bight">Bowline on a bight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Butterfly_loop" title="Butterfly loop">Alpine butterfly</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Directional_figure_eight" title="Directional figure eight">Directional figure eight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_bowline" title="Double bowline">Double bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Farmer%27s_loop" title="Farmer's loop">Farmer's loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Figure-eight_knot" title="Figure-eight knot">Figure-eight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Figure-eight_loop" title="Figure-eight loop">Figure-eight loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Figure-of-nine_loop" title="Figure-of-nine loop">Figure-of-nine loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_friction_hitch_knots" title="List of friction hitch knots">Friction hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Klemheist_knot" title="Klemheist knot">Klemheist</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Munter_hitch" title="Munter hitch">Munter hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overhand_loop" title="Overhand loop">Overhand loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prusik" title="Prusik">Prusik</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trident_loop" title="Trident loop">Trident loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yosemite_bowline" title="Yosemite bowline">Yosemite bowline</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Coiling" title="Coiling">Coils</a> &<br /> shanks</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Chain_sinnet" title="Chain sinnet">Chain sinnet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sheepshank" title="Sheepshank">Sheepshank</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_decorative_knots" title="List of decorative knots">Decorative</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Carrick_mat" title="Carrick mat">Carrick mat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chinese_button_knot" title="Chinese button knot">Chinese button</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Celtic_button_knot" title="Celtic button knot">Celtic button</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Diamond_knot" title="Diamond knot">Diamond</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fiador_knot" title="Fiador knot">Fiador</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friendship_knot" title="Friendship knot">Friendship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knotted-pile_carpet" title="Knotted-pile carpet">Ghiordes & Senneh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Matthew_Walker_knot" title="Matthew Walker knot">Matthew Walker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turk%27s_head_knot" title="Turk's head knot">Turk's head</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wall_and_crown_knot" title="Wall and crown knot">Wall and crown</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Angling" title="Angling">Fishing <br />(angling)</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Angler%27s_loop" title="Angler's loop">Angler's loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Arbor_knot" title="Arbor knot">Arbor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bimini_twist" title="Bimini twist">Bimini twist</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Blood_knot" title="Blood knot">Blood</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fisherman%27s_knot" title="Fisherman's knot">Fisherman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Improved_clinch_knot" title="Improved clinch knot">Improved clinch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knotless_knot" title="Knotless knot">Knotless</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nail_knot" title="Nail knot">Nail</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Palomar_knot" title="Palomar knot">Palomar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Snell_knot" title="Snell knot">Snell</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trilene_knot" title="Trilene knot">Trilene</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Triple_fisherman%27s_knot" title="Triple fisherman's knot">Triple fisherman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turle_knot" title="Turle knot">Turle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uni_knot" title="Uni knot">Uni</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_hitch_knots" title="List of hitch knots">Hitches</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Adjustable_grip_hitch" title="Adjustable grip hitch">Adjustable grip</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anchor_bend" title="Anchor bend">Anchor bend</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Axle_hitch" title="Axle hitch">Axle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bachmann_knot" title="Bachmann knot">Bachmann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bale_sling_hitch" title="Bale sling hitch">Bale sling</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Barrel_hitch" title="Barrel hitch">Barrel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Becket_hitch" title="Becket hitch">Becket</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Blackwall_hitch" title="Blackwall hitch">Blackwall</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Blake%27s_hitch" title="Blake's hitch">Blake's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boom_hitch" title="Boom hitch">Boom</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buntline_hitch" title="Buntline hitch">Buntline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cat%27s_paw_(knot)" title="Cat's paw (knot)">Cat's paw</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Clove_hitch" title="Clove hitch">Clove</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cow_hitch" title="Cow hitch">Cow</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Distel_hitch" title="Distel hitch">Distel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_overhand_noose" title="Double overhand noose">Double overhand noose</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Falconer%27s_knot" title="Falconer's knot">Falconer's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Farrimond_friction_hitch" title="Farrimond friction hitch">Farrimond friction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_friction_hitch_knots" title="List of friction hitch knots">Friction hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Garda_hitch" title="Garda hitch">Garda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ground-line_hitch" title="Ground-line hitch">Ground-line</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Half_hitch" title="Half hitch">Half</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Halter_hitch" title="Halter hitch">Halter</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Highpoint_hitch" title="Highpoint hitch">Highpoint</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Highwayman%27s_hitch" title="Highwayman's hitch">Highwayman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hitching_tie" title="Hitching tie">Hitching tie</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Icicle_hitch" title="Icicle hitch">Icicle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Improved_clinch_knot" title="Improved clinch knot">Improved clinch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Killick_hitch" title="Killick hitch">Killick</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knute_hitch" title="Knute hitch">Knute</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lobster_buoy_hitch" title="Lobster buoy hitch">Lobster buoy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Marlinespike_hitch" title="Marlinespike hitch">Marlinespike</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Munter_hitch" title="Munter hitch">Munter</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ossel_hitch" title="Ossel hitch">Ossel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pile_hitch" title="Pile hitch">Pile</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pipe_hitch" title="Pipe hitch">Pipe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sailor%27s_hitch" title="Sailor's hitch">Sailor's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Snuggle_hitch" title="Snuggle hitch">Snuggle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Swing_hitch" title="Swing hitch">Swing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Taut-line_hitch" title="Taut-line hitch">Taut-line</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timber_hitch" title="Timber hitch">Timber</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trucker%27s_hitch" title="Trucker's hitch">Trucker's</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Loop_(knot)" class="mw-redirect" title="Loop (knot)">Loop</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Angler%27s_loop" title="Angler's loop">Angler's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Artillery_loop" title="Artillery loop">Artillery loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bale_sling_hitch" title="Bale sling hitch">Bale sling hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bowline" title="Bowline">Bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bumper_knot" title="Bumper knot">Bumper</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Carrick_bend_loop" title="Carrick bend loop">Carrick bend loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cossack_knot" title="Cossack knot">Cossack</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cowboy_bowline" title="Cowboy bowline">Cowboy bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Diamond_knot" title="Diamond knot">Diamond</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_bowline" title="Double bowline">Double bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dropper_loop" title="Dropper loop">Dropper loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eskimo_bowline" title="Eskimo bowline">Eskimo bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fiador_knot" title="Fiador knot">Fiador</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fireman%27s_chair_knot" title="Fireman's chair knot">Fireman's chair</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friendship_knot_loop" title="Friendship knot loop">Friendship knot</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Halter_hitch" title="Halter hitch">Halter hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Handcuff_knot" title="Handcuff knot">Handcuff</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Honda_knot" title="Honda knot">Honda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jury_mast_knot" title="Jury mast knot">Jury mast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overhand_loop" title="Overhand loop">Overhand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Portuguese_bowline" title="Portuguese bowline">Portuguese bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rigid_double_splayed_loop_in_the_bight" title="Rigid double splayed loop in the bight">Rigid double splayed loop in the bight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slippery_eight_loop" title="Slippery eight loop">Slippery eight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Span_loop" title="Span loop">Span</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spanish_bowline" title="Spanish bowline">Spanish bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tom_fool%27s_knot" title="Tom fool's knot">Tom fool's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trident_loop" title="Trident loop">Trident</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Triple_bowline" title="Triple bowline">Triple bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Triple_crown_knot" title="Triple crown knot">Triple crown</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Water_bowline" title="Water bowline">Water bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yosemite_bowline" title="Yosemite bowline">Yosemite bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zeppelin_loop" title="Zeppelin loop">Zeppelin</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Slip_knot" title="Slip knot">Running<br /> (slip)</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Hangman%27s_knot" title="Hangman's knot">Hangman's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Running_bowline" title="Running bowline">Running bowline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Running_highwayman%27s_hitch" title="Running highwayman's hitch">Running highwayman's hitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tarbuck_knot" title="Tarbuck knot">Tarbuck</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Rope_splicing" title="Rope splicing">Splices</a> &<br /> splicing</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Eye_splice" title="Eye splice">Eye</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fid" title="Fid">Fid</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Marlinspike" title="Marlinspike">Marlinspike</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rat-tail_splice" title="Rat-tail splice">Rat-tail</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/T-splice" title="T-splice">T</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Western_Union_splice" title="Western Union splice">Western Union</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Stopper_knot" title="Stopper knot">Stopper</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ashley%27s_stopper_knot" title="Ashley's stopper knot">Ashley's stopper</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Button_knot" title="Button knot">Button</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_overhand_knot" title="Double overhand knot">Double overhand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monkey%27s_fist" title="Monkey's fist">Monkey's fist</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overhand_knot" title="Overhand knot">Overhand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stevedore_knot" title="Stevedore knot">Stevedore</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Whipping_knot" title="Whipping knot">Whipping</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Common_whipping" title="Common whipping">Common</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overhand_knot_with_draw-loop" title="Overhand knot with draw-loop">Overhand knot with draw-loop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Portuguese_whipping" class="mw-redirect" title="Portuguese whipping">Portuguese</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sailmaker%27s_whipping" title="Sailmaker's whipping">Sailmaker's</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/West_Country_whipping" title="West Country whipping">West Country</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Lists_of_knotsRelated_topics" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li>Lists of knots</li><li>Related topics</li></ul></div></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Lists of knots</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_bend_knots" title="List of bend knots">Bends</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_binding_knots" title="List of binding knots">Bindings</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_decorative_knots" title="List of decorative knots">Decorative knots</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_hitch_knots" title="List of hitch knots">Hitches</a> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_friction_hitch_knots" title="List of friction hitch knots">friction</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_mathematical_knots_and_links" title="List of mathematical knots and links">Mathematical</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Related topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Chinese_knotting" title="Chinese knotting">Chinese knotting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knot_density" title="Knot density">Density</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_knotting" title="History of knotting">History</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_Guild_of_Knot_Tyers" title="International Guild of Knot Tyers">International Guild of Knot Tyers</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Macram%C3%A9" title="Macramé">Macramé</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mizuhiki" title="Mizuhiki">Mizuhiki</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Norigae" title="Norigae">Norigae</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ropework" title="Ropework">Ropework</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Lashing_(ropework)" title="Lashing (ropework)">Lashing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rope_splicing" title="Rope splicing">Splicing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Seizing" title="Seizing">Seizing</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sennit" title="Sennit">Sennit</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2" style="font-weight:bold;padding-bottom:0.3em;"><div>
<ul><li> <img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" /> <a href="/wiki/Category:Knots" title="Category:Knots">Category</a></li>
<li> <img alt="WikiProject" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/People_icon.svg/16px-People_icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="WikiProject" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/People_icon.svg/24px-People_icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/People_icon.svg/32px-People_icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="100" data-file-height="100" /> <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Knots" title="Wikipedia:WikiProject Knots">WikiProject</a></li>
<li> <span style="position:relative; bottom:1px;"><img alt="Commons page" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/12px-Commons-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Commons page" width="12" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/18px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/24px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /></span> <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Knots" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Knots">Commons</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox authority-control" aria-labelledby="Authority_control_frameless_&#124;text-top_&#124;10px_&#124;alt=Edit_this_at_Wikidata_&#124;link=https&#58;//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q185292&#124;Edit_this_at_Wikidata" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th id="Authority_control_frameless_&#124;text-top_&#124;10px_&#124;alt=Edit_this_at_Wikidata_&#124;link=https&#58;//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q185292&#124;Edit_this_at_Wikidata" scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Help:Authority_control" title="Help:Authority control">Authority control</a> <a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q185292" title="Edit this at Wikidata"><img alt="Edit this at Wikidata" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg/10px-OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg.png" decoding="async" width="10" height="10" style="vertical-align: text-top" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg/15px-OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg/20px-OOjs_UI_icon_edit-ltr-progressive.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" /></a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Biblioth%C3%A8que_nationale_de_France" title="Bibliothèque nationale de France">BNF</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb119811481">cb119811481</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb119811481">(data)</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Integrated_Authority_File" title="Integrated Authority File">GND</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://d-nb.info/gnd/4164317-3">4164317-3</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Library_of_Congress_Control_Number" title="Library of Congress Control Number">LCCN</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85110111">sh85110111</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/National_Library_of_the_Czech_Republic" title="National Library of the Czech Republic">NKC</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://aleph.nkp.cz/F/?func=find-c&local_base=aut&ccl_term=ica=ph773968&CON_LNG=ENG">ph773968</a></span></span></li></ul>
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		<ul><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ar"><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%83%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%88" title="كيبو – Arabic" lang="ar" hreflang="ar" class="interlanguage-link-target">العربية</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ast"><a href="https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Asturian" lang="ast" hreflang="ast" class="interlanguage-link-target">Asturianu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ay"><a href="https://ay.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qhipu" title="Qhipu – Aymara" lang="ay" hreflang="ay" class="interlanguage-link-target">Aymar aru</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-az"><a href="https://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Azerbaijani" lang="az" hreflang="az" class="interlanguage-link-target">Azərbaycanca</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-be"><a href="https://be.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%96%D0%BF%D1%83" title="Кіпу – Belarusian" lang="be" hreflang="be" class="interlanguage-link-target">Беларуская</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-be-x-old"><a href="https://be-x-old.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%96%D0%BF%D1%83" title="Кіпу – Belarusian (Taraškievica orthography)" lang="be-tarask" hreflang="be-tarask" class="interlanguage-link-target">Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bg"><a href="https://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%83" title="Кипу – Bulgarian" lang="bg" hreflang="bg" class="interlanguage-link-target">Български</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ca"><a href="https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Catalan" lang="ca" hreflang="ca" class="interlanguage-link-target">Català</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cs"><a href="https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Czech" lang="cs" hreflang="cs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Čeština</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-da"><a href="https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Danish" lang="da" hreflang="da" class="interlanguage-link-target">Dansk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – German" lang="de" hreflang="de" class="interlanguage-link-target">Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Estonian" lang="et" hreflang="et" class="interlanguage-link-target">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Spanish" lang="es" hreflang="es" class="interlanguage-link-target">Español</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eo"><a href="https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipuo" title="Kipuo – Esperanto" lang="eo" hreflang="eo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Esperanto</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eu"><a href="https://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Basque" lang="eu" hreflang="eu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Euskara</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fa"><a href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%A9%DB%8C%D9%BE%D9%88" title="کیپو – Persian" lang="fa" hreflang="fa" class="interlanguage-link-target">فارسی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a href="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Français</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ko"><a href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%ED%82%A4%ED%91%B8" title="키푸 – Korean" lang="ko" hreflang="ko" class="interlanguage-link-target">한국어</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hy"><a href="https://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D4%BF%D5%AB%D5%BA%D5%B8%D6%82_(%D5%A3%D5%AB%D6%80)" title="Կիպու (գիր) – Armenian" lang="hy" hreflang="hy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Հայերեն</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hr"><a href="https://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khipu" title="Khipu – Croatian" lang="hr" hreflang="hr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Hrvatski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-id"><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Indonesian" lang="id" hreflang="id" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-is"><a href="https://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hn%C3%BAtaletur" title="Hnútaletur – Icelandic" lang="is" hreflang="is" class="interlanguage-link-target">Íslenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a href="https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Italian" lang="it" hreflang="it" class="interlanguage-link-target">Italiano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-he"><a href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A7%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%95" title="קיפו – Hebrew" lang="he" hreflang="he" class="interlanguage-link-target">עברית</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ka"><a href="https://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%99%E1%83%98%E1%83%9E%E1%83%A3" title="კიპუ – Georgian" lang="ka" hreflang="ka" class="interlanguage-link-target">ქართული</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Lithuanian" lang="lt" hreflang="lt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lietuvių</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Hungarian" lang="hu" hreflang="hu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Magyar</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mk"><a href="https://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%83" title="Кипу – Macedonian" lang="mk" hreflang="mk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Македонски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ms"><a href="https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Malay" lang="ms" hreflang="ms" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Melayu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nl"><a href="https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Dutch" lang="nl" hreflang="nl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nederlands</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ja"><a href="https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%AD%E3%83%BC%E3%83%97_(%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%82%AB)" title="キープ (インカ) – Japanese" lang="ja" hreflang="ja" class="interlanguage-link-target">日本語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-no"><a href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Norwegian Bokmål" lang="nb" hreflang="nb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk bokmål</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nn"><a href="https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Norwegian Nynorsk" lang="nn" hreflang="nn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk nynorsk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pl"><a href="https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pismo_w%C4%99ze%C5%82kowe" title="Pismo węzełkowe – Polish" lang="pl" hreflang="pl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a href="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipo" title="Quipo – Portuguese" lang="pt" hreflang="pt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Português</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ro"><a href="https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Romanian" lang="ro" hreflang="ro" class="interlanguage-link-target">Română</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-qu"><a href="https://qu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khipu_q%27aytu" title="Khipu q'aytu – Quechua" lang="qu" hreflang="qu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Runa Simi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ru badge-Q17437796 badge-featuredarticle" title="featured article"><a href="https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%83" title="Кипу – Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" class="interlanguage-link-target">Русский</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-simple"><a href="https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Simple English" lang="en-simple" hreflang="en-simple" class="interlanguage-link-target">Simple English</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a href="https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipu" title="Kipu – Slovak" lang="sk" hreflang="sk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenčina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"><a href="https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%83%D0%B8" title="Кипуи – Serbian" lang="sr" hreflang="sr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Српски / srpski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fi"><a href="https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Finnish" lang="fi" hreflang="fi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Suomi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sv"><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Swedish" lang="sv" hreflang="sv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Svenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ta"><a href="https://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%BF%E0%AE%AA%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%AA%E0%AF%81" title="கிப்பு – Tamil" lang="ta" hreflang="ta" class="interlanguage-link-target">தமிழ்</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-th"><a href="https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%B9" title="กีปู – Thai" lang="th" hreflang="th" class="interlanguage-link-target">ไทย</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tr"><a href="https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quipu" title="Quipu – Turkish" lang="tr" hreflang="tr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Türkçe</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a href="https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%96%D0%BF%D1%83" title="Кіпу – Ukrainian" lang="uk" hreflang="uk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Українська</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh"><a href="https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%A5%87%E6%99%AE" title="奇普 – Chinese" lang="zh" hreflang="zh" class="interlanguage-link-target">中文</a></li></ul>
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