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Singapore - Wikipedia

Source 2020: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore | 2020-02-12

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	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Singapore</h1>
	
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Singapura" and "Singapur" redirect here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Singapore_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Singapore (disambiguation)">Singapore (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For the <a href="/wiki/Ghost_town" title="Ghost town">abandoned town</a> in the <a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>, see <a href="/wiki/Singapore,_Michigan" title="Singapore, Michigan">Singapore, Michigan</a>.</div>
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<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">Country in Southeast Asia</div>
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<table class="infobox geography vcard" style="width:22em;font-size:88%;"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" class="adr" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;padding:0.25em 0.33em 0.33em;line-height:1.2em;font-size:1.25em;"><div style="padding-top:0.25em; font-weight:normal;"><div style="display:inline" class="fn org country-name"><div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border: none; padding: 0;">
<div class="NavHead" style="font-size: 105%; background:transparent;text-align:center;line-height:normal;font-size:84%;"><span style="font-size:1.25em;">Republic of Singapore</span></div>
<ul class="NavContent" style="list-style: none none; margin-left: 0; text-align: left; font-size: 105%; margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0; line-height: inherit;"><li style="line-height: inherit; margin: 0"> <table style="padding:0;border:none;margin:-3px;width:auto;min-width:100%;font-size:100%;clear:none;float:none;background-color:transparent;padding-top:0.5em;font-size:76%;font-weight:normal;"><tbody><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a>:</th><td><i lang="ms" title="Malay language text">Republik Singapura</i></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Standard_Chinese" title="Standard Chinese">Chinese</a>:</th><td><span lang="zh" title="Chinese language text">新加坡共和国</span></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Tamil_language" title="Tamil language">Tamil</a>:</th><td><span lang="ta" title="Tamil language text">சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு</span></td></tr></tbody></table>
  </li></ul>
</div></div></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:center;padding:0.5em 0;"><div style="display:table; width:100%;">
        <div style="display:table-cell; width:58%; vertical-align:middle; padding-left:5px;">
            <div style="padding-bottom:3px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg" class="image" title="Flag of Singapore"><img alt="Flag of Singapore" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/125px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="125" height="83" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/188px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/250px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /></a></div>
            <div style="font-size:90%;"><a href="/wiki/Flag_of_Singapore" title="Flag of Singapore">Flag</a></div>
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        <div style="display:table-cell; vertical-align:middle; padding: 0px 5px;">
            <div style="padding-bottom:3px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg" class="image" title="Coat of arms of Singapore"><img alt="Coat of arms of Singapore" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg/85px-Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="85" height="70" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg/128px-Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg/170px-Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1216" data-file-height="1008" /></a></div>
            <div style="font-size:90%;"><a href="/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore" title="Coat of arms of Singapore"> Coat of arms</a></div>
        </div>
    </div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><div style="line-height:1.2em;"><b>Motto: </b><i lang="ms" title="Malay language text">Majulah Singapura</i>  <span class="languageicon" style="font-size:85%;font-weight:normal;">(Malay)</span><br /><span style="font-size:85%;">(English: "Onward, Singapore")</span></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="anthem" style="text-align:center"><div style="line-height:1.2em;"><b>Anthem: </b><i><a href="/wiki/Majulah_Singapura" title="Majulah Singapura">Majulah Singapura</a></i><br /><span style="font-size:85%;">(English: "Onward, Singapore")</span><br /><div style="padding-top:0.5em;"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_0" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="79.38612244898" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Majulah_Singapura.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/7/74/Majulah_Singapura.ogg/Majulah_Singapura.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="200272" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/Majulah_Singapura.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (205 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="204525" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AMajulah_Singapura.ogg&lang=en&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="en" label="English (en) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AMajulah_Singapura.ogg&lang=id&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="id" label="Bahasa Indonesia (id) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AMajulah_Singapura.ogg&lang=ms&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="ms" label="Bahasa Melayu (ms) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AMajulah_Singapura.ogg&lang=ta&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="ta" label="தமிழ் (ta) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AMajulah_Singapura.ogg&lang=zh-hans&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="zh-Hans" label="中文(简体)‎ (zh-hans) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /></audio></div></div></div></div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><div class="switcher-container"><div><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_ASEAN.PNG" class="image"><img alt="Singapore ASEAN.PNG" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/Singapore_ASEAN.PNG/280px-Singapore_ASEAN.PNG" decoding="async" width="280" height="281" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/Singapore_ASEAN.PNG/420px-Singapore_ASEAN.PNG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Singapore_ASEAN.PNG 2x" data-file-width="550" data-file-height="551" /></a><span class="switcher-label" style="display:none" data-switcher-default="">Show globe</span></div><div><a href="/wiki/File:Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg" class="image"><img alt="Location Singapore ASEAN.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg/280px-Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg.png" decoding="async" width="280" height="229" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg/420px-Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg/560px-Location_Singapore_ASEAN.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1100" data-file-height="900" /></a><span class="switcher-label" style="display:none">Show map of Southeast Asia</span></div><div><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_in_its_region_(zoom).svg" class="image"><img alt="Singapore in its region (zoom).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Singapore_in_its_region_%28zoom%29.svg/280px-Singapore_in_its_region_%28zoom%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="280" height="125" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Singapore_in_its_region_%28zoom%29.svg/420px-Singapore_in_its_region_%28zoom%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Singapore_in_its_region_%28zoom%29.svg/560px-Singapore_in_its_region_%28zoom%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="260" data-file-height="116" /></a><span class="switcher-label" style="display:none">Show Singapore</span></div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Capital</th><td>Singapore<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/City-state" title="City-state">city-state</a>)<br /><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Singapore&params=1_17_N_103_50_E_type:city"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">1°17′N</span> <span class="longitude">103°50′E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">1.283°N 103.833°E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">1.283; 103.833</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span id="coordinates"><a href="/wiki/Geographic_coordinate_system" title="Geographic coordinate system">Coordinates</a>: <span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Singapore&params=1_17_N_103_50_E_type:city"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">1°17′N</span> <span class="longitude">103°50′E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">1.283°N 103.833°E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">1.283; 103.833</span></span></span></a></span></span></span></td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row">Official languages</th><td><div class="plainlist"><ul><li style="white-space:nowrap;"><a href="/wiki/Singapore_English" title="Singapore English">English</a><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">[Note 1]</a></sup></li><li style="white-space:nowrap;"><a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a></li><li style="white-space:nowrap;"><a href="/wiki/Singaporean_Mandarin" title="Singaporean Mandarin">Chinese</a></li><li style="white-space:nowrap;"><a href="/wiki/Tamil_language" title="Tamil language">Tamil</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><span style="font-weight:normal;">Recognised national languages</span></th><td><a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a><sup id="cite_ref-Singapore_Statutes_Online_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Singapore_Statutes_Online-8">[7]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Ethnic_group" title="Ethnic group">Ethnic groups</a> <div style="font-weight:normal;display:inline;"> (2015)<sup id="cite_ref-Singapore_Census_2015_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Singapore_Census_2015-9">[8]</a></sup></div></th><td><div class="plainlist"><ul><li>74.3% <a href="/wiki/Chinese_Singaporeans" title="Chinese Singaporeans">Chinese Singaporeans</a></li><li>13.3% <a href="/wiki/Malay_Singaporeans" title="Malay Singaporeans">Malay Singaporeans</a></li><li>9.1% <a href="/wiki/Indian_Singaporeans" title="Indian Singaporeans">Indian Singaporeans</a></li><li>3.3% other</li></ul></div> <i>See <a href="/wiki/Demographics_of_Singapore#Ethnic_groups" title="Demographics of Singapore">Ethnic groups of Singapore</a></i></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Religion <div style="font-weight:normal;display:inline;"> (2015)<sup id="cite_ref-Singapore_Census_2015_9-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Singapore_Census_2015-9">[8]</a></sup></div></th><td><div class="plainlist"><ul><li>33.2% <a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Singapore" title="Buddhism in Singapore">Buddhism</a></li><li>18.8% <a href="/wiki/Christianity_in_Singapore" title="Christianity in Singapore">Christianity</a></li><li>18.5% No religion</li><li>14.0% <a href="/wiki/Islam_in_Singapore" title="Islam in Singapore">Islam</a></li><li>10.0% <a href="/wiki/Taoism" title="Taoism">Taoism</a> and <a href="/wiki/Chinese_folk_religion" title="Chinese folk religion">Chinese folk religion</a></li><li>5.0% <a href="/wiki/Hinduism_in_Singapore" title="Hinduism in Singapore">Hinduism</a></li><li>0.6% <a href="/wiki/Religion_in_Singapore" title="Religion in Singapore">other</a></li></ul></div> <i>See <a href="/wiki/Religion_in_Singapore" title="Religion in Singapore">Religion in Singapore</a></i></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Demonym" title="Demonym">Demonym(s)</a></th><td><a href="/wiki/Singaporean" class="mw-redirect" title="Singaporean">Singaporean</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Politics_of_Singapore" title="Politics of Singapore">Government</a></th><td><a href="/wiki/Unitary_state" title="Unitary state">Unitary</a> <a href="/wiki/Dominant-party_system" title="Dominant-party system">dominant-party</a> <a href="/wiki/Parliamentary_system" title="Parliamentary system">parliamentary</a> <a href="/wiki/Constitutional_republic" class="mw-redirect" title="Constitutional republic">constitutional republic</a></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <a href="/wiki/President_of_Singapore" title="President of Singapore">President</a> </div></th><td><a href="/wiki/Halimah_Yacob" title="Halimah Yacob">Halimah Yacob</a></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <a href="/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Singapore" title="Prime Minister of Singapore">Prime Minister</a> </div></th><td><a href="/wiki/Lee_Hsien_Loong" title="Lee Hsien Loong">Lee Hsien Loong</a></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <a href="/wiki/Speaker_of_the_Parliament_of_Singapore" title="Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore">Parliament Speaker</a> </div></th><td><a href="/wiki/Tan_Chuan-Jin" title="Tan Chuan-Jin">Tan Chuan-Jin</a></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <a href="/wiki/Chief_Justice_of_Singapore" title="Chief Justice of Singapore">Chief Justice</a> </div></th><td><a href="/wiki/Sundaresh_Menon" title="Sundaresh Menon">Sundaresh Menon</a></td></tr><tr style="display:none"><td colspan="2">
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Legislature</th><td><a href="/wiki/Parliament_of_Singapore" title="Parliament of Singapore">Parliament</a></td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Colony_of_Singapore" title="Colony of Singapore">Independence</a> <div style="font-weight:normal;display:inline;">from the <a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a></div></th></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"></td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Self-governance_of_Singapore" title="Self-governance of Singapore">Self-governance</a></span> </div></th><td>3 June 1959</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Malaysia_Agreement" title="Malaysia Agreement">Malaysia Agreement</a></span> </div></th><td>16 September 1963</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <a href="/wiki/Proclamation_of_Singapore" title="Proclamation of Singapore">Proclamation of Singapore</a> </div></th><td>9 August 1965</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• <a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Declaration" title="ASEAN Declaration">ASEAN Declaration</a> </div></th><td>8 August 1967</td></tr><tr style="display:none"><td colspan="2">
</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Geography_of_Singapore" title="Geography of Singapore">Area </a></th></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• Total</div></th><td>725.7 km<sup>2</sup> (280.2 sq mi)<sup id="cite_ref-total_area_of_Singapore_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-total_area_of_Singapore-10">[9]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_area" title="List of countries and dependencies by area">176th</a>)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Demographics_of_Singapore" title="Demographics of Singapore">Population</a></th></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• 2018 estimate</div></th><td><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> 5,638,700<sup id="cite_ref-Population_and_Population_Structure_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Population_and_Population_Structure-11">[10]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">[Note 2]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_population" title="List of countries and dependencies by population">113th</a>)</td></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• Density</div></th><td>7,804/km<sup>2</sup> (20,212.3/sq mi) (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_population_density" title="List of countries and dependencies by population density">2nd</a>)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Gross_domestic_product" title="Gross domestic product">GDP</a> <span style="font-weight:normal;">(<a href="/wiki/Purchasing_power_parity" title="Purchasing power parity">PPP</a>)</span></th><td>2019 estimate</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• Total</div></th><td><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> $589.187 billion<sup id="cite_ref-imf_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-imf-13">[11]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP)" title="List of countries by GDP (PPP)">36th</a>)</td></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• Per capita</div></th><td><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> $103,717<sup id="cite_ref-imf_13-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-imf-13">[11]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP)_per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita">3rd</a>)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Gross_domestic_product" title="Gross domestic product">GDP</a> <span style="font-weight:normal;">(nominal)</span></th><td>2019 estimate</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• Total</div></th><td><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> $372.807 billion<sup id="cite_ref-imf_13-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-imf-13">[11]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)" title="List of countries by GDP (nominal)">31st</a>)</td></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><th scope="row"><div style="text-indent:-0.9em;margin-left:1.2em;font-weight:normal;">• Per capita</div></th><td><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> $65,627<sup id="cite_ref-imf_13-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-imf-13">[11]</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita">7th</a>)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Gini_coefficient" title="Gini coefficient">Gini</a> <span style="font-weight:normal;">(2017)</span></th><td><img alt="Steady" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/Steady2.svg/11px-Steady2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Steady" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/Steady2.svg/17px-Steady2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/Steady2.svg/22px-Steady2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> 45.9<sup id="cite_ref-CIA_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CIA-14">[12]</a></sup><br /><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><span style="color:orange">medium</span></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Human_Development_Index" title="Human Development Index">HDI</a> <span style="font-weight:normal;">(2018)</span></th><td><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> 0.935<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">[13]</a></sup><br /><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><span style="color:darkgreen">very high</span></span> · <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index" title="List of countries by Human Development Index">9th</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Currency</th><td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">Singapore dollar</a> (S$) (<a href="/wiki/ISO_4217" title="ISO 4217">SGD</a>)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Time zone</th><td><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time" title="Coordinated Universal Time">UTC</a>+8</span> (<a href="/wiki/Singapore_Standard_Time" title="Singapore Standard Time">Singapore Standard Time</a>)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Date format</th><td><abbr title="day">dd</abbr>/<abbr title="month">mm</abbr>/<abbr title="year">yyyy</abbr></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Mains_electricity" title="Mains electricity">Mains electricity</a></th><td>230 V–50 Hz</td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Left-_and_right-hand_traffic" title="Left- and right-hand traffic">Driving side</a></th><td><a href="/wiki/Right-_and_left-hand_traffic" class="mw-redirect" title="Right- and left-hand traffic">left</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Telephone_numbers_in_Singapore" title="Telephone numbers in Singapore">Calling code</a></th><td><a href="/wiki/%2B65" class="mw-redirect" title="+65">+65</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/ISO_3166" title="ISO 3166">ISO 3166 code</a></th><td><a href="/wiki/ISO_3166-2:SG" title="ISO 3166-2:SG">SG</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/Country_code_top-level_domain" title="Country code top-level domain">Internet TLD</a></th><td><a href="/wiki/.sg" title=".sg">.sg</a></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p><b>Singapore</b> (<span class="rt-commentedText nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt"><a href="/wiki/Help:IPA/English" title="Help:IPA/English">/<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'s' in 'sigh'">s</span><span title="/ɪ/: 'i' in 'kit'">ɪ</span><span title="/ŋ/: 'ng' in 'sing'">ŋ</span></span>(<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="/ɡ/: 'g' in 'guy'">ɡ</span></span>)<span style="border-bottom:1px dotted"><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="'p' in 'pie'">p</span><span title="/ɔːr/: 'ar' in 'war'">ɔːr</span></span>/</a></span> <span class="nowrap" style="font-size:85%">(<span class="unicode haudio"><span class="fn"><span style="white-space:nowrap;margin-right:.25em;"><a href="/wiki/File:En-us-Singapore.ogg" title="About this sound"><img alt="About this sound" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/11px-Loudspeaker.svg.png" decoding="async" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/17px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg/22px-Loudspeaker.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="20" data-file-height="20" /></a></span><a href="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/En-us-Singapore.ogg" class="internal" title="En-us-Singapore.ogg">listen</a></span></span>)</span></span>), officially the <b>Republic of Singapore</b>, is a <a href="/wiki/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">sovereign</a> <a href="/wiki/City-state" title="City-state">city-state</a> and <a href="/wiki/Island_country" title="Island country">island country</a> located in <a href="/wiki/Maritime_Southeast_Asia" title="Maritime Southeast Asia">maritime Southeast Asia</a>. Singapore lies about one degree of latitude (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the <a href="/wiki/Equator" title="Equator">equator</a>, and is situated off the southern tip of the <a href="/wiki/Malay_Peninsula" title="Malay Peninsula">Malay Peninsula</a>, and, by extension, the <a href="/wiki/Extreme_points_of_Asia" title="Extreme points of Asia">southernmost extremity</a> of continental <a href="/wiki/Eurasia" title="Eurasia">Eurasia</a>. The island country shares its <a href="/wiki/Indonesia%E2%80%93Singapore_border" title="Indonesia–Singapore border">southern maritime border</a> with <a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Riau_Islands" title="Riau Islands">Riau Islands</a>, its <a href="/wiki/Malaysia%E2%80%93Singapore_border" title="Malaysia–Singapore border">northern, western, and eastern maritime borders</a> with the <a href="/wiki/Johor" title="Johor">Johor state</a> of <a href="/wiki/Peninsular_Malaysia" title="Peninsular Malaysia">Peninsular Malaysia</a>, and is in the vicinity of <a href="/wiki/Sumatra" title="Sumatra">Sumatra</a> to its west and <a href="/wiki/Borneo" title="Borneo">Borneo</a> to its east. It is enveloped by the littoral waters of the <a href="/wiki/Straits_of_Johor" title="Straits of Johor">Johore Strait</a> to its north and the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Strait" title="Singapore Strait">Singapore Strait</a> to its south, and is geographically positioned within the confluence of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, being bounded by the <a href="/wiki/Malacca_Strait" class="mw-redirect" title="Malacca Strait">Malacca Strait</a> to its west and the <a href="/wiki/South_China_Sea" title="South China Sea">South China Sea</a> to its east. The country's territory is composed of one <a href="/wiki/Pulau_Ujong" class="mw-redirect" title="Pulau Ujong">main island</a>, <a href="/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Singapore" title="List of islands of Singapore">63 satellite islands and islets</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Pedra_Branca,_Singapore" title="Pedra Branca, Singapore">one outlying islet</a>, the combined area of which has increased by almost 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive <a href="/wiki/Land_reclamation" title="Land reclamation">land reclamation</a> projects.
</p><p>Although Singapore has been a constituent part of several Malay Hindu-Buddhist <a href="/wiki/Thalassocracy" title="Thalassocracy">thalassocratic</a> empires and Islamic sultanates throughout its millennia-long history, modern Singapore, then part of the erstwhile <a href="/wiki/Johor_Sultanate" title="Johor Sultanate">Johor Sultanate</a>, was <a href="/wiki/Founding_of_modern_Singapore" title="Founding of modern Singapore">founded</a> in 1819 when <a href="/wiki/Stamford_Raffles" title="Stamford Raffles">Stamford Raffles</a>, a British colonial officer, established a trading post of the <a href="/wiki/East_India_Company" title="East India Company">East India Company</a> on the main island. In 1824, the main island and its satellite islands were fully ceded by the Johor Sultanate, and in 1826, Singapore was incorporated into the <a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a>, a group of East India Company territories in the Malay peninsula.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">[Note 3]</a></sup> From 1830 to 1858, the Straits Settlements were administered as a Malayan subdivision of the East India Company's <a href="/wiki/Bengal_Presidency" title="Bengal Presidency">Bengal Presidency</a>; following the <a href="/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857" title="Indian Rebellion of 1857">Indian Rebellion of 1857</a>, the Presidency and its constituent Settlements were reorganised into the <a href="/wiki/British_Raj" title="British Raj">British Raj</a>. In 1867, Britain's <a href="/wiki/British_Malaya" title="British Malaya">colonial holdings in the Malay archipelago</a> were separated from British India, and the administration of the Straits Settlements was transferred from Calcutta to London, bringing the Straits Settlements under the direct control of the <a href="/wiki/British_Crown" class="mw-redirect" title="British Crown">British Crown</a> as a <a href="/wiki/Crown_colony" title="Crown colony">crown colony</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[14]</a></sup> 
</p><p>From 1867 to the 1940s, Singapore grew into a successful <a href="/wiki/Entrep%C3%B4t" title="Entrepôt">entrepôt</a> that attracted settlers and sojourners from the region and beyond. During the <a href="/wiki/Second_World_War" class="mw-redirect" title="Second World War">Second World War</a>, <a href="/wiki/Empire_of_Japan" title="Empire of Japan">Imperial Japan</a> successfully <a href="/wiki/Fall_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Fall of Singapore">invaded and annexed Singapore</a>, resulting in an interregnum of British rule corresponding with a brief but violent <a href="/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Singapore" title="Japanese occupation of Singapore">Japanese occupation</a> from 1942 to 1945. Following <a href="/wiki/Surrender_of_Japan" title="Surrender of Japan">Japan's surrender</a> in 1945, Singapore was returned to British control; in 1946, the Straits Settlements were dissolved, and Singapore became a standalone <a href="/wiki/Colony_of_Singapore" title="Colony of Singapore">crown colony</a>. In 1959, following a protracted period of agitation against colonial rule, <a href="/wiki/Colony_of_Singapore" title="Colony of Singapore">Singapore</a> gained limited autonomy from the <a href="/wiki/British_Empire" title="British Empire">British Empire</a>. In 1963, Singapore became fully emancipated from colonial rule <a href="/wiki/Malaysia_Agreement" title="Malaysia Agreement">after it federated</a> with the territories of the erstwhile <a href="/wiki/British_Malaya" title="British Malaya">British Malaya</a> and <a href="/wiki/British_Borneo" title="British Borneo">British Borneo</a> to form the country of <a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[Note 4]</a></sup> but after <a href="/wiki/Singapore_in_Malaysia" title="Singapore in Malaysia">two tumultuous years</a> as a constituent state of the Malaysian Federation, and following intractable differences, Singapore was <a href="/wiki/August_1965#August_9,_1965_(Monday)" title="August 1965">expelled</a> in 1965, becoming the first country in modern history to gain independence against its will—though this narrative remains highly contentious.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">[Note 5]</a></sup>  After early years of <a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Republic_of_Singapore#1965_to_1979" title="History of the Republic of Singapore">turbulence</a>, the newly sovereign nation—viewed as a nonviable state by international observers due to its <a href="/wiki/Microstate" title="Microstate">diminutiveness</a>, geostrategic vulnerability, absence of natural resources, and lack of a <a href="/wiki/Hinterland" title="Hinterland">hinterland</a>—defied odds by rapidly developing and industrialising under the leadership of the founding <a href="/wiki/People%27s_Action_Party" title="People's Action Party">People's Action Party</a> to become a <a href="/wiki/World_Bank_high-income_economy" title="World Bank high-income economy">high-income economy</a> and developed country within a single generation. 
</p><p>Singapore is the only <a href="/wiki/City-state#Singapore" title="City-state">truly sovereign city-state</a> in the world; it has its own currency and a <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_military_expenditure_per_capita" title="List of countries by military expenditure per capita">well-funded</a> <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Armed_Forces" title="Singapore Armed Forces">military</a> that is considered the most advanced in Southeast Asia.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">[16]</a></sup> It is a <a href="/wiki/Unitary_state" title="Unitary state">unitary</a> <a href="/wiki/Parliamentary_republic" title="Parliamentary republic">parliamentary republic</a> with a <a href="/wiki/Unicameralism" title="Unicameralism">unicameral</a> legislature that has been characterised by <a href="/wiki/Dominant-party_system" title="Dominant-party system">dominant-party rule</a> since independence. The <a href="/wiki/Economist_Intelligence_Unit" title="Economist Intelligence Unit">Economist Intelligence Unit</a> rated Singapore a "<a href="/wiki/Democracy_Index#Classification_definitions" title="Democracy Index">flawed democracy</a>" in 2019.<sup id="cite_ref-democracy-index_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-democracy-index-22">[17]</a></sup> The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 61% (3.4 million) of whom are <a href="/wiki/Singaporeans" title="Singaporeans">Singaporeans</a>. The country has four <a href="/wiki/Languages_of_Singapore" title="Languages of Singapore">official languages</a>: <a href="/wiki/Singapore_English" title="Singapore English">English</a>, <a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a>, <a href="/wiki/Standard_Chinese" title="Standard Chinese">Chinese</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Tamil_language" title="Tamil language">Tamil</a>; Malay, as the ancestral language of the country, is accorded special status in the country's constitution as the national language, while English is the lingua franca, being spoken as a common tongue by the vast majority of Singaporeans. As a legacy of its historical nature as an entrepôt, modern Singapore is a pluralistic country with a racially, culturally, and religiously diverse citizenry,<sup id="cite_ref-:1_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-23">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-pew_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pew-24">[19]</a></sup> with one indigenous ethnic group, the Malays, and two settler-descended ethnic groups, the Chinese and Indians, forming the historical and contemporary core of the country's citizen populace. As a reflection of this diversity, <a href="/wiki/Multiracialism" title="Multiracialism">multiracialism</a> has been enshrined as a foundational principle of the state, and has shaped the country's politics and <a href="/wiki/Race_in_Singapore" title="Race in Singapore">national policies</a>, particularly in education and housing. 
</p><p>The country is one of the five founding members of <a href="/wiki/ASEAN" title="ASEAN">ASEAN</a>, is the headquarters of the <a href="/wiki/Asia-Pacific_Economic_Cooperation" title="Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation">Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation</a> (APEC) Secretariat and <a href="/wiki/Pacific_Economic_Cooperation_Council" title="Pacific Economic Cooperation Council">Pacific Economic Cooperation Council</a> (PECC) Secretariat,<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">[20]</a></sup> is a member of the <a href="/wiki/United_Nations" title="United Nations">United Nations</a>, <a href="/wiki/World_Trade_Organization" title="World Trade Organization">World Trade Organization</a>, <a href="/wiki/East_Asia_Summit" title="East Asia Summit">East Asia Summit</a>, <a href="/wiki/Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Non-Aligned Movement">Non-Aligned Movement</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations" title="Commonwealth of Nations">Commonwealth of Nations</a>, and is a recurrent guest invitee to the annual <a href="/wiki/G20" title="G20">G20</a> summit.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">[21]</a></sup> It is the most <a href="/wiki/Developed_country" title="Developed country">developed</a> sovereign nation in Asia, being ranked 9th on the UN <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index" title="List of countries by Human Development Index">Human Development Index</a>, and has the 7th <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita" title="List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita">highest GDP per capita</a> in the world.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">[22]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28">[23]</a></sup> It is also considered by <a href="/wiki/Transparency_International" title="Transparency International">Transparency International</a> to be the most <a href="/wiki/Corruption_Perceptions_Index" title="Corruption Perceptions Index">incorruptible</a> nation in Asia, and the fifth most incorruptible worldwide. Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: <a href="/wiki/Education_in_Singapore" title="Education in Singapore">education</a>, <a href="/wiki/Healthcare_in_Singapore" title="Healthcare in Singapore">healthcare</a>, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 91%. <a href="/wiki/Singaporeans" title="Singaporeans">Singaporeans</a> enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancies and one of the <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_infant_and_under-five_mortality_rates" title="List of countries by infant and under-five mortality rates">lowest infant mortality rates in the world</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-auto_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto-29">[24]</a></sup> As a city, Singapore is classified as an <a href="/wiki/Global_city" title="Global city">Alpha+ global city</a>, and is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies. It is a major financial and shipping hub, consistently ranked the most expensive city to live in since 2013, and has been identified as a <a href="/wiki/Tax_haven" title="Tax haven">tax haven</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">[25]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">[26]</a></sup> Singapore is also a popular tourist destination, with well-known landmarks such as the <a href="/wiki/Merlion" title="Merlion">Merlion</a>, <a href="/wiki/Marina_Bay_Sands" title="Marina Bay Sands">Marina Bay Sands</a>, <a href="/wiki/Gardens_by_the_Bay" title="Gardens by the Bay">Gardens by the Bay</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Jewel_Changi_Airport" title="Jewel Changi Airport">Jewel</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Orchard_Road" title="Orchard Road">Orchard Road</a> shopping belt, the resort island of <a href="/wiki/Sentosa" title="Sentosa">Sentosa</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Botanic_Gardens" title="Singapore Botanic Gardens">Singapore Botanic Gardens</a>, the only tropical garden in the world to be honoured as a <a href="/wiki/UNESCO_World_Heritage_Site" class="mw-redirect" title="UNESCO World Heritage Site">UNESCO World Heritage Site</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">[27]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-sbg-trip_33-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sbg-trip-33">[28]</a></sup>
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Ancient_Singapore"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Ancient Singapore</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#British_colonisation"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">British colonisation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#World_War_II"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">World War II</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Post-war_period"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Post-war period</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Merger_with_Malaysia"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Merger with Malaysia</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Republic_of_Singapore"><span class="tocnumber">2.6</span> <span class="toctext">Republic of Singapore</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Government_and_politics"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Government and politics</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Foreign_relations"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Foreign relations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Military"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Military</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Human_rights"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Human rights</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Geography"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Geography</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Nature"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Nature</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Climate"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Climate</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#Economy"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Economy</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Employment"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Employment</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Industry_sectors"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Industry sectors</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#Tourism"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Tourism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#Infrastructure"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Infrastructure</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Transport"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Transport</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Water_supply_and_sanitation"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Water supply and sanitation</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#Demographics"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Demographics</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Religion"><span class="tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">Religion</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Languages"><span class="tocnumber">8.2</span> <span class="toctext">Languages</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#Education"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Education</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#Healthcare"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Healthcare</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#Culture"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Culture</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a href="#Arts"><span class="tocnumber">11.1</span> <span class="toctext">Arts</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a href="#Cuisine"><span class="tocnumber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Cuisine</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-31"><a href="#Hawker_Centres"><span class="tocnumber">11.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Hawker Centres</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-32"><a href="#Sport_and_recreation"><span class="tocnumber">11.3</span> <span class="toctext">Sport and recreation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-33"><a href="#Media"><span class="tocnumber">11.4</span> <span class="toctext">Media</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-34"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-35"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-36"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Names_of_Singapore" title="Names of Singapore">Names of Singapore</a></div>
<p>The English name of Singapore is an <a href="/wiki/Anglicisation" title="Anglicisation">anglicisation</a> of the native <a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a> name for the country, <i><i lang="ms" title="Malay language text">Singapura</i></i>, which was in turn derived from <a href="/wiki/Sanskrit" title="Sanskrit">Sanskrit</a><sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">[29]</a></sup> (<a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B0" class="extiw" title="wikt:सिंहपुर">सिंहपुर</a>, <small><a href="/wiki/International_Alphabet_of_Sanskrit_Transliteration" title="International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration">IAST</a></small>: <i>Siṃhapura</i>; <i>siṃha</i> meaning "lion", and <i>pura</i> meaning "town" or "city"), hence the customary reference to the nation as the <i>Lion City</i>, and its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols (e.g., its coat of arms, and the <a href="/wiki/Merlion" title="Merlion">Merlion</a> emblem). However, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island—<a href="/wiki/Sang_Nila_Utama" title="Sang Nila Utama">Sang Nila Utama</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Srivijaya" title="Srivijaya">Srivijayan</a> prince said to have founded and named the island <i>Singapura</i>, perhaps saw a <a href="/wiki/Malayan_tiger" title="Malayan tiger">Malayan tiger</a>. There are, however, other suggestions for the origin of the name, and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is firmly established.<sup id="cite_ref-turnbull_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-turnbull-35">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA151_151–152]_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA151_151–152]-36">[31]</a></sup> The central island has also been called <i><a href="/wiki/Pulau_Ujong" class="mw-redirect" title="Pulau Ujong">Pulau Ujong</a></i>, literally "island at the end" (of the <a href="/wiki/Malay_Peninsula" title="Malay Peninsula">Malay Peninsula</a>) in Malay, as far back as the third century CE.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">[32]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38">[33]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore is also referred to as the <i>Garden City</i> for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence,<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39">[34]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40">[35]</a></sup> and the <i><a href="/wiki/Little_Red_Dot" class="mw-redirect" title="Little Red Dot">Little Red Dot</a></i> for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">[36]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43">[38]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
<table class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:10px">
<tbody><tr>
<th colspan="1" style="background: cornflowerblue;"><span style="color:white;">Historical affiliations</span>
</th>
<th colspan="1" style="background: cornflowerblue;"><span style="color:white;">Settlement and Time Period</span>
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Malay_world" title="Malay world">Hindu-Buddhist Malay polities</a></b>
</td>
<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Pulau Ujong</b></i> <br /> pre-7th century </small>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Srivijaya" title="Srivijaya">Srivijayan Empire</a></b>
</td>
<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Pulau Ujong → Temasek</b></i> <br /> 7th century–13th century (c. 700 years) </small>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Singapura" title="Kingdom of Singapura">Kingdom of Singapura</a></b>
</td>
<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Temasek → Singapura</b></i> <br /> 1299–1398 (99 years) <br /> <i>sacked by the <b><a href="/wiki/Majapahit_Empire" class="mw-redirect" title="Majapahit Empire">Majapahit Empire</a></b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Flag_of_the_Majapahit_Empire.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Majapahit_Empire.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Flag_of_the_Majapahit_Empire.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_Majapahit_Empire.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Flag_of_the_Majapahit_Empire.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_Majapahit_Empire.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="2100" data-file-height="1241" /></span> </small>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Malacca_Sultanate" title="Malacca Sultanate">Malacca Sultanate</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Coat-of-Arms-Malacca-Sultanate-330px.png/23px-Coat-of-Arms-Malacca-Sultanate-330px.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Coat-of-Arms-Malacca-Sultanate-330px.png/35px-Coat-of-Arms-Malacca-Sultanate-330px.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Coat-of-Arms-Malacca-Sultanate-330px.png/45px-Coat-of-Arms-Malacca-Sultanate-330px.png 2x" data-file-width="330" data-file-height="220" /></span>
</td>
<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapura</b></i> <br /> 1400–1511 (111 years) </small>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2" style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Johor_Sultanate" title="Johor Sultanate">Johor Sultanate</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/White_Flag_of_the_Malay_Sultanates.svg/23px-White_Flag_of_the_Malay_Sultanates.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/White_Flag_of_the_Malay_Sultanates.svg/35px-White_Flag_of_the_Malay_Sultanates.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/White_Flag_of_the_Malay_Sultanates.svg/46px-White_Flag_of_the_Malay_Sultanates.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapura</b></i> <br /> 1528–1613 (85 years) <br /> <i>sacked by the <b><a href="/wiki/Portuguese_Empire" title="Portuguese Empire">Portuguese Empire</a></b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Flag_of_Portugal_%281578%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Portugal_%281578%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Flag_of_Portugal_%281578%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Portugal_%281578%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Flag_of_Portugal_%281578%29.svg/45px-Flag_of_Portugal_%281578%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1020" data-file-height="680" /></span> <br /> 1613–1819 (206 years)<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">[Note 6]</a></sup> <br /> <i>establishment of <b>East India Company</b> trading post</i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1100" data-file-height="650" /></span> </small>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapura → Singapore</b></i> <br /> 1819–1824 (5 years) <br /> <i>ceded to <b>East India Company</b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1100" data-file-height="650" /></span> </small>
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<td rowspan="2" style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/East_India_Company" title="East India Company">East India Company</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_%281801%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1100" data-file-height="650" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapore</b></i> <br /> 1824–1826 (2 years) </small>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapore</b></i> <br /> <i><b>Straits Settlements</b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/Bengal_Presidency" title="Bengal Presidency">Bengal Presidency</a></b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg/23px-Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg/35px-Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg/46px-Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> <br /> 1826–1858 (32 years) </small>
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<td rowspan="2" style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/British_Empire" title="British Empire">British Empire</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small><i><b>Singapore</b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a></b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/Bengal_Presidency" title="Bengal Presidency">Bengal Presidency</a></b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg/23px-Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg/35px-Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg/46px-Flag_of_British_Bengal.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/British_Raj" title="British Raj">British Raj</a></b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/British_Raj_Red_Ensign.svg/23px-British_Raj_Red_Ensign.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/British_Raj_Red_Ensign.svg/35px-British_Raj_Red_Ensign.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/British_Raj_Red_Ensign.svg/46px-British_Raj_Red_Ensign.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="300" /></span> <br /> 1858–1867 (9 years) </small>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small><i><b>Singapore</b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a></b></i> <br /> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281868%E2%80%931877%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281868%E2%80%931877%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281868%E2%80%931877%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281868%E2%80%931877%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281868%E2%80%931877%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281868%E2%80%931877%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span>  <i><a href="/wiki/Historical_flags_of_the_British_Empire_and_the_overseas_territories#Straits_Settlements" title="Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories">1868–1874</a></i> <br /> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281904%E2%80%931925%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281904%E2%80%931925%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281904%E2%80%931925%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281904%E2%80%931925%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281904%E2%80%931925%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281904%E2%80%931925%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> <i><a href="/wiki/Historical_flags_of_the_British_Empire_and_the_overseas_territories#Straits_Settlements" title="Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories">1874–1925</a></i> <br /> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281925%E2%80%931946%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281925%E2%80%931946%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281925%E2%80%931946%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281925%E2%80%931946%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281925%E2%80%931946%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_British_Straits_Settlements_%281925%E2%80%931946%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> <i><a href="/wiki/Historical_flags_of_the_British_Empire_and_the_overseas_territories#Straits_Settlements" title="Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories">1925–1942</a></i> <br /> 1867–1942 (75 years) <br /> <i>invaded by <b>Imperial Japan</b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg/22px-Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg/33px-Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg/43px-Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="700" /></span> </small>
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<td style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Empire_of_Japan" title="Empire of Japan">Empire of Japan</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg/22px-Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg/33px-Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg/43px-Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="700" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small><i><b>Singapore → Syonan-to</b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/Greater_East_Asia_Co-Prosperity_Sphere" title="Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere">Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere</a></b></i> <br /> 1942–1945 (3 years) </small>
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<td rowspan="2" style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/British_Empire" title="British Empire">British Empire</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small><i><b>Syonan-to → Singapore</b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a></b></i> <br /> <i><b><a href="/wiki/British_Military_Administration_(Malaya)" title="British Military Administration (Malaya)">British Military Administration</a></b></i> <br /> 1945–1946 (1 year) </small>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small><i><b><a href="/wiki/Crown_colony_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Crown colony of Singapore">Colony of Singapore</a></b></i> <br /> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/Flag_of_Singapore_%281946%E2%80%931952%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore_%281946%E2%80%931952%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/Flag_of_Singapore_%281946%E2%80%931952%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore_%281946%E2%80%931952%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/Flag_of_Singapore_%281946%E2%80%931952%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_Singapore_%281946%E2%80%931952%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="500" /></span>  <i><a href="/wiki/Historical_flags_of_the_British_Empire_and_the_overseas_territories#Singapore" title="Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories">1946–1952</a></i> <br /> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Flag_of_Singapore_%281952%E2%80%931959%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore_%281952%E2%80%931959%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Flag_of_Singapore_%281952%E2%80%931959%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore_%281952%E2%80%931959%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Flag_of_Singapore_%281952%E2%80%931959%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_Singapore_%281952%E2%80%931959%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="500" /></span> <i><a href="/wiki/Historical_flags_of_the_British_Empire_and_the_overseas_territories#Singapore" title="Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories">1952–1959</a></i> <br /> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/45px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /></span> <i><a href="/wiki/Flag_of_Singapore" title="Flag of Singapore">1959–1963</a></i> <br /> 1946–1963 (17 years) <br /> <i>independence from the <b>British Empire</b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> <br /> <i>formation of the <b>Malaysian Federation</b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> </small>
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<td style="background:Cornsilk;"><b><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small><i><b><a href="/wiki/Singapore_in_Malaysia" title="Singapore in Malaysia">Negeri Singapura</a></b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/45px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /></span> <br /> 1963–1965 (2 years) <br /> <i>expelled from the <b>Malaysian Federation</b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /></span> </small>
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<tr>
<td rowspan="2" style="background:Cornsilk;"><b>Republic of Singapore</b> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/45px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /></span>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapore</b></i> <br /> 1965–present (55 years ago–present) </small>
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<td style="background:Ivory;"><small> <i><b>Singapore in ASEAN</b></i> <span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/45px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /></span><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Flag_placeholder.svg/23px-Flag_placeholder.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Flag_placeholder.svg/35px-Flag_placeholder.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Flag_placeholder.svg/45px-Flag_placeholder.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="24" data-file-height="16" /></span> <br /> 1967–present (53 years ago–present) </small>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ancient_Singapore">Ancient Singapore</span></h3>
<p>The Greco-Roman astronomer <a href="/wiki/Ptolemy" title="Ptolemy">Ptolemy</a> (90–168) identified a place called <i>Sabana</i> in the general area in the second century,<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">[39]</a></sup> and the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of <i>Pú Luó Zhōng</i> (<a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E8%92%B2" class="extiw" title="wikt:蒲">蒲</a><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E7%BE%85" class="extiw" title="wikt:羅">羅</a><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E4%B8%AD" class="extiw" title="wikt:中">中</a>). This was itself a transliteration from the <a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a> name <i>"<a href="/wiki/Pulau_Ujong" class="mw-redirect" title="Pulau Ujong">Pulau Ujong</a>"</i>, or "island at the end" (of the <a href="/wiki/Malay_Peninsula" title="Malay Peninsula">Malay Peninsula</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-utexas_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-utexas-46">[40]</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Nagarakretagama" title="Nagarakretagama">Nagarakretagama</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Java_(island)" class="mw-redirect" title="Java (island)">Javanese</a> epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called <i><a href="/wiki/Temasek" title="Temasek">Tumasik</a></i> (possibly meaning "Sea Town").<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">[41]</a></sup> In 1299, according to the <i><a href="/wiki/Malay_Annals" title="Malay Annals">Malay Annals</a></i>, the <a href="/wiki/Kingdom_of_Singapura" title="Kingdom of Singapura">Kingdom of Singapura</a> was founded on the island by <a href="/wiki/Sang_Nila_Utama" title="Sang Nila Utama">Sang Nila Utama</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">[42]</a></sup> Although the historicity of the accounts as given in the <i>Malay Annals</i> is the subject of academic debates,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA154_154]_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA154_154]-49">[43]</a></sup> it is nevertheless known from various documents that Singapore in the 14th century, then known as <a href="/wiki/Temasek" title="Temasek">Temasek</a>, was a trading port under the influence of both the <a href="/wiki/Majapahit" title="Majapahit">Majapahit</a> Empire and the <a href="/wiki/Ayutthaya_Kingdom" title="Ayutthaya Kingdom">Siamese</a> kingdoms<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA184_183–185]_50-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA184_183–185]-50">[44]</a></sup> and was a part of the <a href="/wiki/Indosphere" title="Indosphere">Indosphere</a><sup id="cite_ref-Dixon_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dixon-51">[45]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Matisoff1990_52-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Matisoff1990-52">[46]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Enfield_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Enfield-53">[47]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-LaPolla_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-LaPolla-54">[48]</a></sup> of <a href="/wiki/Greater_India" title="Greater India">Greater India</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Hal1985_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hal1985-55">[49]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-academia_edu_56-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-academia_edu-56">[50]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">[51]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-academia_edu_56-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-academia_edu-56">[50]</a></sup> These Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by <a href="/wiki/George_C%C5%93d%C3%A8s" title="George Cœdès">George Cœdès</a> were characterised by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">[52]</a></sup> Historical sources also indicate that around the end of the 14th century, its ruler <a href="/wiki/Parameswara_(king)" title="Parameswara (king)">Parameswara</a> was attacked by either the Majapahit or the Siamese, forcing him to move on to <a href="/wiki/Melaka" class="mw-redirect" title="Melaka">Melaka</a> where he founded the <a href="/wiki/Sultanate_of_Malacca" class="mw-redirect" title="Sultanate of Malacca">Sultanate of Malacca</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA162_155–163]_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA162_155–163]-59">[53]</a></sup> Archaeological evidence suggests that the main settlement on <a href="/wiki/Fort_Canning" class="mw-redirect" title="Fort Canning">Fort Canning</a> was abandoned around this time, although a small trading settlement continued in Singapore for some time afterwards.<sup id="cite_ref-turnbull_35-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-turnbull-35">[30]</a></sup> In 1613, <a href="/wiki/Portuguese_people" title="Portuguese people">Portuguese</a> raiders burned down the settlement, and the island faded into obscurity for the next two centuries.<sup id="cite_ref-Borschbergp157-158_60-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Borschbergp157-158-60">[54]</a></sup> By then Singapore was nominally part of the <a href="/wiki/Johor_Sultanate" title="Johor Sultanate">Johor Sultanate</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-country_studies_61-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-country_studies-61">[55]</a></sup> The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period after the Dutch's conquest of Malacca.<sup id="cite_ref-uslcFοunding_62-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-uslcFοunding-62">[56]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="British_colonisation">British colonisation</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Founding_of_modern_Singapore" title="Founding of modern Singapore">Founding of modern Singapore</a> and <a href="/wiki/Singapore_in_the_Straits_Settlements" title="Singapore in the Straits Settlements">Singapore in the Straits Settlements</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Part_of_Singapore_Island_(British_Library_India_Office_Records,_1825,_detail).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Part_of_Singapore_Island_%28British_Library_India_Office_Records%2C_1825%2C_detail%29.jpg/220px-Part_of_Singapore_Island_%28British_Library_India_Office_Records%2C_1825%2C_detail%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Part_of_Singapore_Island_%28British_Library_India_Office_Records%2C_1825%2C_detail%29.jpg/330px-Part_of_Singapore_Island_%28British_Library_India_Office_Records%2C_1825%2C_detail%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Part_of_Singapore_Island_%28British_Library_India_Office_Records%2C_1825%2C_detail%29.jpg/440px-Part_of_Singapore_Island_%28British_Library_India_Office_Records%2C_1825%2C_detail%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3395" data-file-height="2256" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Part_of_Singapore_Island_(British_Library_India_Office_Records,_1825,_detail).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>1825 survey map. Singapore's <a href="/wiki/Free_port" class="mw-redirect" title="Free port">free port</a> trade was at <a href="/wiki/Singapore_River" title="Singapore River">Singapore River</a> for 150 years. <a href="/wiki/Fort_Canning" class="mw-redirect" title="Fort Canning">Fort Canning</a> hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.</div></div></div>
<p>The British governor <a href="/wiki/Stamford_Raffles" title="Stamford Raffles">Stamford Raffles</a> arrived in Singapore on 28 January 1819 and soon recognised the island as a natural choice for the new port.<sup id="cite_ref-YongRao1995_63-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-YongRao1995-63">[57]</a></sup> The island was then nominally ruled by <a href="/wiki/Abdul_Rahman_Muazzam_Shah_of_Johor" title="Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah of Johor">Tengku Abdul Rahman</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Sultan_of_Johor" title="Sultan of Johor">Sultan of Johor</a>, who was controlled by the Dutch and the <a href="/wiki/Bugis" class="mw-redirect" title="Bugis">Bugis</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Trocki2009_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Trocki2009-64">[58]</a></sup> However, the <a href="/wiki/Sultanate" class="mw-redirect" title="Sultanate">Sultanate</a> was weakened by factional division: the <a href="/wiki/Temenggong" title="Temenggong">Temenggong</a> (Chief Minister) of Tengku Abdul Rahman, as well as his officials, were loyal to the Sultan's elder brother <a href="/wiki/Hussein_Shah_of_Johor" title="Hussein Shah of Johor">Tengku Long</a>, who was living in <a href="/wiki/Exile" title="Exile">exile</a> in <a href="/wiki/Riau_Islands" title="Riau Islands">Riau</a>. With the Temenggong's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Tengku Long back into Singapore. Raffles offered to recognise Tengku Long as the rightful Sultan of Johor, under the title of Sultan Hussein, as well as provide him with a yearly payment of $5000 and another $3000 to the Temenggong; in return, Sultan Hussein would grant the British the right to establish a trading post on Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-uslcFounding_65-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-uslcFounding-65">[59]</a></sup> A formal treaty was signed on 6 February 1819 and modern Singapore was born.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66">[60]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">[61]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 1824, the entire island as well as the Temenggong became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan.<sup id="cite_ref-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore_68-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore-68">[62]</a></sup> In 1826, Singapore became part of the <a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a>, under the jurisdiction of <a href="/wiki/British_India" class="mw-redirect" title="British India">British India</a>, becoming the regional capital in 1836.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">[63]</a></sup> Prior to Raffles' arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly <a href="/wiki/Orang_Asal" title="Orang Asal">indigenous Malays</a> along with a handful of Chinese.<sup id="cite_ref-The_Malays_70-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Malays-70">[64]</a></sup> By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, more than half being Chinese.<sup id="cite_ref-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore_68-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore-68">[62]</a></sup> Many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and <a href="/wiki/Uncaria_gambir" title="Uncaria gambir">gambier</a> plantations.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">[65]</a></sup> Later, in the 1890s, when the rubber industry also became established in <a href="/wiki/Singapore_in_Malaysia" title="Singapore in Malaysia">Malaya</a> and Singapore,<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">[66]</a></sup> the island became a global centre for rubber sorting and export.<sup id="cite_ref-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore_68-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore-68">[62]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg" class="image"><img alt="White statue of Sir Stamford Raffles standing" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg/170px-Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg/255px-Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg/340px-Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg 2x" data-file-width="624" data-file-height="832" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Stamford_Raffles_statue.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Sir <a href="/wiki/Stamford_Raffles" title="Stamford Raffles">Stamford Raffles</a>'s statue at the Singapore River spot where he first landed</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore was not greatly affected by the <a href="/wiki/First_World_War" class="mw-redirect" title="First World War">First World War</a> (1914–18), as the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant event during the war was the <a href="/wiki/1915_Singapore_Mutiny" title="1915 Singapore Mutiny">1915 Singapore Mutiny</a> by <a href="/wiki/Muslim" class="mw-redirect" title="Muslim">Muslim</a> <a href="/wiki/Sepoys" class="mw-redirect" title="Sepoys">sepoys</a> from British India, who were garrisoned in Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-Brill1_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Brill1-73">[67]</a></sup> After hearing rumours that they were to be sent to fight the <a href="/wiki/Ottoman_Empire" title="Ottoman Empire">Ottoman Empire</a>, a Muslim state, the soldiers rebelled, killing their officers and several British civilians before the mutiny was suppressed by non-Muslim troops arriving from <a href="/wiki/Johore" class="mw-redirect" title="Johore">Johore</a> and <a href="/wiki/Burma" class="mw-redirect" title="Burma">Burma</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">[68]</a></sup>
</p><p>After the First World War, the British built the large <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Naval_Base" title="Singapore Naval Base">Singapore Naval Base</a> as part of the defensive <a href="/wiki/Singapore_strategy" title="Singapore strategy">Singapore strategy</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Stille2016_75-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stille2016-75">[69]</a></sup> Originally announced in 1921, the construction of the base was gradual until the <a href="/wiki/Japanese_invasion_of_Manchuria" title="Japanese invasion of Manchuria">Japanese invasion of Manchuria</a> in 1931. Although not fully completed in 1938, and at the large cost of $60 million, it was nonetheless the largest <a href="/wiki/Dry_dock" title="Dry dock">dry dock</a> in the world, the third-largest <a href="/wiki/Floating_dock_(jetty)" title="Floating dock (jetty)">floating dock</a>, and had enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months.<sup id="cite_ref-Stille2016_75-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stille2016-75">[69]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Tan2008_76-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Tan2008-76">[70]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Hobbs2017_77-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hobbs2017-77">[71]</a></sup> The base was defended by heavy 15-inch naval guns stationed at <a href="/wiki/Fort_Siloso" title="Fort Siloso">Fort Siloso</a>, <a href="/wiki/Fort_Canning" class="mw-redirect" title="Fort Canning">Fort Canning</a> and Labrador, as well as a <a href="/wiki/Royal_Air_Force" title="Royal Air Force">Royal Air Force</a> airfield at <a href="/wiki/Tengah_Air_Base" title="Tengah Air Base">Tengah Air Base</a>. <a href="/wiki/Winston_Churchill" title="Winston Churchill">Winston Churchill</a> touted it as the "<a href="/wiki/Gibraltar" title="Gibraltar">Gibraltar</a> of the East", and military discussions often referred to the base as simply "<a href="/wiki/East_of_Suez" title="East of Suez">East of Suez</a>". However, the <a href="/wiki/British_Home_Fleet" class="mw-redirect" title="British Home Fleet">British Home Fleet</a> was stationed in Europe, and the British could not afford to build a second fleet to protect their interests in Asia. The plan was for the Home Fleet to sail quickly to Singapore in the event of an emergency. As a consequence, after <a href="/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a> broke out in 1939, the fleet was fully occupied with defending Britain, leaving Singapore vulnerable to Japanese invasion.<sup id="cite_ref-LambTarling2001_78-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-LambTarling2001-78">[72]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79">[73]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="World_War_II">World War II</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Singapore" title="Japanese occupation of Singapore">Japanese occupation of Singapore</a></div>
<p>During the <a href="/wiki/Second_World_War" class="mw-redirect" title="Second World War">Second World War</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Imperial_Japanese_Army" title="Imperial Japanese Army">Imperial Japanese Army</a> invaded <a href="/wiki/British_Malaya" title="British Malaya">British Malaya</a>, culminating in the <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_Singapore" title="Battle of Singapore">Battle of Singapore</a>. When the British force of 60,000 troops surrendered on 15 February 1942, British Prime Minister <a href="/wiki/Winston_Churchill" title="Winston Churchill">Winston Churchill</a> called the defeat "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history.<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">[74]</a></sup> British losses during the fighting for Singapore were heavy, with a total of nearly 85,000 personnel captured, in addition to losses during the earlier fighting in Malaya.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382_81-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382-81">[75]</a></sup> About 5,000 were killed or wounded,<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82">[76]</a></sup> of which Australians made up the majority.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELegg1965248_83-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELegg1965248-83">[77]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">[78]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85">[79]</a></sup> Japanese casualties during the fighting in Singapore amounted to 1,714 killed and 3,378 wounded.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382_81-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382-81">[75]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86">[Note 7]</a></sup> The occupation was to become a major turning point in the histories of several nations, including those of Japan, Britain, and the then-colonial state of Singapore. Japanese newspapers triumphantly declared the victory as deciding the general situation of the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEToland1970277_87-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEToland1970277-87">[80]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">[81]</a></sup> Singapore was renamed <b>Syonan-to</b><span style="font-weight: normal"> (<span lang="ja" title="Japanese language text">昭南島</span>, <i lang="ja-Latn" title="Hepburn transliteration">Shōnan-tō</i>)</span>, meaning "Light of the South".<sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">[82]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">[83]</a></sup> Between 5,000 and 25,000 ethnic Chinese people were killed in the subsequent <a href="/wiki/Sook_Ching_massacre" class="mw-redirect" title="Sook Ching massacre">Sook Ching massacre</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">[84]</a></sup>
</p><p>British forces had <a href="/wiki/Operation_Zipper" title="Operation Zipper">planned to liberate Singapore</a> in 1945; however, the war ended before these operations could be carried out. It was <a href="/wiki/Operation_Tiderace" title="Operation Tiderace">subsequently re-occupied</a> by British, Indian and Australian forces following the <a href="/wiki/Surrender_of_Japan" title="Surrender of Japan">Japanese surrender</a> in September.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBose201018–20_92-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBose201018–20-92">[85]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPark2155-2156_93-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPark2155-2156-93">[86]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94">[87]</a></sup> Meanwhile, <a href="/wiki/Tomoyuki_Yamashita" title="Tomoyuki Yamashita">Tomoyuki Yamashita</a> was tried by a US military commission for war crimes, but not for crimes committed by his troops in Malaya or Singapore. He was convicted and hanged in the Philippines on 23 February 1946.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2006556–557_95-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2006556–557-95">[88]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-96" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-96">[89]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Post-war_period">Post-war period</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Operation_Tiderace" title="Operation Tiderace">Operation Tiderace</a> and <a href="/wiki/Post-war_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Post-war Singapore">Post-war Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Evacuation_of_British_POWs,_Kallang_Airport,_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Evacuation_of_British_POWs%2C_Kallang_Airport%2C_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg/220px-Evacuation_of_British_POWs%2C_Kallang_Airport%2C_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="232" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Evacuation_of_British_POWs%2C_Kallang_Airport%2C_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg/330px-Evacuation_of_British_POWs%2C_Kallang_Airport%2C_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Evacuation_of_British_POWs%2C_Kallang_Airport%2C_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg/440px-Evacuation_of_British_POWs%2C_Kallang_Airport%2C_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg 2x" data-file-width="759" data-file-height="800" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Evacuation_of_British_POWs,_Kallang_Airport,_Singapore_-_19450908.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>British evacuation in 1945 after the <a href="/wiki/Japanese_surrender" class="mw-redirect" title="Japanese surrender">Japanese surrender</a>. <a href="/wiki/Kallang_Airport" title="Kallang Airport">Kallang Airport</a>'s control tower near the city has been conserved.</div></div></div>
<p>After the <a href="/wiki/Japanese_surrender" class="mw-redirect" title="Japanese surrender">Japanese surrender</a> to the Allies on 15 August 1945, Singapore fell into a brief state of violence and disorder; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. British troops led by Lord <a href="/wiki/Louis_Mountbatten" class="mw-redirect" title="Louis Mountbatten">Louis Mountbatten</a>, <a href="/wiki/Supreme_Allied_Commander" title="Supreme Allied Commander">Supreme Allied Commander</a> for <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia_Command" class="mw-redirect" title="Southeast Asia Command">Southeast Asia Command</a>, returned to Singapore to receive formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General <a href="/wiki/Itagaki_Seishiro" class="mw-redirect" title="Itagaki Seishiro">Itagaki Seishiro</a> on behalf of General <a href="/wiki/Hisaichi_Terauchi" title="Hisaichi Terauchi">Hisaichi Terauchi</a> on 12 September 1945, and a British Military Administration was formed to govern the island until March 1946. Much of the infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including harbour facilities at the <a href="/wiki/Port_of_Singapore" title="Port of Singapore">Port of Singapore</a>. There was also a shortage of food leading to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. High food prices, unemployment, and workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels.<sup id="cite_ref-uslcAftermathOfWar_97-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-uslcAftermathOfWar-97">[90]</a></sup>
</p><p>The failure of Britain to successfully defend Singapore had destroyed its credibility as an infallible ruler in the eyes of Singaporeans. The decades after the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise of <a href="/wiki/Anti-colonialism" class="mw-redirect" title="Anti-colonialism">anti-colonial</a> and nationalist sentiments, epitomised by the slogan <i><a href="/wiki/Merdeka" title="Merdeka">Merdeka</a></i>, or "independence" in the Malay language. The British were prepared to gradually increase <a href="/wiki/Self-governance" title="Self-governance">self-governance</a> for Singapore and Malaya, and on 1 April 1946, the <a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a> was dissolved and Singapore became a separate Crown Colony with a civil administration headed by a Governor.<sup id="cite_ref-uslcAftermathOfWar_97-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-uslcAftermathOfWar-97">[90]</a></sup> In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled in the following year.<sup id="cite_ref-micaSelfGovernment_98-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-micaSelfGovernment-98">[91]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg/220px-SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="140" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg/330px-SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg/440px-SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1080" data-file-height="688" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, <a href="/wiki/Bumboat" title="Bumboat">bumboats</a> were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.</div></div></div>
<p>During the 1950s, Chinese communists with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools waged a guerrilla war against the government, leading to the <a href="/wiki/Malayan_Emergency" title="Malayan Emergency">Malayan Emergency</a>. The <a href="/wiki/1954_National_Service_riots" title="1954 National Service riots">1954 National Service riots</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hock_Lee_bus_riots" title="Hock Lee bus riots">Hock Lee bus riots</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Chinese_middle_schools_riots" title="Chinese middle schools riots">Chinese middle schools riots</a> in Singapore were all linked to these events.<sup id="cite_ref-99" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99">[92]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/David_Marshall_(Singaporean_politician)" title="David Marshall (Singaporean politician)">David Marshall</a>, pro-independence leader of the <a href="/wiki/Labour_Front" title="Labour Front">Labour Front</a>, won Singapore's first general election in 1955. He led a delegation to London, but Britain rejected his demand for complete self-rule. He resigned and was replaced by <a href="/wiki/Lim_Yew_Hock" title="Lim Yew Hock">Lim Yew Hock</a> in 1956, whose policies convinced Britain to grant Singapore full internal <a href="/wiki/Self-governance_of_Singapore" title="Self-governance of Singapore">self-government</a> for all matters except defence and foreign affairs.<sup id="cite_ref-countrystudies10_100-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-countrystudies10-100">[93]</a></sup>
</p><p>During the <a href="/wiki/1959_Singaporean_general_election" title="1959 Singaporean general election">May 1959 elections</a>, the <a href="/wiki/People%27s_Action_Party" title="People's Action Party">People's Action Party</a> (PAP) won a landslide victory. Singapore became an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth, with <a href="/wiki/Lee_Kuan_Yew" title="Lee Kuan Yew">Lee Kuan Yew</a> as its first Prime Minister.<sup id="cite_ref-yewnyt_101-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yewnyt-101">[94]</a></sup> As a result, the 1959 general elections were the first after full internal <a href="/wiki/History_of_Singapore#Self-government_(1955–1963)" title="History of Singapore">self-government</a> was granted by the British authorities. Singapore was not yet fully independent, as the British still controlled external affairs such as the military and foreign relations. However, Singapore was now a recognised <a href="/wiki/Nation-state" class="mw-redirect" title="Nation-state">state</a>. <a href="/wiki/Governor_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Governor of Singapore">Governor</a> Sir <a href="/wiki/William_Allmond_Codrington_Goode" title="William Allmond Codrington Goode">William Allmond Codrington Goode</a> served as the first <a href="/wiki/Yang_di-Pertuan_Negara" title="Yang di-Pertuan Negara">Yang di-Pertuan Negara</a> (Head of State), and was succeeded by <a href="/wiki/Yusof_bin_Ishak" class="mw-redirect" title="Yusof bin Ishak">Yusof bin Ishak</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Law_102-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Law-102">[95]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Merger_with_Malaysia">Merger with Malaysia</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Singapore_in_Malaysia" title="Singapore in Malaysia">Singapore in Malaysia</a></div>
<p>Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya due to strong ties between the two nations. It was thought that the merger would benefit the economy by creating a common market which will support new industries, solving the ongoing unemployment woes in Singapore. However, a sizeable pro-communist wing of the PAP was strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence, and hence formed the <a href="/wiki/Barisan_Sosialis" title="Barisan Sosialis">Barisan Sosialis</a>, splitting from the PAP.<sup id="cite_ref-103" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-103">[96]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104">[97]</a></sup> This was because the ruling party of Malaya, <a href="/wiki/United_Malays_National_Organisation" title="United Malays National Organisation">United Malays National Organisation</a> (UMNO), was staunchly anti-communist and would support the non-communist faction of PAP against them. UMNO, who was initially sceptical of the idea of a merger as they distrust the PAP government and were concerned that the large Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance on which their political power base depended, changed their minds about the merger after being afraid of being taken over by pro-communists. On 27 May 1961, Malaya's Prime Minister, <a href="/wiki/Tunku_Abdul_Rahman" title="Tunku Abdul Rahman">Tunku Abdul Rahman</a>, made a surprise proposal of a <a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Federation of Malaysia</a>, comprising existing <a href="/wiki/Federation_of_Malaya" title="Federation of Malaya">Federation of Malaya</a>, Singapore, <a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a> and the British Borneo territories of <a href="/wiki/North_Borneo_(British_Crown_colony)" class="mw-redirect" title="North Borneo (British Crown colony)">North Borneo</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sarawak_(British_Crown_colony)" class="mw-redirect" title="Sarawak (British Crown colony)">Sarawak</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105">[98]</a></sup> The UMNO leaders believed that the additional Malay population in the Borneo territories would offset Singapore's Chinese population.<sup id="cite_ref-countrystudies10_100-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-countrystudies10-100">[93]</a></sup> The British government, for its part, believed that the merger would prevent Singapore from becoming a haven for communism.<sup id="cite_ref-106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106">[99]</a></sup> To secure the <a href="/wiki/Mandate_(politics)" title="Mandate (politics)">mandate</a> of the people, the PAP called for the <a href="/wiki/1962_Merger_Referendum_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="1962 Merger Referendum of Singapore">1962 Merger Referendum</a>, which provided different terms for merger with Malaysia, but no options for avoiding it. As a result, on 16 September 1963, <a href="/wiki/Post-war_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Post-war Singapore">Singapore</a> joined with the <a href="/wiki/Federation_of_Malaya" title="Federation of Malaya">Federation of Malaya</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Crown_Colony_of_Sarawak" title="Crown Colony of Sarawak">Crown Colony of Sarawak</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Crown_Colony_of_North_Borneo" title="Crown Colony of North Borneo">Crown Colony of North Borneo</a> to form the new federation of <a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a> under the terms of the <a href="/wiki/Malaysia_Agreement" title="Malaysia Agreement">Malaysia Agreement</a>, with Singapore being granted a high level of autonomy compared to other states in Malaysia.<sup id="cite_ref-107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107">[100]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_(8347645113).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_%288347645113%29.jpg/220px-A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_%288347645113%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_%288347645113%29.jpg/330px-A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_%288347645113%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_%288347645113%29.jpg/440px-A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_%288347645113%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1962" data-file-height="1308" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_(8347645113).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A symbol of Singapore, the <a href="/wiki/Merlion" title="Merlion">Merlion</a> was erected in 1964</div></div></div>
<p>Indonesia, however, opposed the formation of Malaysia over its own claims of Borneo and launched <a href="/wiki/Indonesia%E2%80%93Malaysia_confrontation" title="Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation"><i>konfrontasi</i></a> (Confrontation in Indonesian).<sup id="cite_ref-108" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-108">[101]</a></sup> On 10 March 1965, a bomb planted by Indonesian saboteurs on a mezzanine floor of MacDonald House exploded, killing three people and injuring 33 others. It was the deadliest of at least 42 bomb incidents which occurred during the confrontation.<sup id="cite_ref-109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109">[102]</a></sup> Two members of the Indonesian Marine Corps, Osman bin Haji Mohamed Ali and Harun bin Said, were eventually convicted and executed for the crime.<sup id="cite_ref-110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110">[103]</a></sup> The explosion caused $250,000 in damages to MacDonald House.<sup id="cite_ref-111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111">[104]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112">[105]</a></sup>
</p><p>Even after the merger, the <a href="/wiki/People%27s_Action_Party%E2%80%93United_Malays_National_Organisation_relations" class="mw-redirect" title="People's Action Party–United Malays National Organisation relations">Singapore state government and the Malaysian central government disagreed</a> on many political and economic issues. Despite an earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore did not extend to Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans agreed to for economic development of the two eastern states. The situation escalated to such an intensity that talks soon broke down and abusive speeches and writing became rife on both sides. This led to communal strife in Singapore, accumulating to the <a href="/wiki/1964_race_riots_in_Singapore" title="1964 race riots in Singapore">1964 race riots in Singapore</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-113" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113">[106]</a></sup> Because of this, on 7 August 1965, the then <a href="/wiki/Malaysian_Prime_Minister" class="mw-redirect" title="Malaysian Prime Minister">Malaysian Prime Minister</a> <a href="/wiki/Tunku_Abdul_Rahman" title="Tunku Abdul Rahman">Tunku Abdul Rahman</a>, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the <a href="/wiki/Parliament_of_Malaysia" title="Parliament of Malaysia">Parliament of Malaysia</a> that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia.<sup id="cite_ref-Road_to_Independence_114-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Road_to_Independence-114">[107]</a></sup> On 9 August 1965, the Malaysian Parliament voted 126 to 0 to move a bill to amend the constitution providing for Singapore to separate from the Federation of Malaysia. This gave Singapore independence.<sup id="cite_ref-LOC2_115-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-LOC2-115">[108]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-116">[109]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-countrystudies10_100-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-countrystudies10-100">[93]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-117" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-117">[110]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Republic_of_Singapore">Republic of Singapore</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Independence_of_Singapore_Agreement_1965" title="Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965">Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg/170px-Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg/255px-Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg/340px-Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg 2x" data-file-width="618" data-file-height="824" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Lee_Kuan_Yew.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Lee_Kuan_Yew" title="Lee Kuan Yew">Lee Kuan Yew</a>, the first Prime Minister of Singapore</div></div></div>
<div class="quotebox pullquote floatright" style="width:18em; ;"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r887775652">.mw-parser-output .quotebox{background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%;max-width:100%}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft{margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright{margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered{margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-title{background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .quotebox cite{display:block;font-style:normal}@media screen and (max-width:360px){.mw-parser-output .quotebox{min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important}}</style>
<div class="quotebox-quote left-aligned" style="">"<b>Singapore shall forever be a sovereign democratic and independent nation, founded upon the principles of liberty and justice and ever seeking the welfare and happiness of her people in a more just and equal society.</b>"</div>
<p><cite class="left-aligned" style="">– <a href="/wiki/Proclamation_of_Singapore" title="Proclamation of Singapore">Proclamation of Singapore</a> by Lee Kuan Yew on 9 August 1965</cite>
</p>
</div>
<p>Singapore gained independence as the Republic of Singapore (remaining within the <a href="/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations" title="Commonwealth of Nations">Commonwealth of Nations</a>) on 9 August 1965 with <a href="/wiki/Lee_Kuan_Yew" title="Lee Kuan Yew">Lee Kuan Yew</a> and <a href="/wiki/Yusof_bin_Ishak" class="mw-redirect" title="Yusof bin Ishak">Yusof bin Ishak</a> as the first prime minister and president respectively. In 1967, the country co-founded the <a href="/wiki/Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" class="mw-redirect" title="Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Association of Southeast Asian Nations</a> (ASEAN).<sup id="cite_ref-118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-118">[111]</a></sup> Race riots <a href="/wiki/1969_race_riots_of_Singapore" title="1969 race riots of Singapore">broke out once more</a> in 1969.<sup id="cite_ref-119" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-119">[112]</a></sup> Lee Kuan Yew's emphasis on rapid economic growth, support for business entrepreneurship, and limitations on internal democracy shaped Singapore's policies for the next half-century and the country progressed to a <a href="/wiki/First_World" title="First World">First World</a> country.<sup id="cite_ref-120" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-120">[113]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-lky-7prin_121-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lky-7prin-121">[114]</a></sup> Further economic success continued through the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technological industries, such as the <a href="/wiki/Wafer_fabrication" title="Wafer fabrication">wafer fabrication</a> sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour. <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Changi_Airport" title="Singapore Changi Airport">Singapore Changi Airport</a> was opened in 1981 and <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Airlines" title="Singapore Airlines">Singapore Airlines</a> was formed.<sup id="cite_ref-122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122">[115]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Port_of_Singapore" title="Port of Singapore">Port of Singapore</a> became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period. Singapore emerged as an important transportation and logistics hub and a major tourist destination.<sup id="cite_ref-123" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-123">[116]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124">[117]</a></sup>
</p><p>The PAP rule is termed <a href="/wiki/Authoritarianism" title="Authoritarianism">authoritarian</a> by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights.<sup id="cite_ref-125" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-125">[118]</a></sup> In response, the <a href="/wiki/Government_of_Singapore" title="Government of Singapore">government of Singapore</a> underwent several significant political changes, by introducing the Non-Constituency members of parliament in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs) were introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament.<sup id="cite_ref-126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126">[119]</a></sup> Nominated members of parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs.<sup id="cite_ref-HoKhaiLeong_127-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HoKhaiLeong-127">[120]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Constitution_of_Singapore" title="Constitution of Singapore">Constitution</a> was amended in 1991 to provide for an <a href="/wiki/President_of_Singapore" title="President of Singapore">Elected President</a> who has veto power in the use of national reserves and appointments to public office.<sup id="cite_ref-128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128">[121]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 1990, <a href="/wiki/Goh_Chok_Tong" title="Goh Chok Tong">Goh Chok Tong</a> succeeded Lee and became Singapore's second Prime Minister.<sup id="cite_ref-129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129">[122]</a></sup> During Goh's tenure, the country went through some post-independence crises, such as the <a href="/wiki/1997_Asian_financial_crisis" title="1997 Asian financial crisis">1997 Asian financial crisis</a> and the 2003 <a href="/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome" title="Severe acute respiratory syndrome">SARS</a> outbreak.<sup id="cite_ref-130" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-130">[123]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Goh_131-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Goh-131">[124]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2004, <a href="/wiki/Lee_Hsien_Loong" title="Lee Hsien Loong">Lee Hsien Loong</a>, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the country's third Prime Minister.<sup id="cite_ref-Goh_131-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Goh-131">[124]</a></sup> Lee Hsien Loong's tenure included the <a href="/wiki/2008_global_financial_crisis" class="mw-redirect" title="2008 global financial crisis">2008 global financial crisis</a>, the resolution of a <a href="/wiki/Malaysia%E2%80%93Singapore_Points_of_Agreement_of_1990" title="Malaysia–Singapore Points of Agreement of 1990">dispute over land ownership</a> at <a href="/wiki/Tanjong_Pagar_railway_station" title="Tanjong Pagar railway station">Tanjong Pagar railway station</a> between Singapore and Malaysia, and the introduction of the 2 <a href="/wiki/Integrated_resort" title="Integrated resort">integrated resorts</a> (IRs), located at the <a href="/wiki/Marina_Bay_Sands" title="Marina Bay Sands">Marina Bay Sands</a> and <a href="/wiki/Resorts_World_Sentosa" title="Resorts World Sentosa">Resorts World Sentosa</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-132" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-132">[125]</a></sup> Despite the economy's exceptional growth, the <a href="/wiki/People%27s_Action_Party" title="People's Action Party">People's Action Party</a> (PAP) suffered its <a href="/wiki/2011_Singaporean_general_election" title="2011 Singaporean general election">worst election results</a> in 2011, winning 60% of votes, amidst hot-button issues of high influx of foreign workers and the cost of living.<sup id="cite_ref-133" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-133">[126]</a></sup> On 23 March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew <a href="/wiki/Death_and_state_funeral_of_Lee_Kuan_Yew" title="Death and state funeral of Lee Kuan Yew">died</a>, and a one-week period of public mourning was observed nationwide.<sup id="cite_ref-lky-7prin_121-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lky-7prin-121">[114]</a></sup> Subsequently, the PAP maintained its dominance in Parliament in the <a href="/wiki/2015_Singaporean_general_election" title="2015 Singaporean general election">September general election</a>, receiving 69.9% of the popular vote, behind the 2001 tally of 75.3%<sup id="cite_ref-STresults_134-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-STresults-134">[127]</a></sup> and the 1968 tally of 86.7%.<sup id="cite_ref-ELE_135-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ELE-135">[128]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Government_and_politics">Government and politics</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Government_of_Singapore" title="Government of Singapore">Government of Singapore</a>, <a href="/wiki/Politics_of_Singapore" title="Politics of Singapore">Politics of Singapore</a>, <a href="/wiki/Human_rights_in_Singapore" title="Human rights in Singapore">Human rights in Singapore</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Administrative_divisions_of_Singapore" title="Administrative divisions of Singapore">Administrative divisions of Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Istana_(Singapore).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Istana_%28Singapore%29.jpg/220px-Istana_%28Singapore%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Istana_%28Singapore%29.jpg/330px-Istana_%28Singapore%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Istana_%28Singapore%29.jpg/440px-Istana_%28Singapore%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3145" data-file-height="2105" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Istana_(Singapore).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/The_Istana" title="The Istana">The Istana</a> is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore is a <a href="/wiki/Parliamentary_system" title="Parliamentary system">parliamentary</a> republic based on the <a href="/wiki/Westminster_system" title="Westminster system">Westminster system</a>. The <a href="/wiki/Constitution_of_Singapore" title="Constitution of Singapore">Constitution of Singapore</a> is the supreme law of the country, establishing the structure and responsibility of government. The <a href="/wiki/President_of_Singapore" title="President of Singapore">president</a> is <a href="/wiki/Head_of_state" title="Head of state">head of state</a> and exercises executive power on the <a href="/wiki/Advice_(constitutional)" title="Advice (constitutional)">advice</a> of her ministers. The <a href="/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Singapore" title="Prime Minister of Singapore">prime minister</a> is <a href="/wiki/Head_of_government" title="Head of government">head of government</a> and is appointed by the president as the person most likely to command the confidence of a majority of <a href="/wiki/Parliament_of_Singapore" title="Parliament of Singapore">Parliament</a>. <a href="/wiki/Cabinet_of_Singapore" title="Cabinet of Singapore">Cabinet</a> is chosen by the prime minister and formally appointed by the president.<sup id="cite_ref-136" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-136">[129]</a></sup>
</p><p>The government is <a href="/wiki/Separation_of_powers_in_Singapore" title="Separation of powers in Singapore">separated</a> into three branches:
</p>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Executive_(government)" title="Executive (government)">Executive</a>: The president is <a href="/wiki/Commander-in-chief" title="Commander-in-chief">commander-in-chief</a> of the military,<sup id="cite_ref-137" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137">[130]</a></sup> can veto laws before they become effective (subject to parliamentary override), and holds limited <a href="/wiki/Powers_of_the_President_of_Singapore" title="Powers of the President of Singapore">discretionary powers</a> of oversight over the government.<sup id="cite_ref-138" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-138">[131]</a></sup> The prime minister and Cabinet are responsible for administering and enforcing laws and policies.<sup id="cite_ref-Law_102-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Law-102">[95]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Legislature" title="Legislature">Legislative</a>: The <a href="/wiki/Unicameral" class="mw-redirect" title="Unicameral">unicameral</a> <a href="/wiki/Parliament_of_Singapore" title="Parliament of Singapore">Parliament</a> enacts national law, approves budgets, and provides a check on government policy.<sup id="cite_ref-139" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-139">[132]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Judiciary" title="Judiciary">Judiciary</a>: The <a href="/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_Singapore" title="Supreme Court of Singapore">Supreme Court</a> and <a href="/wiki/State_Courts_of_Singapore" title="State Courts of Singapore">State Courts</a>, whose judges are appointed by the president, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.<sup id="cite_ref-140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-140">[133]</a></sup></li></ul>
<p>The president is directly elected by popular vote for a renewable six-year term. Requirements for this position are extremely stringent, such that no more than several thousand people qualify for candidacy.<sup id="cite_ref-141" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-141">[134]</a></sup> Presidential elections may be declared "<a href="/wiki/Presidential_elections_in_Singapore#Reserved_elections" title="Presidential elections in Singapore">reserved</a>" for a racial community if no one from that ethnic group has been elected to the presidency in the five most recent terms. Only members of that community may qualify as candidates in a reserved presidential election.<sup id="cite_ref-142" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-142">[135]</a></sup>
</p><p>Members of Parliament (MPs) are chosen to serve for a term lasting up to five years. The <a href="/wiki/13th_Parliament_of_Singapore" title="13th Parliament of Singapore">current Parliament</a> has 100 members; 88 were directly elected from the <a href="/wiki/Constituencies_of_Singapore" title="Constituencies of Singapore">29 constituencies</a>, nine are nonpartisan <a href="/wiki/Nominated_Member_of_Parliament" title="Nominated Member of Parliament">nominated members</a> appointed by the president, and three are <a href="/wiki/Non-constituency_Member_of_Parliament" title="Non-constituency Member of Parliament">non-constituency members</a> from opposition parties who were not elected in the last general election but appointed to the legislature to increase opposition party representation. In <a href="/wiki/Group_representation_constituency" title="Group representation constituency">group representation constituencies</a> (GRCs), political parties assemble teams of candidates (rather than nominate individuals) to contest elections. At least one MP in a GRC must be of an ethnic minority background. All elections are held using <a href="/wiki/First-past-the-post_voting" title="First-past-the-post voting">first-past-the-post voting</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-parliament.gov.sg_143-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-parliament.gov.sg-143">[136]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/People%27s_Action_Party" title="People's Action Party">People's Action Party</a> (PAP) and <a href="/wiki/Workers%27_Party_(Singapore)" title="Workers' Party (Singapore)">Workers' Party</a> were the only two political parties to have representatives elected to Parliament in the <a href="/wiki/2015_Singaporean_general_election" title="2015 Singaporean general election">2015 election</a>. The PAP occupies a dominant position in Singaporean politics, having won large parliamentary majorities in every election since <a href="/wiki/Self-governance_of_Singapore" title="Self-governance of Singapore">self-governance</a> was granted in 1959.<sup id="cite_ref-freedomhouse_144-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-freedomhouse-144">[137]</a></sup>
</p><p>The judicial system is based on <a href="/wiki/English_law" title="English law">English common law</a>, continuing the legal tradition established during British rule but with substantial local differences. <a href="/wiki/Criminal_law_of_Singapore" title="Criminal law of Singapore">Criminal law</a> is based on the <a href="/wiki/Indian_Penal_Code" title="Indian Penal Code">Indian Penal Code</a> originally intended for <a href="/wiki/British_India" class="mw-redirect" title="British India">British India</a>, but was at the time as a crown colony also adopted by the British colonial authorities in Singapore and remains the basis of the criminal code in the country with a few exceptions, amendments and repeals since it came into force.<sup id="cite_ref-145" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-145">[138]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Trial_by_jury" class="mw-redirect" title="Trial by jury">Trial by jury</a> was abolished in 1970,<sup id="cite_ref-146" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-146">[139]</a></sup> and both <a href="/wiki/Caning_in_Singapore" title="Caning in Singapore">caning</a><sup id="cite_ref-147" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-147">[140]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-148" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-148">[141]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Capital_punishment_in_Singapore" title="Capital punishment in Singapore">capital punishment</a> continue to be administered as penalties for severe offences.<sup id="cite_ref-149" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-149">[142]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Foreign_relations">Foreign relations</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Singapore" title="Foreign relations of Singapore">Foreign relations of Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Ambassador to the US Chan Heng Chee, Lee Kuan Yew, and US Secretary of Defense William Cohen in a room" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg/220px-Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="162" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg/330px-Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg/440px-Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2670" data-file-height="1970" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Lee_Kuan_Yew_Cohen.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Then <a href="/wiki/Senior_Minister" title="Senior Minister">Senior Minister</a> Lee Kuan Yew and Ambassador to the US <a href="/wiki/Chan_Heng_Chee" title="Chan Heng Chee">Chan Heng Chee</a> meeting with US Secretary of Defense <a href="/wiki/William_Cohen" title="William Cohen">William Cohen</a> in 2000.</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore's stated foreign policy priority is maintaining security in Southeast Asia and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region.<sup id="cite_ref-DFAT_150-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-DFAT-150">[143]</a></sup> It has diplomatic relations with more than 180 sovereign states.<sup id="cite_ref-151" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-151">[144]</a></sup>
</p><p>As one of the five founding members of ASEAN,<sup id="cite_ref-152" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-152">[145]</a></sup> it is a strong supporter of the <a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Free_Trade_Area" title="ASEAN Free Trade Area">ASEAN Free Trade Area</a> (AFTA) and the ASEAN Investment Area as Singapore's economy is closely linked to that of the region as a whole. Former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong has proposed the formation of an ASEAN Economic Community, a step beyond the current AFTA, bringing it closer to a <a href="/wiki/Common_market" class="mw-redirect" title="Common market">common market</a>. This was agreed to in 2007 for implementation by 2015. Other regional organisations are important to Singapore, and it is the host of the APEC Secretariat.<sup id="cite_ref-153" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-153">[146]</a></sup> Singapore maintains membership in other regional organisations, such as <a href="/wiki/Asia%E2%80%93Europe_Meeting" title="Asia–Europe Meeting">Asia–Europe Meeting</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Forum_for_East_Asia-Latin_American_Cooperation" class="mw-redirect" title="Forum for East Asia-Latin American Cooperation">Forum for East Asia-Latin American Cooperation</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Indian_Ocean_Rim_Association" class="mw-redirect" title="Indian Ocean Rim Association">Indian Ocean Rim Association</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/East_Asia_Summit" title="East Asia Summit">East Asia Summit</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-DFAT_150-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-DFAT-150">[143]</a></sup> It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement,<sup id="cite_ref-154" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-154">[147]</a></sup> the United Nations and the Commonwealth.<sup id="cite_ref-155" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-155">[148]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-156" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-156">[149]</a></sup> While Singapore is not a formal member of the <a href="/wiki/G20" title="G20">G20</a>, it has been invited to participate in G20 processes in most years since 2010.<sup id="cite_ref-157" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-157">[150]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg/220px-Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="162" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg/330px-Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg/440px-Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg 2x" data-file-width="958" data-file-height="707" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Trump_and_Lee_shaking_hands.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Prime Minister Lee meeting U.S. <a href="/wiki/President_Donald_Trump" class="mw-redirect" title="President Donald Trump">President Donald Trump</a> a day before the historic <a href="/wiki/2018_North_Korea%E2%80%93United_States_summit" class="mw-redirect" title="2018 North Korea–United States summit">2018 North Korea–United States summit</a> in Singapore.</div></div></div>
<p>In general, bilateral relations with other ASEAN members are strong; however, disagreements have arisen,<sup id="cite_ref-govt.nz_158-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-govt.nz-158">[151]</a></sup> and relations with neighbouring <a href="/wiki/Malaysia%E2%80%93Singapore_relations" title="Malaysia–Singapore relations">Malaysia</a> and <a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a> have sometimes been strained.<sup id="cite_ref-Rocky_159-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rocky-159">[152]</a></sup> Malaysia and Singapore have clashed over the delivery of <a href="/wiki/Fresh_water" title="Fresh water">fresh water</a> to Singapore,<sup id="cite_ref-Disputes_160-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Disputes-160">[153]</a></sup> and access by the Singapore Armed Forces to Malaysian airspace.<sup id="cite_ref-Rocky_159-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rocky-159">[152]</a></sup> Border issues exist with Malaysia and Indonesia, and both have banned the sale of marine sand to Singapore over disputes about Singapore's land reclamation.<sup id="cite_ref-161" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-161">[154]</a></sup> Some previous disputes, such as the <a href="/wiki/Pedra_Branca_dispute" title="Pedra Branca dispute">Pedra Branca dispute</a>, have been resolved by the <a href="/wiki/International_Court_of_Justice" title="International Court of Justice">International Court of Justice</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-162" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-162">[155]</a></sup> Piracy in the <a href="/wiki/Strait_of_Malacca" title="Strait of Malacca">Strait of Malacca</a> has been a cause of concern for all three countries.<sup id="cite_ref-Disputes_160-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Disputes-160">[153]</a></sup> Close economic ties exist with <a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a>, and the two share a pegged currency value, through a Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the two countries which makes both <a href="/wiki/Brunei_dollar" title="Brunei dollar">Brunei dollar</a> and <a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">Singapore dollar</a> banknotes and coins legal tender in either country.<sup id="cite_ref-163" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-163">[156]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-164" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-164">[157]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:282px;"><a href="/wiki/File:2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg/280px-2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg" decoding="async" width="280" height="173" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg/420px-2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg/560px-2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1880" data-file-height="1160" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:2017_G20_Hamburg_summit_leaders_group_photo.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Prime Minister Lee at the 2017 <a href="/wiki/G20_meeting" class="mw-redirect" title="G20 meeting">G20 meeting</a> in Germany. Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes since 2010.</div></div></div>
<p>The first <a href="/wiki/China%E2%80%93Singapore_relations" title="China–Singapore relations">diplomatic contact with China</a> was made in the 1970s, with full diplomatic relations established in the 1990s. Since then the two countries have been major players in strengthening the ASEAN–China relationship, and has maintained a long-standing and greatly prioritised close relationship partly due to China's growing influence and essentiality in the Asia-Pacific region, specifying that "its common interest with China is far greater than any differences". Furthermore, Singapore has positioned itself as a strong supporter of China's constructive engagement and peaceful development in the region. In addition, China has been Singapore's largest trading partner since 2013, after surpassing Malaysia.<sup id="cite_ref-165" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-165">[158]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-166" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-166">[159]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-167" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-167">[160]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-168" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-168">[161]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-169" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-169">[162]</a></sup> Singapore and the United States share a long-standing close relationship, in particular in defence, the economy, health, and education. Singapore has also pushed regional counter-terrorism initiatives, with a strong resolve to deal with terrorists inside its borders. To this end, the country has stepped up co-operation with ASEAN members and China to strengthen regional security and fight terrorism, as well as participating in the organisation's first joint maritime exercise with the latter.<sup id="cite_ref-170" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-170">[163]</a></sup> It has also given support to the US-led coalition to fight terrorism, with bilateral co-operation in counter-terrorism and counter-proliferation initiatives, and joint military exercises.<sup id="cite_ref-govt.nz_158-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-govt.nz-158">[151]</a></sup>
</p><p>As Singapore has diplomatic relations with both the United States and <a href="/wiki/North_Korea" title="North Korea">North Korea</a>, and was one of the few countries that have relationships with both countries,<sup id="cite_ref-171" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-171">[164]</a></sup> on 12 June 2018, Singapore hosted <a href="/wiki/2018_North_Korea%E2%80%93United_States_summit" class="mw-redirect" title="2018 North Korea–United States summit">a historic summit</a> between U.S. President <a href="/wiki/Donald_Trump" title="Donald Trump">Donald Trump</a> and <a href="/wiki/Chairman_of_the_State_Affairs_Commission" title="Chairman of the State Affairs Commission">North Korean leader</a> <a href="/wiki/Kim_Jong-un" title="Kim Jong-un">Kim Jong-un</a>, the first-ever meeting between the sitting leaders of the two nations.<sup id="cite_ref-172" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-172">[165]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-173" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-173">[166]</a></sup> It has also hosted the <a href="/wiki/Ma%E2%80%93Xi_meeting" title="Ma–Xi meeting">Ma–Xi meeting</a> on 7 November 2015, the first meeting between the political leaders of the two sides of the <a href="/wiki/Taiwan_Strait" title="Taiwan Strait">Taiwan Strait</a> since the end of the <a href="/wiki/Chinese_Civil_War" title="Chinese Civil War">Chinese Civil War</a> in 1950,<sup id="cite_ref-174" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-174">[167]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-175" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-175">[168]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-176" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-176">[169]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Military">Military</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Armed_Forces" title="Singapore Armed Forces">Singapore Armed Forces</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle,_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle%2C_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg/220px-Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle%2C_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle%2C_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg/330px-Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle%2C_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle%2C_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg/440px-Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle%2C_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1068" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Boeing_F-15SG_Strike_Eagle,_Singapore_-_Air_Force_JP7096555.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Air_Force" class="mw-redirect" title="Singapore Air Force">Singapore Air Force</a>'s <a href="/wiki/F-15SG" class="mw-redirect" title="F-15SG">F-15SG</a> are <i><a href="/wiki/Strike_Eagle" class="mw-redirect" title="Strike Eagle">Strike Eagle</a></i> variants.</div></div></div>
<p>The Singaporean military, arguably the most technologically advanced in Southeast Asia,<sup id="cite_ref-janes-20100118_177-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-janes-20100118-177">[170]</a></sup> consists of the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Army" title="Singapore Army">army</a>, <a href="/wiki/Republic_of_Singapore_Navy" title="Republic of Singapore Navy">navy</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Republic_of_Singapore_Air_Force" title="Republic of Singapore Air Force">the air force</a>. It is seen as the guarantor of the country's independence,<sup id="cite_ref-178" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-178">[171]</a></sup> translating into Singapore culture, involving all citizens in the country's defence.<sup id="cite_ref-MindefApr2005_179-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MindefApr2005-179">[172]</a></sup> The government spends 4.9% of the country's GDP on the military—high by regional standards<sup id="cite_ref-janes-20100118_177-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-janes-20100118-177">[170]</a></sup>—and one out of every four dollars of government spending is spent on defence.<sup id="cite_ref-180" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-180">[173]</a></sup>
</p><p>After its independence, Singapore had only two <a href="/wiki/Infantry" title="Infantry">infantry</a> regiments commanded by British officers. Considered too small to provide effective security for the new country, the development of its military forces became a priority.<sup id="cite_ref-cs.uwec_181-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cs.uwec-181">[174]</a></sup> In addition, in October 1971, Britain pulled its military out of Singapore, leaving behind only a small British, Australian and New Zealand force as a token military presence.<sup id="cite_ref-182" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-182">[175]</a></sup> A great deal of initial support came from <a href="/wiki/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-cs.uwec_181-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cs.uwec-181">[174]</a></sup> a country unrecognised by Singapore's neighbouring <a href="/wiki/Islamic" class="mw-redirect" title="Islamic">Muslim-majority</a> nations of Malaysia and Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-183" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-183">[176]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-184" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-184">[177]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-185" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-185">[178]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Israel_Defense_Forces" title="Israel Defense Forces">Israeli Defense Force</a> (IDF) commanders were tasked by the Singapore government to create the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) from scratch, and Israeli instructors were brought in to train Singaporean soldiers. Military courses were conducted according to the IDF's format, and Singapore adopted a system of conscription and reserve service based on <a href="/wiki/Conscription_in_Israel" title="Conscription in Israel">the Israeli</a> model,<sup id="cite_ref-cs.uwec_181-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cs.uwec-181">[174]</a></sup> Singapore still maintains strong security ties with Israel and is one of the biggest buyers of Israeli arms and weapons systems.<sup id="cite_ref-186" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-186">[179]</a></sup> with one recent example being the <a href="/wiki/MATADOR" title="MATADOR">MATADOR</a> anti-tank weapon.<sup id="cite_ref-187" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-187">[180]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg/170px-SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg/255px-SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg/340px-SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg 2x" data-file-width="979" data-file-height="1306" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:SAFTI_MI_OCS_01.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Officer_Cadet_School_(Singapore)" title="Officer Cadet School (Singapore)">Officer Cadet School</a> building within the <a href="/wiki/SAFTI_Military_Institute" title="SAFTI Military Institute">SAFTI Military Institute</a></div></div></div>
<p>The SAF is being developed to respond to a wide range of issues in both conventional and unconventional warfare. The <a href="/wiki/Defence_Science_and_Technology_Agency" title="Defence Science and Technology Agency">Defence Science and Technology Agency</a> is responsible for procuring resources for the military.<sup id="cite_ref-Mindef18Feb2008_188-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mindef18Feb2008-188">[181]</a></sup> The geographic restrictions of Singapore mean that the SAF must plan to fully repulse an attack, as they cannot fall back and re-group. The small size of the population has also affected the way the SAF has been designed, with a small active force but a large number of reserves.<sup id="cite_ref-MindefApr2005_179-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MindefApr2005-179">[172]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore has <a href="/wiki/Conscription_in_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Conscription in Singapore">conscription</a> for all able-bodied males at age 18, except those with a criminal record or who can prove that their loss would bring hardship to their families. Males who have yet to complete pre-university education or are awarded the <a href="/wiki/Public_Service_Commission_(Singapore)" title="Public Service Commission (Singapore)">Public Service Commission</a> scholarship can opt to defer their draft.<sup id="cite_ref-189" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-189">[182]</a></sup> Though not required to perform military service, the number of women in the SAF has been increasing: since 1989 they have been allowed to fill military vocations formerly reserved for men. Before induction into a specific branch of the armed forces, recruits undergo at least 9 weeks of basic military training.<sup id="cite_ref-country-data_190-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-country-data-190">[183]</a></sup>
</p><p>Because of the scarcity of open land on the main island, training involving activities such as live firing and <a href="/wiki/Amphibious_warfare" title="Amphibious warfare">amphibious warfare</a> are often carried out on smaller islands, typically barred to civilian access. However, large-scale drills, considered too dangerous to be performed in the country, have been performed in Taiwan since 1975<sup id="cite_ref-country-data_190-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-country-data-190">[183]</a></sup> and in about a dozen other countries. In general, military exercises are held with foreign forces once or twice per week.<sup id="cite_ref-MindefApr2005_179-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MindefApr2005-179">[172]</a></sup> Due to airspace and land constraints, the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) maintains a number of overseas bases in Australia, the United States, and France. The RSAF's 130 Squadron is based in <a href="/wiki/RAAF_Base_Pearce" title="RAAF Base Pearce">RAAF Base Pearce</a>, <a href="/wiki/Western_Australia" title="Western Australia">Western Australia</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-191" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-191">[184]</a></sup> and its <a href="/wiki/126_Squadron,_Republic_of_Singapore_Air_Force" title="126 Squadron, Republic of Singapore Air Force">126 Squadron</a> is based in the <a href="/wiki/Oakey_Army_Aviation_Centre" title="Oakey Army Aviation Centre">Oakey Army Aviation Centre</a>, <a href="/wiki/Queensland" title="Queensland">Queensland</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-192" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-192">[185]</a></sup> The RSAF has one squadron—the 150 Squadron—based in <a href="/wiki/Cazaux_Air_Base" title="Cazaux Air Base">Cazaux Air Base</a> in southern France.<sup id="cite_ref-193" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-193">[186]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-194" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-194">[187]</a></sup> The RSAF also has a few overseas detachments in the United States, in San Diego, California, <a href="/wiki/Marana,_Arizona" title="Marana, Arizona">Marana, Arizona</a>, <a href="/wiki/Grand_Prairie,_Texas" title="Grand Prairie, Texas">Grand Prairie, Texas</a> and <a href="/wiki/Luke_Air_Force_Base" title="Luke Air Force Base">Luke Air Force Base</a>, among others.<sup id="cite_ref-195" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-195">[188]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-196" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-196">[189]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops,_Kiwi_Base,_Bamyan_Province,_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops%2C_Kiwi_Base%2C_Bamyan_Province%2C_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg/220px-Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops%2C_Kiwi_Base%2C_Bamyan_Province%2C_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops%2C_Kiwi_Base%2C_Bamyan_Province%2C_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg/330px-Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops%2C_Kiwi_Base%2C_Bamyan_Province%2C_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops%2C_Kiwi_Base%2C_Bamyan_Province%2C_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg/440px-Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops%2C_Kiwi_Base%2C_Bamyan_Province%2C_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1072" data-file-height="712" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Flag_lowering_by_Singapore_troops,_Kiwi_Base,_Bamyan_Province,_Afghanistan_-_20101027.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>In 2007, Singapore troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.</div></div></div>
<p>The SAF has sent forces to assist in operations outside the country, in areas such as <a href="/wiki/Iraq" title="Iraq">Iraq</a><sup id="cite_ref-197" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-197">[190]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Afghanistan" title="Afghanistan">Afghanistan</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-198" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-198">[191]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-199" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-199">[192]</a></sup> in both military and civilian roles. In the region, they have helped to stabilise <a href="/wiki/East_Timor" title="East Timor">East Timor</a> and have provided aid to <a href="/wiki/Aceh" title="Aceh">Aceh</a> in Indonesia following the <a href="/wiki/2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake_and_tsunami" title="2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami">2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami</a>. In 2014, the RSN deployed two ships, the RSS <i>Resolute</i> and the <i>Tenacious</i> to the <a href="/wiki/Gulf_of_Aden" title="Gulf of Aden">Gulf of Aden</a> to aid in counter <a href="/wiki/Piracy" title="Piracy">piracy</a> efforts as part of <a href="/wiki/Combined_Task_Force_151" title="Combined Task Force 151">Task Force 151</a>. The SAF also helped in relief efforts during <a href="/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina" title="Hurricane Katrina">Hurricane Katrina</a> and <a href="/wiki/Typhoon_Haiyan" title="Typhoon Haiyan">Typhoon Haiyan</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-200" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-200">[193]</a></sup> Singapore is part of the <a href="/wiki/Five_Power_Defence_Arrangements" title="Five Power Defence Arrangements">Five Power Defence Arrangements</a>, a military alliance with Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.<sup id="cite_ref-MindefApr2005_179-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MindefApr2005-179">[172]</a></sup> In 2019, the nation was placed 7th most peaceful country on the <a href="/wiki/Global_Peace_Index" title="Global Peace Index">Global Peace Index</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-201" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-201">[194]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Human_rights">Human rights</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Human_rights_in_Singapore" title="Human rights in Singapore">Human rights in Singapore</a> and <a href="/wiki/LGBT_rights_in_Singapore" title="LGBT rights in Singapore">LGBT rights in Singapore</a></div>
<p>In 2018, Singapore was ranked 151st out of 180 nations by <a href="/wiki/Reporters_Without_Borders" title="Reporters Without Borders">Reporters Without Borders</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Worldwide_Press_Freedom_Index" class="mw-redirect" title="Worldwide Press Freedom Index">Worldwide Press Freedom Index</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-202" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-202">[195]</a></sup> Historically, the government has restricted <a href="/wiki/Freedom_of_speech" title="Freedom of speech">freedom of speech</a> and <a href="/wiki/Freedom_of_the_press" title="Freedom of the press">freedom of the press</a> and has limited some <a href="/wiki/Civil_rights" class="mw-redirect" title="Civil rights">civil</a> and political rights.<sup id="cite_ref-203" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-203">[196]</a></sup> The right to freedom of speech and association guaranteed by <a href="/wiki/Article_14_of_the_Constitution_of_Singapore" title="Article 14 of the Constitution of Singapore">Article 14(1) of the Constitution of Singapore</a> is restricted by the subsequent subsection (2) of the same Article.
</p><p>A law dating back from 1938 (<a href="/wiki/Section_377A_of_the_Penal_Code_(Singapore)" title="Section 377A of the Penal Code (Singapore)">Penal Code, s. 377A</a>) bans sexual relations between men. However, the law is rarely enforced and sexual relations between women are legal.<sup id="cite_ref-204" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-204">[197]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Freedom_House" title="Freedom House">Freedom House</a> ranks Singapore as "partly free" in its <i><a href="/wiki/Freedom_in_the_World" title="Freedom in the World">Freedom in the World</a></i> report,<sup id="cite_ref-freedomhouse_144-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-freedomhouse-144">[137]</a></sup> and The <a href="/wiki/Economist_Intelligence_Unit" title="Economist Intelligence Unit">Economist Intelligence Unit</a> ranks Singapore as a "flawed democracy", the second best rank of four, in its "<a href="/wiki/Democracy_Index" title="Democracy Index">Democracy Index</a>".<sup id="cite_ref-205" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-205">[198]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-democracy-index_22-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-democracy-index-22">[17]</a></sup> The latest elections <a href="/wiki/2015_Singaporean_general_election" title="2015 Singaporean general election">were in September 2015</a>, with the People's Action Party (PAP) winning 83 of 89 seats contested with 70% of the popular vote.<sup id="cite_ref-BTresults_206-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BTresults-206">[199]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Speakers_Corner_1.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Speakers_Corner_1.jpg/220px-Speakers_Corner_1.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Speakers_Corner_1.jpg/330px-Speakers_Corner_1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Speakers_Corner_1.jpg/440px-Speakers_Corner_1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3456" data-file-height="2304" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Speakers_Corner_1.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Speakers%27_Corner,_Singapore" title="Speakers' Corner, Singapore">Speakers' Corner</a> in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.</div></div></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Amnesty_International" title="Amnesty International">Amnesty International</a> has said that some legal provisions of the Singapore system conflict with "the right to be <a href="/wiki/Presumption_of_innocence" title="Presumption of innocence">presumed innocent</a> until proven guilty".<sup id="cite_ref-amnesty_207-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-amnesty-207">[200]</a></sup> The government has disputed Amnesty's claims, stating that their "position on abolition of the death penalty is by no means uncontested internationally" and that the Report contains "grave errors of facts and misrepresentations".<sup id="cite_ref-response_208-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-response-208">[201]</a></sup> Singapore's judicial system is considered one of the most reliable in Asia.<sup id="cite_ref-209" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-209">[202]</a></sup>
</p><p>In the <a href="/wiki/Corruption_Perceptions_Index" title="Corruption Perceptions Index">Corruption Perceptions Index</a> which ranks countries by "perceived levels of public sector corruption", Singapore has consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt.<sup id="cite_ref-210" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-210">[203]</a></sup> Singapore's unique combination of a strong almost authoritarian government with an emphasis on <a href="/wiki/Meritocracy" title="Meritocracy">meritocracy</a> and good governance is known as the "Singapore model", and is regarded as a key factor behind Singapore's political stability, economic growth, and harmonious social order.<sup id="cite_ref-211" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-211">[204]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-212" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-212">[205]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2019, the <a href="/wiki/World_Justice_Project" title="World Justice Project">World Justice Project</a>'s Rule of Law Index ranked Singapore as 13th overall among the world's 126 countries for adherence to the <a href="/wiki/Rule_of_law" title="Rule of law">rule of law</a>. Singapore ranked high on the factors of order and security (#1), absence of corruption (#3), regulatory enforcement (#3), civil justice (#5), and criminal justice (#6), but ranked significantly lower on factors of <a href="/wiki/Open_government" title="Open government">open government</a> (#25), constraints on government powers (#27), and <a href="/wiki/Fundamental_rights" title="Fundamental rights">fundamental rights</a> (#30).<sup id="cite_ref-213" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-213">[206]</a></sup> All public gatherings of five or more people require police permits, and protests may legally be held only at the <a href="/wiki/Speakers%27_Corner,_Singapore" title="Speakers' Corner, Singapore">Speakers' Corner</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-214" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-214">[207]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Geography">Geography</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Geography_of_Singapore" title="Geography of Singapore">Geography of Singapore</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Land_reclamation_in_Singapore" title="Land reclamation in Singapore">Land reclamation in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:CIA_World_Factbook_map_of_Singapore_(English).png" class="image"><img alt="Map showing Singapore island and the territories belonging to Singapore and its neighbours" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/CIA_World_Factbook_map_of_Singapore_%28English%29.png/220px-CIA_World_Factbook_map_of_Singapore_%28English%29.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="235" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/CIA_World_Factbook_map_of_Singapore_%28English%29.png 1.5x" data-file-width="327" data-file-height="350" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:CIA_World_Factbook_map_of_Singapore_(English).png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore consists of <a href="/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Singapore" title="List of islands of Singapore">63 islands</a>, including the main island, <a href="/wiki/Pulau_Ujong" class="mw-redirect" title="Pulau Ujong">Pulau Ujong</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-215" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-215">[208]</a></sup> There are two-man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the <a href="/wiki/Johor%E2%80%93Singapore_Causeway" title="Johor–Singapore Causeway">Woodlands 1st Link</a> in the north and the <a href="/wiki/Malaysia%E2%80%93Singapore_Second_Link" title="Malaysia–Singapore Second Link">Tuas 2nd Link</a> in the west. <a href="/wiki/Jurong_Island" title="Jurong Island">Jurong Island</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pulau_Tekong" title="Pulau Tekong">Pulau Tekong</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pulau_Ubin" title="Pulau Ubin">Pulau Ubin</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sentosa" title="Sentosa">Sentosa</a> are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is <a href="/wiki/Bukit_Timah_Hill" title="Bukit Timah Hill">Bukit Timah Hill</a> at 163.63 m (537 ft).<sup id="cite_ref-216" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-216">[209]</a></sup> Under British rule, <a href="/wiki/Christmas_Island" title="Christmas Island">Christmas Island</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands" title="Cocos (Keeling) Islands">Cocos Islands</a> were part of Singapore, but were later transferred over to <a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a> in 1957.<sup id="cite_ref-217" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-217">[210]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-218" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-218">[211]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-219" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-219">[212]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Pedra_Branca,_Singapore" title="Pedra Branca, Singapore">Pedra Branca</a>, an outlying island which now belongs to Singapore after the <a href="/wiki/Pedra_Branca_dispute" title="Pedra Branca dispute">dispute</a>, is the nation's easternmost point.<sup id="cite_ref-PBA_220-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PBA-220">[213]</a></sup>
Ongoing <a href="/wiki/Land_reclamation" title="Land reclamation">land reclamation</a> projects have increased Singapore's land area from 581.5 km<sup>2</sup> (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to 721.5 km<sup>2</sup> (278.6 sq mi) in 2018, an increase of some 23% (130 km<sup>2</sup>).<sup id="cite_ref-sand1_221-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sand1-221">[214]</a></sup> The country is projected to grow to 766 km<sup>2</sup> (300 sq mi) by 2030.<sup id="cite_ref-222" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-222">[215]</a></sup> Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as has been done with Jurong Island.<sup id="cite_ref-earthshots.usgs.gov_223-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-earthshots.usgs.gov-223">[216]</a></sup> The type of sand used in reclamation is found in rivers and beaches, rather than deserts, and is in great demand worldwide. In 2010 Singapore imported almost 15 million tons of sand for its projects, the demand being such that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam have all restricted or barred the export of sand to Singapore in recent years. As a result, in 2016 Singapore switched to using <a href="/wiki/Polder" title="Polder">polders</a> – a <a href="/wiki/Netherlands" title="Netherlands">Netherlands</a> solution – to reclamation, in which an area is enclosed and then pumped dry.<sup id="cite_ref-224" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-224">[217]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nature">Nature</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Wildlife_of_Singapore" title="Wildlife of Singapore">Wildlife of Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg/220px-Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg/330px-Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg/440px-Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1536" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Botanic_Gardens_Palm_Valley.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Singapore Botanic Gardens is a <a href="/wiki/UNESCO_World_Heritage_Site" class="mw-redirect" title="UNESCO World Heritage Site">UNESCO World Heritage Site</a> – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden to be recognised.</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore's urbanisation means that it has lost 95% of its historical forests,<sup id="cite_ref-nature-extinctions_225-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-nature-extinctions-225">[218]</a></sup> and now over half of the naturally occurring <a href="/wiki/Fauna_of_Singapore" title="Fauna of Singapore">fauna</a> and <a href="/wiki/Flora_of_Singapore" title="Flora of Singapore">flora</a> in Singapore is present in nature reserves, such as the <a href="/wiki/Bukit_Timah_Nature_Reserve" title="Bukit Timah Nature Reserve">Bukit Timah Nature Reserve</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Sungei_Buloh_Wetland_Reserve" title="Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve">Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve</a>, which comprise only 0.25% of Singapore's land area.<sup id="cite_ref-nature-extinctions_225-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-nature-extinctions-225">[218]</a></sup> To combat this decline, in 1967 the government introduced the vision of making Singapore a "garden city"<sup id="cite_ref-226" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-226">[219]</a></sup> aiming to soften the harshness of urbanisation and improve the quality of life.<sup id="cite_ref-227" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-227">[220]</a></sup> Since then, nearly 10% of Singapore's land has been set aside for parks and <a href="/wiki/Nature_reserve" title="Nature reserve">nature reserves</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-228" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-228">[221]</a></sup> The government also has <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Green_Plan_2012" title="Singapore Green Plan 2012">plans to preserve the remaining wildlife</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-229" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-229">[222]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore's well known gardens include the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Botanic_Gardens" title="Singapore Botanic Gardens">Singapore Botanic Gardens</a>, a 150-year-old tropical garden and Singapore's first UNESCO <a href="/wiki/World_Heritage_Site" title="World Heritage Site">World Heritage Site</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-230" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-230">[223]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Gardens_by_the_Bay" title="Gardens by the Bay">Gardens by the Bay</a>, a popular tourist attraction.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Climate">Climate</span></h3>
<p>Singapore has a <a href="/wiki/Tropical_rainforest_climate" title="Tropical rainforest climate">tropical rainforest climate</a> (<a href="/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification" title="Köppen climate classification">Köppen</a>: <i>Af</i>) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Since this tropical rainforest climate is more subject to the <a href="/wiki/Intertropical_Convergence_Zone" title="Intertropical Convergence Zone">Intertropical Convergence Zone</a> than the <a href="/wiki/Trade_wind" class="mw-redirect" title="Trade wind">trade winds</a> and <a href="/wiki/Cyclone" title="Cyclone">cyclones</a> are very rare, it is equatorial. Temperatures usually range from 25 to 35 °C (77 to 95 °F). While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter <a href="/wiki/Monsoon" title="Monsoon">monsoon</a> season from November to January.<sup id="cite_ref-231" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-231">[224]</a></sup>
</p><p>From July to October, there is often <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asian_haze" title="Southeast Asian haze">haze</a> caused by <a href="/wiki/Bush_fire" class="mw-redirect" title="Bush fire">bush fires</a> in neighbouring Indonesia, usually from the island of <a href="/wiki/Sumatra" title="Sumatra">Sumatra</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-232" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-232">[225]</a></sup> Although Singapore does not observe <a href="/wiki/Daylight_saving_time" title="Daylight saving time">daylight saving time</a> (DST), it follows the GMT+8 time zone, one hour ahead of the typical zone for its geographical location.<sup id="cite_ref-233" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-233">[226]</a></sup> This has caused the sun to rise and set particularly late during January and February periods, where the sun rises at 7:20 am and sets around 7:25 pm. During July, the sun sets at around 7:15 pm, similar to other cities at much higher latitudes such as <a href="/wiki/Taipei" title="Taipei">Taipei</a> and Tokyo. The earliest the sun sets and rises is in October and November when the sun rises at 6:45 am and sets at 6:50 pm. Singapore remains highly vulnerable to the risk of climate change especially with regards to the rising sea level.<sup id="cite_ref-234" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-234">[227]</a></sup>
</p>
<div>
<table class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%; text-align:center; line-height: 1.2em; margin:auto;">

<tbody><tr>
<th colspan="14">Climate data for Singapore
</th></tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row">Month
</th>
<th scope="col">Jan
</th>
<th scope="col">Feb
</th>
<th scope="col">Mar
</th>
<th scope="col">Apr
</th>
<th scope="col">May
</th>
<th scope="col">Jun
</th>
<th scope="col">Jul
</th>
<th scope="col">Aug
</th>
<th scope="col">Sep
</th>
<th scope="col">Oct
</th>
<th scope="col">Nov
</th>
<th scope="col">Dec
</th>
<th scope="col" style="border-left-width:medium">Year
</th></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Record high °C (°F)
</th>
<td style="background: #FF2B00; color:#000000;">35.2<br />(95.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2B00; color:#000000;">35.2<br />(95.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2500; color:#000000;">36.0<br />(96.8)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2700; color:#000000;">35.8<br />(96.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2A00; color:#000000;">35.4<br />(95.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2C00; color:#000000;">35.0<br />(95.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF3300; color:#000000;">34.0<br />(93.2)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF3200; color:#000000;">34.2<br />(93.6)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF3000; color:#000000;">34.4<br />(93.9)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2F00; color:#000000;">34.6<br />(94.3)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF3200; color:#000000;">34.2<br />(93.6)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF3500; color:#000000;">33.8<br />(92.8)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF2500; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">36.0<br />(96.8)
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Average high °C (°F)
</th>
<td style="background: #FF4C00; color:#000000;">30.4<br />(86.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4300; color:#000000;">31.7<br />(89.1)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4100; color:#000000;">32.0<br />(89.6)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF3F00; color:#000000;">32.3<br />(90.1)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4000; color:#000000;">32.2<br />(90.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4100; color:#000000;">32.0<br />(89.6)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4600; color:#000000;">31.3<br />(88.3)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4500; color:#000000;">31.4<br />(88.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4500; color:#000000;">31.4<br />(88.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4300; color:#000000;">31.7<br />(89.1)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4700; color:#000000;">31.1<br />(88.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4D00; color:#000000;">30.2<br />(86.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF4400; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">31.5<br />(88.7)
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Daily mean °C (°F)
</th>
<td style="background: #FF6700; color:#000000;">26.5<br />(79.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6300; color:#000000;">27.1<br />(80.8)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6000; color:#000000;">27.5<br />(81.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5D00; color:#000000;">28.0<br />(82.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5A00; color:#000000;">28.3<br />(82.9)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5A00; color:#000000;">28.3<br />(82.9)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5D00; color:#000000;">27.9<br />(82.2)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5D00; color:#000000;">27.9<br />(82.2)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5F00; color:#000000;">27.6<br />(81.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF5F00; color:#000000;">27.6<br />(81.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6300; color:#000000;">27.0<br />(80.6)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6800; color:#000000;">26.4<br />(79.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6000; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">27.5<br />(81.5)
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Average low °C (°F)
</th>
<td style="background: #FF7900; color:#000000;">23.9<br />(75.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7600; color:#000000;">24.3<br />(75.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7400; color:#000000;">24.6<br />(76.3)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7100; color:#000000;">25.0<br />(77.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6E00; color:#000000;">25.4<br />(77.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF6E00; color:#000000;">25.4<br />(77.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7100; color:#000000;">25.0<br />(77.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7100; color:#000000;">25.0<br />(77.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7300; color:#000000;">24.8<br />(76.6)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7300; color:#000000;">24.7<br />(76.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7600; color:#000000;">24.3<br />(75.7)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7800; color:#000000;">24.0<br />(75.2)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF7300; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">24.7<br />(76.5)
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Record low °C (°F)
</th>
<td style="background: #FF9831; color:#000000;">19.4<br />(66.9)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF962D; color:#000000;">19.7<br />(67.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF9226; color:#000000;">20.2<br />(68.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF8F1F; color:#000000;">20.7<br />(69.3)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF8B18; color:#000000;">21.2<br />(70.2)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF8E1E; color:#000000;">20.8<br />(69.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF962D; color:#000000;">19.7<br />(67.5)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF9226; color:#000000;">20.2<br />(68.4)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF8F1F; color:#000000;">20.7<br />(69.3)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF9021; color:#000000;">20.6<br />(69.1)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF8C1A; color:#000000;">21.1<br />(70.0)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF9021; color:#000000;">20.6<br />(69.1)
</td>
<td style="background: #FF9831; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">19.4<br />(66.9)
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Average rainfall mm (inches)
</th>
<td style="background: #00A000; color:#FFFFFF;">234.6<br />(9.24)
</td>
<td style="background: #46FF46; color:#000000;">112.8<br />(4.44)
</td>
<td style="background: #01FF01; color:#000000;">170.3<br />(6.70)
</td>
<td style="background: #10FF10; color:#000000;">154.8<br />(6.09)
</td>
<td style="background: #00FE00; color:#000000;">171.2<br />(6.74)
</td>
<td style="background: #35FF35; color:#000000;">130.7<br />(5.15)
</td>
<td style="background: #18FF18; color:#000000;">154.4<br />(6.08)
</td>
<td style="background: #21FF21; color:#000000;">148.9<br />(5.86)
</td>
<td style="background: #0EFF0E; color:#000000;">156.5<br />(6.16)
</td>
<td style="background: #18FF18; color:#000000;">154.6<br />(6.09)
</td>
<td style="background: #006F00; color:#FFFFFF;">258.5<br />(10.18)
</td>
<td style="background: #003000; color:#FFFFFF;">318.6<br />(12.54)
</td>
<td style="background: #00EC00; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">2,165.9<br />(85.27)
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Average rainy days
</th>
<td style="background: #5E5EFF; color:#FFFFFF;">13
</td>
<td style="background: #9292FF; color:#000000;">8
</td>
<td style="background: #5E5EFF; color:#FFFFFF;">13
</td>
<td style="background: #4C4CFF; color:#FFFFFF;">14
</td>
<td style="background: #5252FF; color:#FFFFFF;">14
</td>
<td style="background: #6666FF; color:#FFFFFF;">12
</td>
<td style="background: #5252FF; color:#FFFFFF;">14
</td>
<td style="background: #5252FF; color:#FFFFFF;">14
</td>
<td style="background: #5959FF; color:#FFFFFF;">13
</td>
<td style="background: #4545FF; color:#FFFFFF;">15
</td>
<td style="background: #1919FF; color:#FFFFFF;">18
</td>
<td style="background: #2020FF; color:#FFFFFF;">18
</td>
<td style="background: #5151FF; color:#FFFFFF; border-left-width:medium">166
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Average <a href="/wiki/Relative_humidity" title="Relative humidity">relative humidity</a> (%)
</th>
<td style="background: #0000BB; color:#FFFFFF;">84.4
</td>
<td style="background: #0000C4; color:#FFFFFF;">82.0
</td>
<td style="background: #0000BE; color:#FFFFFF;">83.4
</td>
<td style="background: #0000BC; color:#FFFFFF;">84.1
</td>
<td style="background: #0000BE; color:#FFFFFF;">83.5
</td>
<td style="background: #0000C4; color:#FFFFFF;">81.9
</td>
<td style="background: #0000C3; color:#FFFFFF;">82.3
</td>
<td style="background: #0000C3; color:#FFFFFF;">82.2
</td>
<td style="background: #0000C1; color:#FFFFFF;">82.7
</td>
<td style="background: #0000C0; color:#FFFFFF;">83.1
</td>
<td style="background: #0000B6; color:#FFFFFF;">85.7
</td>
<td style="background: #0000B3; color:#FFFFFF;">86.5
</td>
<td style="background: #0000BE; color:#FFFFFF; border-left-width:medium">83.5
</td></tr>
<tr style="text-align: center;">
<th scope="row" style="height: 16px;">Mean monthly <a href="/wiki/Sunshine_duration" title="Sunshine duration">sunshine hours</a>
</th>
<td style="background: #CECE00; color:#000000;">172.4
</td>
<td style="background: #D7D700; color:#000000;">183.2
</td>
<td style="background: #D6D600; color:#000000;">192.7
</td>
<td style="background: #D1D100; color:#000000;">173.6
</td>
<td style="background: #D1D100; color:#000000;">179.8
</td>
<td style="background: #D3D300; color:#000000;">177.7
</td>
<td style="background: #D4D400; color:#000000;">187.9
</td>
<td style="background: #D2D200; color:#000000;">180.6
</td>
<td style="background: #C9C900; color:#000000;">156.2
</td>
<td style="background: #C6C600; color:#000000;">155.2
</td>
<td style="background: #BCBC39; color:#000000;">129.6
</td>
<td style="background: #BCBC3A; color:#000000;">133.5
</td>
<td style="background: #CDCD00; color:#000000; border-left-width:medium">2,022.4
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="14" style="text-align:center;font-size:95%;">Source #1: National Environment Agency (climatological reference period: 1981–2010; records: temp. 1929–2017, rainfall 1869–2017, humidity 1929–2017, rain days 1891–2017)<sup id="cite_ref-235" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-235">[228]</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="14" style="text-align:center;font-size:95%;">Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961–1990)<sup id="cite_ref-236" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-236">[229]</a></sup>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economy">Economy</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Economy_of_Singapore" title="Economy of Singapore">Economy of Singapore</a></div>
<p>Singapore has a highly developed <a href="/wiki/Market_economy" title="Market economy">market economy</a>, based historically on extended <a href="/wiki/Entrep%C3%B4t" title="Entrepôt">entrepôt</a> trade. Along with Hong Kong, <a href="/wiki/South_Korea" title="South Korea">South Korea</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Taiwan" title="Taiwan">Taiwan</a>, Singapore is one of the original <a href="/wiki/Four_Asian_Tigers" title="Four Asian Tigers">Four Asian Tigers</a>, but has surpassed its peers in terms of GDP per capita. Between 1965 and 1995, growth rates averaged around 6 per cent per annum, transforming the living standards of the population.<sup id="cite_ref-237" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-237">[230]</a></sup>
</p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r923042769/mw-parser-output/.tmulti">.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{margin:1px;float:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader{clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:left;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption-center{text-align:center;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center{text-align:center}@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{justify-content:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:center}}</style><div class="thumb tmulti tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:292px;max-width:292px"><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:146px;max-width:146px"><div class="thumbimage" style="height:93px;overflow:hidden"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg/144px-Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg" decoding="async" width="144" height="94" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg/216px-Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg/288px-Singapore_Central_Business_District_viewed_from_UOB_Plaza_2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4592" data-file-height="2996" /></a></div></div><div class="tsingle" style="width:142px;max-width:142px"><div class="thumbimage" style="height:93px;overflow:hidden"><a href="/wiki/File:Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre,_Singapore,_at_night_-_20121010.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre%2C_Singapore%2C_at_night_-_20121010.jpg/140px-Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre%2C_Singapore%2C_at_night_-_20121010.jpg" decoding="async" width="140" height="93" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre%2C_Singapore%2C_at_night_-_20121010.jpg/210px-Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre%2C_Singapore%2C_at_night_-_20121010.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre%2C_Singapore%2C_at_night_-_20121010.jpg/280px-Aerial_view_of_Marina_Bay_Financial_Centre%2C_Singapore%2C_at_night_-_20121010.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1068" /></a></div></div></div><div class="trow"><div class="tsingle" style="width:290px;max-width:290px"><div class="thumbimage" style="height:166px;overflow:hidden"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg/288px-Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg" decoding="async" width="288" height="166" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg/432px-Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg/576px-Singapore_skyline_at_sunset_viewed_from_Gardens_by_the_Bay_East_-_20120426.jpg 2x" data-file-width="6990" data-file-height="4033" /></a></div></div></div></div></div>
<p>The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest,<sup id="cite_ref-238" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-238">[231]</a></sup> most innovative,<sup id="cite_ref-239" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-239">[232]</a></sup> most competitive,<sup id="cite_ref-240" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-240">[233]</a></sup> most dynamic<sup id="cite_ref-241" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-241">[234]</a></sup> and most business-friendly.<sup id="cite_ref-242" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-242">[235]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Index_of_Economic_Freedom#2015" title="Index of Economic Freedom">2015 Index of Economic Freedom</a> ranks Singapore as the second freest economy in the world and the <a href="/wiki/Ease_of_doing_business_index" title="Ease of doing business index">Ease of doing business index</a> has also ranked Singapore as the easiest place to do business for the past decade.<sup id="cite_ref-243" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-243">[236]</a></sup> In 2016, Singapore is rated the world's most expensive city for the third consecutive year by the Economist Intelligence Unit.<sup id="cite_ref-244" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-244">[237]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-245" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-245">[238]</a></sup>
</p><p>For several years, Singapore has been one of the few<sup id="cite_ref-246" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-246">[239]</a></sup> countries with an AAA credit rating from the <a href="/wiki/Big_Three_(credit_rating_agencies)" title="Big Three (credit rating agencies)">big three</a>, and the only Asian country to achieve this rating.<sup id="cite_ref-247" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-247">[240]</a></sup> Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign investment as a result of its location, skilled workforce, low tax rates, advanced infrastructure and zero-tolerance against corruption.<sup id="cite_ref-248" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-248">[241]</a></sup> Singapore has the world's eleventh <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_foreign_exchange_reserves" class="mw-redirect" title="List of countries by foreign exchange reserves">largest foreign reserves</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-249" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-249">[242]</a></sup> and one of the highest <a href="/wiki/List_of_creditor_nations_by_net_international_investment_position_per_capita" title="List of creditor nations by net international investment position per capita">net international investment position per capita</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-250" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-250">[243]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-251" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-251">[244]</a></sup> There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. There are also approximately 1,500 companies from China and a similar number from India. Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans.<sup id="cite_ref-252" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-252">[245]</a></sup> Over ten <a href="/wiki/Free-trade_agreement" class="mw-redirect" title="Free-trade agreement">free-trade agreements</a> have been signed with other countries and regions.<sup id="cite_ref-govt.nz_158-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-govt.nz-158">[151]</a></sup> Despite market freedom, Singapore's government operations have a significant stake in the economy, contributing 22% of the GDP.<sup id="cite_ref-253" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-253">[246]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore is the second-largest foreign investor in India.<sup id="cite_ref-254" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-254">[247]</a></sup> It is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world.<sup id="cite_ref-255" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-255">[248]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-256" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-256">[249]</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><dl><dd><table class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;">
<caption><b>Economy Statistics (Recent Years) : Year 2014 To Year 2018</b><br />Sources:<sup id="cite_ref-257" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-257">[250]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-258" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-258">[251]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-259" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-259">[252]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-260" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-260">[253]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-261" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-261">[254]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-262" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-262">[255]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-263" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-263">[256]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-264" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-264">[257]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-265" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-265">[258]</a></sup>
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th>Year
</th>
<th>GDP<br />Nominal<br />(Billion)
</th>
<th>GDP<br />Nominal<br />Per Capita
</th>
<th><a href="/wiki/Real_Gross_Domestic_Product" class="mw-redirect" title="Real Gross Domestic Product">GDP Real</a><br />(Billion)
</th>
<th><a href="/wiki/Gross_National_Income" class="mw-redirect" title="Gross National Income">GNI</a><br />Nominal<br />(Billion)
</th>
<th>GNI<br />Nominal<br />Per Capita
</th>
<th>Foreign<br />Reserves<br />(Billion)
</th>
<th>Avg.<br />Exchange Rate<br />(1<a href="/wiki/United_States_dollar" title="United States dollar">US$</a> to <a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>)
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>2014</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>398.987</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>72,937</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>411.540</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>385,070</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>70,400</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>340.438</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>1.2671
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>2015
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>423.444
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>76,502
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>423.444
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>394.551
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>71,283
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>350.991
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>1.3748
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>2016
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>439.412
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>78,364
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>435.988
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>408.820
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>72,909
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>356.254
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>1.3815
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>2017
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>467.306
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>83,265
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>452.119
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>434.806
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>77,474
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>373.994
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>1.3807
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>2018
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>491.174
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>87,108
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>466.313
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>457.983
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>81,222
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>392.096
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">S$</a>1.3491
</td></tr></tbody></table></dd></dl></dd></dl>
<dl><dd></dd></dl>
<dl><dd><dl><dd></dd></dl></dd></dl>
<p>The currency of Singapore is the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">Singapore dollar</a> (SGD or S$), issued by the <a href="/wiki/Monetary_Authority_of_Singapore" title="Monetary Authority of Singapore">Monetary Authority of Singapore</a> (MAS).<sup id="cite_ref-266" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-266">[259]</a></sup> It is interchangeable with the <a href="/wiki/Brunei_dollar" title="Brunei dollar">Brunei dollar</a> at <a href="/wiki/Par_value" title="Par value">par value</a> since 1967, owing to their historically close relations.<sup id="cite_ref-Currency_History_267-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Currency_History-267">[260]</a></sup> MAS manages its <a href="/wiki/Monetary_policy" title="Monetary policy">monetary policy</a> by allowing the Singapore dollar <a href="/wiki/Exchange_rate" title="Exchange rate">exchange rate</a> to rise or fall within an undisclosed trading band. This is different from most <a href="/wiki/Central_banks" class="mw-redirect" title="Central banks">central banks</a>, which use <a href="/wiki/Interest_rates" class="mw-redirect" title="Interest rates">interest rates</a> to manage policy.<sup id="cite_ref-268" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-268">[261]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Airlines,_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_(20786371995).jpg" class="image"><img alt="Singapore Airlines celebrated the nation's Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Singapore_Airlines%2C_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_%2820786371995%29.jpg/220px-Singapore_Airlines%2C_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_%2820786371995%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Singapore_Airlines%2C_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_%2820786371995%29.jpg/330px-Singapore_Airlines%2C_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_%2820786371995%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Singapore_Airlines%2C_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_%2820786371995%29.jpg/440px-Singapore_Airlines%2C_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_%2820786371995%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3877" data-file-height="2590" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Airlines,_Airbus_A380-800_9V-SKI_%2750th_anniversary_of_Singapore%27_NRT_(20786371995).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Airlines" title="Singapore Airlines">Singapore Airlines</a> celebrated the nation's 2015 <a href="/wiki/Golden_Jubilee" class="mw-redirect" title="Golden Jubilee">Golden Jubilee</a> with a flag <a href="/wiki/Livery" title="Livery">livery</a> on its <a href="/wiki/Airbus_A380" title="Airbus A380">Airbus A380</a></div></div></div>
<p>In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular <a href="/wiki/Tax_haven" title="Tax haven">tax haven</a> for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer <a href="/wiki/Brett_Blundy" title="Brett Blundy">Brett Blundy</a> and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder <a href="/wiki/Eduardo_Saverin" title="Eduardo Saverin">Eduardo Saverin</a> are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012).<sup id="cite_ref-269" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-269">[262]</a></sup> In 2009, Singapore was removed from the OCDE "liste grise" of tax havens,<sup id="cite_ref-270" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-270">[263]</a></sup> but ranked fourth on the <a href="/wiki/Tax_Justice_Network" title="Tax Justice Network">Tax Justice Network</a>'s 2015 <a href="/wiki/Financial_Secrecy_Index" title="Financial Secrecy Index">Financial Secrecy Index</a> of the world's off-shore financial service providers, banking one-eighth of the world's offshore capital, while "providing numerous tax avoidance and evasion opportunities".<sup id="cite_ref-FSI_271-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FSI-271">[264]</a></sup> In August 2016, <i><a href="/wiki/The_Straits_Times" title="The Straits Times">The Straits Times</a></i> reported that Indonesia had decided to create tax havens on two islands near Singapore to bring Indonesian capital back into the tax base.<sup id="cite_ref-272" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-272">[265]</a></sup> In October 2016, the Monetary Authority of Singapore admonished and fined <a href="/wiki/UBS" title="UBS">UBS</a> and <a href="/wiki/DBS_Bank" title="DBS Bank">DBS</a> and withdrew <a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falcon_Private_Bank" class="extiw" title="de:Falcon Private Bank">Falcon Private Bank</a>'s banking licence for their alleged role in the Malaysian Sovereign Fund scandal.<sup id="cite_ref-273" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-273">[266]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-274" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-274">[267]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive.<sup id="cite_ref-275" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-275">[268]</a></sup> Singapore does not have a <a href="/wiki/Minimum_wage" title="Minimum wage">minimum wage</a>, believing that it would lower its competitiveness. It also has one of the <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_income_equality" title="List of countries by income equality">highest income inequalities</a> among <a href="/wiki/Developed_countries" class="mw-redirect" title="Developed countries">developed countries</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-276" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-276">[269]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-277" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-277">[270]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Employment">Employment</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Employment_in_Singapore" title="Employment in Singapore">Employment in Singapore</a></div>
<p>Singapore has traditionally had one of the lowest <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_unemployment_rate" title="List of countries by unemployment rate">unemployment rates</a> among developed countries. The unemployment rate did not exceed 4% from 2005 to 2014, reaching highs of 3.1% in 2005 and 3% during the <a href="/wiki/Late-2000s_financial_crisis" class="mw-redirect" title="Late-2000s financial crisis">2009 global financial crisis</a>; it fell to 1.8% in the first quarter of 2015.<sup id="cite_ref-278" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-278">[271]</a></sup>
</p><p>The government provides numerous assistance programmes to the homeless and needy through the <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Social_and_Family_Development" title="Ministry of Social and Family Development">Ministry of Social and Family Development</a>, so acute poverty is rare. Some of the programmes include providing between S$400 and S$1000 of financial assistance per month to needy households, providing free medical care at government hospitals, and paying for children's tuition.<sup id="cite_ref-279" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-279">[272]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-280" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-280">[273]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-281" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-281">[274]</a></sup> Other benefits include compensation for gym fees to encourage citizens to exercise,<sup id="cite_ref-282" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-282">[275]</a></sup> up to S$166,000 as a <a href="/wiki/Baby_bonus" title="Baby bonus">baby bonus</a> for each citizen,<sup id="cite_ref-283" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-283">[276]</a></sup> heavily subsidised healthcare, financial aid for the disabled, the provision of reduced-cost laptops for poor students,<sup id="cite_ref-284" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-284">[277]</a></sup> rebates for costs such as public transport<sup id="cite_ref-285" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-285">[278]</a></sup> and utility bills, and more.<sup id="cite_ref-286" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-286">[279]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-287" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-287">[280]</a></sup>
</p><p>Although recognising that foreign workers are crucial to the country's economy, the government has considered placing limits on inflows of these workers,<sup id="cite_ref-288" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-288">[281]</a></sup> as foreign workers make up 80% of the construction industry and up to 50% of the service industry.<sup id="cite_ref-289" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-289">[282]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-290" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-290">[283]</a></sup>
</p>
<div style="clear:both;"></div>
<div class="thumb tnone" style="margin:0 auto;overflow:hidden;width:100%;max-width:1208px"><div class="thumbinner"><div class="noresize" style="overflow:auto"><a href="/wiki/File:Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District,_Singapore,_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg" class="image" title="A view of the cityscape and anchored ships from Singapore's Eastern Anchorage off the East Coast Park"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District%2C_Singapore%2C_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg/1200px-Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District%2C_Singapore%2C_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg" decoding="async" width="1200" height="106" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District%2C_Singapore%2C_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg/1800px-Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District%2C_Singapore%2C_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District%2C_Singapore%2C_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg/2400px-Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District%2C_Singapore%2C_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg 2x" data-file-width="20414" data-file-height="1806" /></a></div><div class="thumbcaption" style="text-align:center"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Panoramic_view_of_the_Central_Business_District,_Singapore,_and_ships_-_20100712.jpg" title="File:Panoramic view of the Central Business District, Singapore, and ships - 20100712.jpg"> </a></div>A view of the cityscape and anchored ships from Singapore's Eastern Anchorage off the <a href="/wiki/East_Coast_Park" title="East Coast Park">East Coast Park</a></div></div></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Industry_sectors">Industry sectors</span></h3>
<p>Globally, Singapore is a leader in several economic sectors. It is the world's 3rd-largest <a href="/wiki/Foreign_exchange_market" title="Foreign exchange market">foreign exchange</a> centre, 3rd-largest <a href="/wiki/Financial_centre" title="Financial centre">financial centre</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-291" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-291">[284]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-292" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-292">[285]</a></sup> 2nd-largest casino gambling market,<sup id="cite_ref-edmontonjournal.com_293-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-edmontonjournal.com-293">[286]</a></sup> 3rd-largest oil-refining and trading centre, largest oil-rig producer and hub for ship repair services,<sup id="cite_ref-294" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-294">[287]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-295" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-295">[288]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-296" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-296">[289]</a></sup> and largest logistics hub.<sup id="cite_ref-297" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-297">[290]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:282px;"><a href="/wiki/File:2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png/280px-2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png" decoding="async" width="280" height="194" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png/420px-2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png/560px-2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png 2x" data-file-width="750" data-file-height="520" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:2014_Singapore_Products_Export_Treemap.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Singaporean exports by product (2014)<sup id="cite_ref-298" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-298">[291]</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>The economy is diversified, with its top contributors being financial services, manufacturing, and oil-refining. Its main exports are refined petroleum, integrated circuits, and computers,<sup id="cite_ref-299" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-299">[292]</a></sup> which constituted 27% of the country's GDP in 2010. Other significant sectors include electronics, chemicals, mechanical engineering, and biomedical sciences. In 2019, there were more than 60 semiconductor companies in Singapore, which together constituted 11% of the global market share. The semiconductor industry alone contributes around 7% of Singapore's GDP.<sup id="cite_ref-300" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-300">[293]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore's largest companies are in the telecommunications, banking, transportation, and manufacturing sectors, many of which started as state-run <a href="/wiki/Statutory_corporation" title="Statutory corporation">statutory corporations</a> but have since been publicly listed on the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Exchange" title="Singapore Exchange">Singapore Exchange</a>. Such companies include <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Telecommunications" class="mw-redirect" title="Singapore Telecommunications">Singapore Telecommunications</a> (Singtel), <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Technologies_Engineering" class="mw-redirect" title="Singapore Technologies Engineering">Singapore Technologies Engineering</a>, <a href="/wiki/Keppel_Corporation" title="Keppel Corporation">Keppel Corporation</a>, <a href="/wiki/Oversea-Chinese_Banking_Corporation" class="mw-redirect" title="Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation">Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation</a> (OCBC), <a href="/wiki/Development_Bank_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Development Bank of Singapore">Development Bank of Singapore</a> (DBS), and <a href="/wiki/United_Overseas_Bank" title="United Overseas Bank">United Overseas Bank</a> (UOB). In 2011, amidst the global financial crisis, OCBC, DBS and UOB were ranked by <i><a href="/wiki/Bloomberg_Businessweek" title="Bloomberg Businessweek">Bloomberg Businessweek</a></i> as the world's 1st, 5th, and 6th strongest banks in the world, respectively.<sup id="cite_ref-301" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-301">[294]</a></sup>
</p><p>The nation's best known global companies include <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Airlines" title="Singapore Airlines">Singapore Airlines</a>, <a href="/wiki/Changi_Airport" class="mw-redirect" title="Changi Airport">Changi Airport</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Port_of_Singapore" title="Port of Singapore">Port of Singapore</a>, all of which are among the most-awarded in their respective fields. Singapore Airlines was ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and the world's 19th most-admired company in 2015 by <i><a href="/wiki/Fortune_(magazine)" title="Fortune (magazine)">Fortune</a></i>’s annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry surveys. Other awards it has received include the US-based <i><a href="/wiki/Travel_%2B_Leisure" title="Travel + Leisure">Travel + Leisure</a></i>’s Best International Airline award, which it has won for 20 consecutive years.<sup id="cite_ref-302" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-302">[295]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-303" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-303">[296]</a></sup>
Changi Airport connects over 100 airlines to more than 300 cities. The strategic international air hub has more than 480 World's Best Airport awards as of 2015<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world.<sup id="cite_ref-304" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-304">[297]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Tourism">Tourism</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Tourism_in_Singapore" title="Tourism in Singapore">Tourism in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg/220px-JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg/330px-JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg/440px-JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4000" data-file-height="2667" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Jewel_Changi_Airport" title="Jewel Changi Airport">Jewel at Changi Airport</a> features the world's largest indoor waterfall, named the Rain Vortex</div></div></div>
<p>Tourism in Singapore is a major industry and contributor to the <a href="/wiki/Economy_of_Singapore" title="Economy of Singapore">Singaporean economy</a>, attracting 18.5 million international tourists in 2018, more than 3 times of Singapore's total population.<sup id="cite_ref-305" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-305">[298]</a></sup> Singapore is the 5th most visited city in the world, and 2nd in the Asia-Pacific.<sup id="cite_ref-306" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-306">[299]</a></sup>
</p><p>Currently, tourism contributes directly to about 4% of Singapore's GDP <sup id="cite_ref-STB_307-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-STB-307">[300]</a></sup>
and in 2016, tourism contributed, directly and indirectly, to around 9.9% of Singapore's GDP.<sup id="cite_ref-WTTCreport2017_308-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WTTCreport2017-308">[301]</a></sup> Additionally, it also generated approximately 8.6%  of Singapore's employment in 2016.<sup id="cite_ref-WTTCreport2017_308-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WTTCreport2017-308">[301]</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Tourism_Board" title="Singapore Tourism Board">Singapore Tourism Board</a>  (STB) is the <a href="/wiki/Statutory_boards_of_the_Singapore_Government" title="Statutory boards of the Singapore Government">statutory board</a>, under the <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Trade_and_Industry_(Singapore)" title="Ministry of Trade and Industry (Singapore)">Ministry of Trade and Industry</a> which is tasked with the promotion of the country's tourism industry. On 24 August 2017, the STB and Economic Development Board (EDB) unveiled a unified brand, Singapore – <a href="/wiki/Passion_Made_Possible" title="Passion Made Possible">Passion Made Possible</a>, to market Singapore internationally for tourism and business purposes.<sup id="cite_ref-309" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-309">[302]</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Orchard_Road" title="Orchard Road">Orchard Road</a> district, which contains multi-storey shopping centres and hotels, can be considered the center of shopping and tourism in Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-310" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-310">[303]</a></sup> Other popular tourist attractions include the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Zoo" title="Singapore Zoo">Singapore Zoo</a>, <a href="/wiki/River_Safari" title="River Safari">River Safari</a> and <a href="/wiki/Night_Safari,_Singapore" title="Night Safari, Singapore">Night Safari</a>. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the open zoo concept whereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals, and the River Safari has 300 species of animals, including numerous endangered species.<sup id="cite_ref-311" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-311">[304]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Supertree_Grove,_Gardens_by_the_Bay,_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Supertree_Grove%2C_Gardens_by_the_Bay%2C_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg/220px-Supertree_Grove%2C_Gardens_by_the_Bay%2C_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Supertree_Grove%2C_Gardens_by_the_Bay%2C_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg/330px-Supertree_Grove%2C_Gardens_by_the_Bay%2C_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Supertree_Grove%2C_Gardens_by_the_Bay%2C_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg/440px-Supertree_Grove%2C_Gardens_by_the_Bay%2C_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3648" data-file-height="2736" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Supertree_Grove,_Gardens_by_the_Bay,_Singapore_-_20120630-04.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A night view of the Supertrees at <a href="/wiki/Gardens_by_the_Bay" title="Gardens by the Bay">Gardens by the Bay</a></div></div></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Jurong_Bird_Park" title="Jurong Bird Park">Jurong Bird Park</a> is another zoological garden centred on birds, which is dedicated to exposing the public to as many species and varieties of birds from around the world as possible, including a flock of one thousand flamingos. The tourist island of <a href="/wiki/Sentosa" title="Sentosa">Sentosa</a>, which attracts 19 million visitors in 2011, is located in the south of Singapore, consisting of about 20–30 landmarks, such as <a href="/wiki/Fort_Siloso" title="Fort Siloso">Fort Siloso</a>, which was built as a fortress to defend against the Japanese during World War II.
</p><p>Other notable tourist attractions in Singapore include the two integrated resorts which house casinos, namely <a href="/wiki/Marina_Bay_Sands" title="Marina Bay Sands">Marina Bay Sands</a> and <a href="/wiki/Resorts_World_Sentosa" title="Resorts World Sentosa">Resorts World Sentosa</a>; <a href="/wiki/Gardens_by_the_Bay" title="Gardens by the Bay">Gardens by the Bay</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jewel_Changi_Airport" title="Jewel Changi Airport">Jewel Changi Airport</a>.
</p><p>Singapore promotes itself as a <a href="/wiki/Medical_tourism" title="Medical tourism">medical tourism</a> hub, with about 200,000 foreigners seeking medical care there each year. Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate US$3 billion in revenue.<sup id="cite_ref-312" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-312">[305]</a></sup> In 2015, <a href="/wiki/Lonely_Planet" title="Lonely Planet">Lonely Planet</a> and <a href="/wiki/The_New_York_Times" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a> listed Singapore as their top and 6th best world destination to visit respectively.<sup id="cite_ref-313" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-313">[306]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Infrastructure">Infrastructure</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Transport">Transport</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Transport_in_Singapore" title="Transport in Singapore">Transport in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Changi_Airport,_Control_Tower_2,_Dec_05.JPG" class="image"><img alt="Singapore Changi Airport, Control Tower" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Singapore_Changi_Airport%2C_Control_Tower_2%2C_Dec_05.JPG/220px-Singapore_Changi_Airport%2C_Control_Tower_2%2C_Dec_05.JPG" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Singapore_Changi_Airport%2C_Control_Tower_2%2C_Dec_05.JPG/330px-Singapore_Changi_Airport%2C_Control_Tower_2%2C_Dec_05.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Singapore_Changi_Airport%2C_Control_Tower_2%2C_Dec_05.JPG/440px-Singapore_Changi_Airport%2C_Control_Tower_2%2C_Dec_05.JPG 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1200" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Changi_Airport,_Control_Tower_2,_Dec_05.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Changi_Airport" class="mw-redirect" title="Changi Airport">Changi Airport</a> continues to expand with a 5th Terminal by 2030.</div></div></div>
<p>As Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Singaporean <a href="/wiki/Certificate_of_Entitlement" title="Certificate of Entitlement">Certificate of Entitlement</a> (COE), which allows the car to run on the road for a decade. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singapore than in other English-speaking countries.<sup id="cite_ref-BloombergBMW_314-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BloombergBMW-314">[307]</a></sup> As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left.<sup id="cite_ref-315" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-315">[308]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore has a <a href="/wiki/Road_transport_in_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Road transport in Singapore">road system</a> covering 3,356 kilometres (2,085 mi), which includes 161 kilometres (100 mi) <a href="/wiki/Expressways_of_Singapore" title="Expressways of Singapore">of expressways</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-316" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-316">[309]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-317" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-317">[310]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Area_Licensing_Scheme" title="Singapore Area Licensing Scheme">Singapore Area Licensing Scheme</a>, implemented in 1975, became the world's first <a href="/wiki/Congestion_pricing" title="Congestion pricing">congestion pricing</a> scheme, and included other complementary measures such as stringent car ownership quotas and improvements in mass transit.<sup id="cite_ref-318" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-318">[311]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-319" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-319">[312]</a></sup> Upgraded in 1998 and renamed <a href="/wiki/Electronic_Road_Pricing" title="Electronic Road Pricing">Electronic Road Pricing</a>, the system introduced <a href="/wiki/Electronic_toll_collection" title="Electronic toll collection">electronic toll collection</a>, electronic detection, and video surveillance technology.<sup id="cite_ref-320" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-320">[313]</a></sup> A <a href="/wiki/Global_Navigation_Satellite_System" class="mw-redirect" title="Global Navigation Satellite System">Global Navigation Satellite System</a> will replace the physical gantries by 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-321" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-321">[314]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:ERP_in_Singapore.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/ERP_in_Singapore.jpg/220px-ERP_in_Singapore.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="172" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/ERP_in_Singapore.jpg/330px-ERP_in_Singapore.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/ERP_in_Singapore.jpg/440px-ERP_in_Singapore.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2647" data-file-height="2075" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:ERP_in_Singapore.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The world's first urban <a href="/wiki/Congestion_charge" class="mw-redirect" title="Congestion charge">congestion-pricing</a> scheme <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Area_Licensing_Scheme" title="Singapore Area Licensing Scheme">started in the city centre in 1975</a>. Fully automated by <a href="/wiki/Electronic_Road_Pricing" title="Electronic Road Pricing">Electronic Road Pricing</a> in 1998.</div></div></div>
<p>Singaporean residents also travel by bicycles, <a href="/wiki/Bus_transport_in_Singapore" title="Bus transport in Singapore">bus</a>, <a href="/wiki/Taxicab" title="Taxicab">taxis</a> and train (<a href="/wiki/Mass_Rapid_Transit_(Singapore)" title="Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)">MRT</a> or <a href="/wiki/Light_Rail_Transit_(Singapore)" title="Light Rail Transit (Singapore)">LRT</a>). Two companies run the train transport system—<a href="/wiki/SBS_Transit" title="SBS Transit">SBS Transit</a> and <a href="/wiki/SMRT_Corporation" title="SMRT Corporation">SMRT Corporation</a>. Four companies, Go-Ahead, Tower-Transit, SBS Transit and <a href="/wiki/SMRT_Corporation" title="SMRT Corporation">SMRT Corporation</a> run the public buses under a 'Bus Contracting Model' where operators bid for routes. There are six <a href="/wiki/Taxicabs_of_Singapore" title="Taxicabs of Singapore">taxi companies</a>, who together put out over 28,000 taxis on the road.<sup id="cite_ref-322" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-322">[315]</a></sup> Taxis are a popular form of public transport as the fares are relatively cheap compared to many other developed countries.<sup id="cite_ref-323" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-323">[316]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore is a major international <a href="/wiki/Transport_hub" title="Transport hub">transport hub</a> in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. <a href="/wiki/Changi_Airport" class="mw-redirect" title="Changi Airport">Changi Airport</a> is an aviation centre for Southeast Asia and a stopover on the <a href="/wiki/Kangaroo_Route" title="Kangaroo Route">Kangaroo Route</a> between Sydney and London.<sup id="cite_ref-324" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-324">[317]</a></sup> There are three civilian airports in Singapore, <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Changi_Airport" title="Singapore Changi Airport">Singapore Changi Airport</a>, <a href="/wiki/Seletar_Airport" title="Seletar Airport">Seletar Airport</a><sup id="cite_ref-325" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-325">[318]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-326" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-326">[319]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Kallang_Airport" title="Kallang Airport">Kallang Airport</a> (which is not open to public). Singapore Changi Airport hosts a network of over 100 airlines connecting Singapore to some 300 cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide.<sup id="cite_ref-327" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-327">[320]</a></sup> It has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the first time in 2006 by <a href="/wiki/Skytrax" title="Skytrax">Skytrax</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-328" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-328">[321]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Flag_carrier" title="Flag carrier">national airline</a> is <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Airlines" title="Singapore Airlines">Singapore Airlines</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-329" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-329">[322]</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Port_of_Singapore" title="Port of Singapore">Port of Singapore</a>, managed by port operators <a href="/wiki/PSA_International" title="PSA International">PSA International</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jurong_Port" title="Jurong Port">Jurong Port</a>, was the world's second-busiest port in 2019 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 2.85 billion <a href="/wiki/Gross_ton" class="mw-redirect" title="Gross ton">gross tons</a> (GT), and in terms of <a href="/wiki/Container_(cargo)" class="mw-redirect" title="Container (cargo)">containerised</a> traffic, at 37.2 million <a href="/wiki/Twenty-foot_equivalent_unit" title="Twenty-foot equivalent unit">twenty-foot equivalent units</a> (TEUs).<sup id="cite_ref-MPA_330-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MPA-330">[323]</a></sup> It is also the world's second-busiest, behind Shanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 626 million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for <a href="/wiki/Transshipment" title="Transshipment">transshipment</a> traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.<sup id="cite_ref-BTP_331-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BTP-331">[324]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tnone" style="margin:0 auto;overflow:hidden;width:center;max-width:808px"><div class="thumbinner"><div class="noresize" style="overflow:auto"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_port_panorama.jpg" class="image" title="The Port of Singapore, one of the top two busiest container ports in the world since the 1990s."><img alt="The Port with a large number of shipping containers and the ocean visible in the background" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Singapore_port_panorama.jpg/800px-Singapore_port_panorama.jpg" decoding="async" width="800" height="147" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Singapore_port_panorama.jpg/1200px-Singapore_port_panorama.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Singapore_port_panorama.jpg/1600px-Singapore_port_panorama.jpg 2x" data-file-width="10000" data-file-height="1842" /></a></div><div class="thumbcaption" style="text-align:center"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_port_panorama.jpg" title="File:Singapore port panorama.jpg"> </a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Port_of_Singapore" title="Port of Singapore">Port of Singapore</a>, one of the top two <a href="/wiki/List_of_world%27s_busiest_container_ports" class="mw-redirect" title="List of world's busiest container ports">busiest container ports in the world</a> since the 1990s.</div></div></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Water_supply_and_sanitation">Water supply and sanitation</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Singapore" title="Water supply and sanitation in Singapore">Water supply and sanitation in Singapore</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/NEWater" title="NEWater">NEWater</a></div>
<p>Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. Singapore relies on four main water sources, or "four national taps" - water imported from neighbouring Malaysia, <a href="/wiki/List_of_dams_and_reservoirs_in_Singapore" title="List of dams and reservoirs in Singapore">urban rainwater catchments</a>, <a href="/wiki/Reclaimed_water" title="Reclaimed water">reclaimed water</a> (<a href="/wiki/NEWater" title="NEWater">NEWater</a>) and seawater <a href="/wiki/Desalination" title="Desalination">desalination</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-332" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-332">[325]</a></sup> Singapore's approach does not rely only on physical infrastructure, but it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.<sup id="cite_ref-Luan_333-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Luan-333">[326]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore has declared that it will be water self-sufficient by the time its 1961 long-term water supply agreement with Malaysia expires in 2061. However, according to official forecasts, water demand in Singapore is expected to double from 380 to 760 million US gallons (1.4 to 2.8 billion liters; 1.4 to 2.8 million cubic meters) per day between 2010 and 2060. The increase is expected to come primarily from non-domestic water use, which accounted for 55% of water demand in 2010 and is expected to account for 70% of demand in 2060. By that time, water demand is expected to be met by reclaimed water at the tune of 50% and by desalination accounting for 30%, compared to only 20% supplied by internal catchments.<sup id="cite_ref-334" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-334">[327]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-335" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-335">[328]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Demographics">Demographics</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Demographics_of_Singapore" title="Demographics of Singapore">Demographics of Singapore</a> and <a href="/wiki/Singaporeans" title="Singaporeans">Singaporeans</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Race_in_Singapore" title="Race in Singapore">Race in Singapore</a></div>
<table class="toccolours" style="width:15em;border-spacing: 0;float:right;clear:right;margin:0.5em 0 1em 0.5em;"><tbody><tr><th class="navbox-title" colspan="3" style="padding:0.25em">Historical population</th></tr><tr style="font-size:95%"><th style="border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:1px;width:3em">Year</th><th style="border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:1px 2px;text-align:right"><abbr title="Population">Pop.</abbr></th><th style="border-bottom:1px solid black;padding:1px;text-align:right"><abbr title="Percent change">±%</abbr></th></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">1950</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">1,022,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">—    </td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">1960</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">1,633,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">+59.8%</td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">1970</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">2,072,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">+26.9%</td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">1980</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">2,412,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">+16.4%</td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px;border-bottom:1px solid #bbbbbb">1990</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px;border-bottom:1px solid #bbbbbb">3,013,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px;border-bottom:1px solid #bbbbbb">+24.9%</td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">2000</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">4,029,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">+33.7%</td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">2010</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">5,131,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">+27.4%</td></tr><tr><th style="text-align:center;padding:1px">2019</th><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">5,804,000</td><td style="text-align:right;padding:1px">+13.1%</td></tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-top:1px solid black;font-size:85%;text-align:left">source:<sup id="cite_ref-UN_WPP_336-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-UN_WPP-336">[329]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-UN_WPP_2019_337-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-UN_WPP_2019-337">[330]</a></sup></td></tr></tbody></table>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif/lossy-page1-170px-KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="228" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif/lossy-page1-255px-KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif/lossy-page1-340px-KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4773" data-file-height="6389" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:KITLV_-_103763_-_Chinese_and_Malaysian_women_at_Singapore_-_circa_1890.tif" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Chinese and Malay women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote social cohesion between races, a unique <a href="/wiki/Racial_Harmony_Day" title="Racial Harmony Day">Racial Harmony Day</a> is celebrated on 21 July every year</div></div></div>
<p>As of mid-2018, the estimated population of Singapore was 5,638,700 people, 3,471,900 (61.6%) of whom were <a href="/wiki/Singaporean_nationality_law" title="Singaporean nationality law">citizens</a>, while the remaining 2,166,800 (38.4%) were <a href="/wiki/Permanent_residency_in_Singapore" title="Permanent residency in Singapore">permanent residents</a> (522,300) or <a href="/wiki/International_student" title="International student">international students</a>/<a href="/wiki/Foreign_worker" title="Foreign worker">foreign workers</a>/<a href="/wiki/Dependant" title="Dependant">dependants</a> (1,644,500).<sup id="cite_ref-Population_and_Population_Structure_11-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Population_and_Population_Structure-11">[10]</a></sup> According to the country's most recent census in 2010, nearly 23% of Singaporean residents (i.e. citizens and permanent residents) were <a href="/wiki/Foreign_born" title="Foreign born">foreign born</a>; if non-residents were counted, nearly 43% of the total population were foreign born.<sup id="cite_ref-2010census_338-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2010census-338">[331]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-un.org_339-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-un.org-339">[332]</a></sup>
</p><p>The same census also reports that about 74.1% of residents were of Chinese descent, 13.4% of Malay descent, 9.2% of Indian descent, and 3.3% of other (including <a href="/wiki/Eurasians_in_Singapore" title="Eurasians in Singapore">Eurasian</a>) descent.<sup id="cite_ref-2010census_338-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2010census-338">[331]</a></sup> Prior to 2010, each person could register as a member of only one race, by default that of his or her father, therefore mixed-race persons were solely grouped under their father's race in government censuses. From 2010 onward, people may register using a multi-racial classification, in which they may choose one primary race and one secondary race, but no more than two.<sup id="cite_ref-340" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-340">[333]</a></sup>
</p><p>91% of resident households (i.e. households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident) own the homes they live in, and the average household size is 3.43 persons (which include dependants who are neither citizens nor permanent residents).<sup id="cite_ref-341" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-341">[334]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-singstat2014h&h_342-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat2014h&h-342">[335]</a></sup> However, due to scarcity of land, 78.7% of resident households live in <a href="/wiki/Public_housing_in_Singapore" title="Public housing in Singapore">subsidised, high-rise, public housing apartments</a> developed by the (<a href="/wiki/Housing_and_Development_Board" title="Housing and Development Board">Housing and Development Board</a>). Also, 75.9% of resident households live in properties that are equal to, or larger than, a four-room (i.e. three bedrooms plus one living room) HDB flat or in private housing.<sup id="cite_ref-343" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-343">[336]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-hdb_344-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-hdb-344">[337]</a></sup> Live-in foreign <a href="/wiki/Domestic_worker" title="Domestic worker">domestic workers</a> are quite common in Singapore, with about 224,500 foreign domestic workers there, as of December 2013.<sup id="cite_ref-345" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-345">[338]</a></sup>
</p><p>The median age of Singaporean residents was 40.5 in 2017,<sup id="cite_ref-singstat2014respoppro_346-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat2014respoppro-346">[339]</a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Total_fertility_rate" title="Total fertility rate">total fertility rate</a> is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population.<sup id="cite_ref-347" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-347">[340]</a></sup> In February 2015, <a href="/wiki/National_University_of_Singapore" title="National University of Singapore">National University of Singapore</a> launched the “New Age Institute” in conjunction with <a href="/wiki/Washington_University_in_St._Louis" title="Washington University in St. Louis">Washington University in St. Louis</a> to conduct research on this issue.<sup id="cite_ref-348" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-348">[341]</a></sup> To overcome this problem, the Singapore government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades. The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining.<sup id="cite_ref-349" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-349">[342]</a></sup> 
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Religion">Religion</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Religion_in_Singapore" title="Religion in Singapore">Religion in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="barbox tright" style="overflow-x: auto;">
<div style="border:1px solid silver; font-size:88%; padding:0.4em; width:auto; background: white;">
<table style="text-align:left; border-collapse:collapse; width:100%;">
<tbody><tr style="background:#ddd"><th style="text-align:center;" colspan="5">Religion in Singapore, 2015<sup id="cite_ref-Singapore_Census_2015_9-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Singapore_Census_2015-9">[8]</a></sup></th></tr>
<tr style="font-size:88%; height:4px;">
<td colspan="2" style="padding:0 4px; text-align:left;">Religion</td>
<td style="width:100px; text-align:left;"></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding:0 4px; width:1em; text-align:right;">Percent</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;"><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Singapore" title="Buddhism in Singapore">Buddhism</a></td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:gold; width:33.2%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">33.2%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;"><a href="/wiki/Christianity_in_Singapore" title="Christianity in Singapore">Christianity</a></td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:purple; width:18.8%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">18.8%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;"><a href="/wiki/Irreligion_in_Singapore" title="Irreligion in Singapore">No religion</a></td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:grey; width:18.5%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">18.5%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;"><a href="/wiki/Islam_in_Singapore" title="Islam in Singapore">Islam</a></td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:black; width:14.0%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">14.0%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;"><a href="/wiki/Taoism_in_Singapore" title="Taoism in Singapore">Taoism and folk religion</a></td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:red; width:10.0%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">10.0%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;"><a href="/wiki/Hinduism_in_Singapore" title="Hinduism in Singapore">Hinduism</a></td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:orange; width:5.0%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">5.0%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;">Other religions</td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:blue; width:0.6%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">0.6%</td>
</tr>

</tbody></table>
</div>
</div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Singapore" title="Buddhism in Singapore">Buddhism</a> is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is <a href="/wiki/Christianity_in_Singapore" title="Christianity in Singapore">Christianity</a>, followed by <a href="/wiki/Islam_in_Singapore" title="Islam in Singapore">Islam</a>, <a href="/wiki/Taoism_in_Singapore" title="Taoism in Singapore">Taoism</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Hinduism_in_Singapore" title="Hinduism in Singapore">Hinduism</a>. 17% of the population did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased between 2000 and 2010 by about 3 percentage points each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.<sup id="cite_ref-2010censuspercentage_350-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2010censuspercentage-350">[343]</a></sup>
</p><p>There are monasteries and <a href="/wiki/Dharma" title="Dharma">Dharma</a> centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: <a href="/wiki/Theravada" title="Theravada">Theravada</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mahayana" title="Mahayana">Mahayana</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Vajrayana" title="Vajrayana">Vajrayana</a>. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition,<sup id="cite_ref-351" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-351">[344]</a></sup> with missionaries having come into the country from China for several decades. However, <a href="/wiki/Buddhism_in_Thailand" title="Buddhism in Thailand">Thailand's Theravada Buddhism</a> has seen growing popularity among the populace (not only the Chinese) during the past decade. The religion of <a href="/wiki/Soka_Gakkai_International" title="Soka Gakkai International">Soka Gakkai International</a>, a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. <a href="/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism" title="Tibetan Buddhism">Tibetan Buddhism</a> has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.<sup id="cite_ref-352" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-352">[345]</a></sup>
</p>
<ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional center">
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 215px"><div style="width: 215px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 210px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam,_Singapore_(8125148933).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam%2C_Singapore_%288125148933%29.jpg/179px-The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam%2C_Singapore_%288125148933%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="179" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam%2C_Singapore_%288125148933%29.jpg/268px-The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam%2C_Singapore_%288125148933%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam%2C_Singapore_%288125148933%29.jpg/357px-The_Sultan_Mosque_at_Kampong_Glam%2C_Singapore_%288125148933%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2464" data-file-height="1656" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p><a href="/wiki/Masjid_Sultan" title="Masjid Sultan">Sultan Mosque</a>, a historic mosque in Kampong Glam
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 215px"><div style="width: 215px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 210px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral,_Singapore_2012.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral%2C_Singapore_2012.JPG/180px-St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral%2C_Singapore_2012.JPG" decoding="async" width="180" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral%2C_Singapore_2012.JPG/270px-St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral%2C_Singapore_2012.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral%2C_Singapore_2012.JPG/360px-St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral%2C_Singapore_2012.JPG 2x" data-file-width="5184" data-file-height="3456" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p><a href="/wiki/St_Andrew%27s_Cathedral,_Singapore" title="St Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore">Saint Andrew's Cathedral</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Civic_District" title="Civic District">Civic District</a> has existed since 1836
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 215px"><div style="width: 215px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 210px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg/180px-Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg" decoding="async" width="180" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg/269px-Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg/359px-Grand_Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_Singapore.jpeg 2x" data-file-width="1181" data-file-height="790" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Buddha_Tooth_Relic_Temple_and_Museum" title="Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum">Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum</a> in the heart of Chinatown
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 215px"><div style="width: 215px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 210px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg/162px-Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg" decoding="async" width="162" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg/243px-Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg/324px-Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3622" data-file-height="2685" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p><a href="/wiki/Maghain_Aboth_Synagogue" title="Maghain Aboth Synagogue">Maghain Aboth Synagogue</a> on <a href="/wiki/Waterloo_Street" title="Waterloo Street">Waterloo Street</a>
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
</ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Languages">Languages</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Languages_of_Singapore" title="Languages of Singapore">Languages of Singapore</a></div>
<p>Singapore has four official languages: <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English language">English</a>, <a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a>, <a href="/wiki/Standard_Chinese" title="Standard Chinese">Mandarin</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Tamil_language" title="Tamil language">Tamil</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-statutes.agc.gov.sg_353-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-statutes.agc.gov.sg-353">[346]</a></sup> 
</p><p>English is the lingua franca<sup id="cite_ref-354" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-354">[347]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-355" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-355">[348]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-356" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-356">[349]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-TanShermanp340-341_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TanShermanp340-341-6">[6]</a></sup> and the main language used in business, government, law and education.<sup id="cite_ref-Britishcouncil_357-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Britishcouncil-357">[350]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-358" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-358">[351]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Constitution_of_Singapore" title="Constitution of Singapore">Constitution of Singapore</a> and all government legislations are written in English, and <a href="/wiki/Language_interpretation" title="Language interpretation">interpreters</a> are required if a language other than English is used in the <a href="/wiki/Judicial_system_of_Singapore" title="Judicial system of Singapore">Singaporean courts</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-359" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-359">[352]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-360" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-360">[353]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Statutory_corporation" title="Statutory corporation">Statutory corporations</a> conduct their businesses in English, while any official documents written in a non-English official language such as Malay, Mandarin, or Tamil are typically translated into English to be accepted for use.<sup id="cite_ref-361" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-361">[354]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-362" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-362">[355]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="barbox tright" style="overflow-x: auto;">
<div style="border:1px solid silver; font-size:88%; padding:0.4em; width:auto; background: white;">
<table style="text-align:left; border-collapse:collapse; width:100%;">
<tbody><tr style="background:#ddd"><th style="text-align:center;" colspan="5">Language used most frequently at home<sup id="cite_ref-singstat1_363-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat1-363">[356]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-364" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-364">[357]</a></sup></th></tr>
<tr style="font-size:88%; height:4px;">
<td colspan="2" style="padding:0 4px; text-align:left;">Language</td>
<td style="width:100px; text-align:left;"></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding:0 4px; width:1em; text-align:right;">Percent</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;">English</td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:blue; width:36.9%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">36.9%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;">Mandarin</td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:yellow; width:34.9%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">34.9%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;">Malay</td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:red; width:10.7%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">10.7%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;">Tamil</td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:green; width:3.3%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">3.3%</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; min-width: 8em;">Others</td>
<td style="width: 100px; border-left: solid 1px silver; border-right: solid 1px silver;"><div style="background:grey; width:14.2%; overflow: hidden;"> </div></td>
<td colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.4em; padding-right: 0.4em; text-align: right;">14.2%</td>
</tr>

</tbody></table>
</div>
</div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a> was designated as a national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the 1960s to avoid friction with Singapore's Malay-speaking neighbours of Malaysia and Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-fromthirdworldtofirst_365-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fromthirdworldtofirst-365">[358]</a></sup> It has a symbolic, rather than functional purpose.<sup id="cite_ref-statutes.agc.gov.sg_353-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-statutes.agc.gov.sg-353">[346]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-366" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-366">[359]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-367" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-367">[360]</a></sup> It is used in the national anthem ‘’<a href="/wiki/Majulah_Singapura" title="Majulah Singapura">Majulah Singapura</a>’’,<sup id="cite_ref-368" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-368">[361]</a></sup> in citations of <a href="/wiki/Singaporean_orders_and_decorations" title="Singaporean orders and decorations">Singaporean orders and decorations</a> and in military commands.<sup id="cite_ref-369" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-369">[362]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-singstat1_363-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat1-363">[356]</a></sup> Singaporean Malay is officially written in the Latin-based <a href="/wiki/Rumi_script" class="mw-redirect" title="Rumi script">Rumi script</a>, though some Singaporean Malays also learn the Arabic-based <a href="/wiki/Jawi_alphabet" title="Jawi alphabet">Jawi script</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-370" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-370">[363]</a></sup> Jawi is considered an ethnic script for use on Singaporean identity cards.<sup id="cite_ref-371" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-371">[364]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singaporeans are mostly <a href="/wiki/Bilingual" class="mw-redirect" title="Bilingual">bilingual</a>, typically with English as their common language and their <a href="/wiki/Mother-tongue" class="mw-redirect" title="Mother-tongue">mother-tongue</a> as a second language taught in schools, in order to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. It is the most spoken language at home at 36.9% of the population, just ahead of Mandarin.<sup id="cite_ref-singstat1_363-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat1-363">[356]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-BBC_372-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC-372">[365]</a></sup> Nearly half a million speak other <a href="/wiki/Varieties_of_Chinese" title="Varieties of Chinese">varieties of Chinese</a>, mainly <a href="/wiki/Hokkien" title="Hokkien">Hokkien</a>, <a href="/wiki/Teochew_dialect" title="Teochew dialect">Teochew</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Cantonese" title="Cantonese">Cantonese</a>, as their home language, although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin or just English.<sup id="cite_ref-singstat.gov.sg_373-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat.gov.sg-373">[366]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Chinese_characters" title="Singapore Chinese characters">Singapore Chinese characters</a> are written using <a href="/wiki/Simplified_Chinese_characters" title="Simplified Chinese characters">simplified Chinese characters</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-374" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-374">[367]</a></sup>
<a href="/wiki/Singapore_English" title="Singapore English">Singaporean English</a> is largely based on <a href="/wiki/British_English" title="British English">British English</a>, owing to the country's status as a former <a href="/wiki/Colony_of_Singapore" title="Colony of Singapore">crown colony</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-375" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-375">[368]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-376" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-376">[369]</a></sup> However, forms of English spoken in Singapore range from <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Standard_English" class="mw-redirect" title="Singapore Standard English">Standard Singapore English</a> to a colloquial form known as "<a href="/wiki/Singlish" title="Singlish">Singlish</a>", which is discouraged by the government as it claims to be a substandard <a href="/wiki/English-based_creole_language" title="English-based creole language">English creole</a> that handicaps Singaporeans, presenting an obstacle to learning standard English and renders the speaker incomprehensible to everyone except to another Singlish speaker.<sup id="cite_ref-377" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-377">[370]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Education">Education</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Education_in_Singapore" title="Education in Singapore">Education in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Management_University_17,_Aug_06.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Singapore_Management_University_17%2C_Aug_06.JPG/220px-Singapore_Management_University_17%2C_Aug_06.JPG" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Singapore_Management_University_17%2C_Aug_06.JPG/330px-Singapore_Management_University_17%2C_Aug_06.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Singapore_Management_University_17%2C_Aug_06.JPG/440px-Singapore_Management_University_17%2C_Aug_06.JPG 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1200" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Management_University_17,_Aug_06.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Management_University" title="Singapore Management University">Singapore Management University</a> is one of six <a href="/wiki/List_of_universities_in_Singapore" title="List of universities in Singapore">autonomous universities</a> in the city-state</div></div></div>
<p>Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Education_(Singapore)" title="Ministry of Education (Singapore)">Ministry of Education</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-378" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-378">[371]</a></sup> English is the language of instruction in all public schools,<sup id="cite_ref-379" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-379">[372]</a></sup> and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "<a href="/wiki/Mother_tongue" class="mw-redirect" title="Mother tongue">mother tongue</a>" language paper.<sup id="cite_ref-380" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-380">[373]</a></sup> While the term "mother tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Singapore's education system, it is used to refer to the second language, as English is the first language.<sup id="cite_ref-381" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-381">[374]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-382" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-382">[375]</a></sup> Students who have been abroad for a while, or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language, are allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject.<sup id="cite_ref-383" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-383">[376]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-384" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-384">[377]</a></sup>
</p><p>Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, <a href="/wiki/Mathematics" title="Mathematics">mathematics</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Natural_science" title="Natural science">science</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Primary_385-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Primary-385">[378]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-386" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-386">[379]</a></sup> Secondary school lasts from four to five years, and is divided between Special, Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level.<sup id="cite_ref-Secondary_387-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Secondary-387">[380]</a></sup> The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised.<sup id="cite_ref-388" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-388">[381]</a></sup> Pre-university education takes place over two to three years at senior schools, mostly called <a href="/wiki/Junior_college_(Singapore)" title="Junior college (Singapore)">Junior Colleges</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Pre-university_389-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Pre-university-389">[382]</a></sup> As alternatives to Pre-U education, however, courses are offered in other post-secondary education institutions, including 5 polytechnics and the <a href="/wiki/Institute_of_Technical_Education" title="Institute of Technical Education">Institutes of Technical Education</a> (ITEs). Singapore has six public universities<sup id="cite_ref-390" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-390">[383]</a></sup> of which the <a href="/wiki/National_University_of_Singapore" title="National University of Singapore">National University of Singapore</a> and <a href="/wiki/Nanyang_Technological_University" title="Nanyang Technological University">Nanyang Technological University</a> are among the top 20 universities in the world.<sup id="cite_ref-391" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-391">[384]</a></sup>
</p><p>National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the <a href="/wiki/Primary_School_Leaving_Examination" title="Primary School Leaving Examination">Primary School Leaving Examination</a> (PSLE),<sup id="cite_ref-Primary_385-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Primary-385">[378]</a></sup> which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, GCE <a href="/wiki/Singapore-Cambridge_GCE_Ordinary_Level" title="Singapore-Cambridge GCE Ordinary Level">O-Level</a> or N-level exams are taken;<sup id="cite_ref-392" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-392">[385]</a></sup> at the end of the following pre-university stage, the <a href="/wiki/Singapore-Cambridge_GCE_Advanced_Level" title="Singapore-Cambridge GCE Advanced Level">GCE A-Level</a> exams are taken.<sup id="cite_ref-393" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-393">[386]</a></sup> Some schools have a degree of freedom in their curriculum and are known as autonomous schools, for <a href="/wiki/Secondary_education_in_Singapore" title="Secondary education in Singapore">secondary education</a> level and above.<sup id="cite_ref-Secondary_387-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Secondary-387">[380]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore is also an education hub, with more than 80,000 international students in 2006.<sup id="cite_ref-394" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-394">[387]</a></sup> 5,000 Malaysian students cross the <a href="/wiki/Johor%E2%80%93Singapore_Causeway" title="Johor–Singapore Causeway">Johor–Singapore Causeway</a> daily to attend schools in Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-395" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-395">[388]</a></sup> In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international students—the maximum cap allowed, a majority from ASEAN, China and India.<sup id="cite_ref-396" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-396">[389]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore students have excelled in many of the world education benchmarks in maths, science and reading. In 2015, both its primary and secondary students rank first in <a href="/wiki/Organisation_for_Economic_Co-operation_and_Development" class="mw-redirect" title="Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development">OECD's</a> global school performance rankings across 76 countries—described as the most comprehensive map of education standards.<sup id="cite_ref-397" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-397">[390]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-398" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-398">[391]</a></sup> In 2016, Singapore students topped both the <a href="/wiki/Program_International_Student_Assessment" class="mw-redirect" title="Program International Student Assessment">Program International Student Assessment</a> (PISA)<sup id="cite_ref-399" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-399">[392]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-400" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-400">[393]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-401" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-401">[394]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-402" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-402">[395]</a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Trends_in_International_Mathematics_and_Science_Study" title="Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study">Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study</a> (TIMSS).<sup id="cite_ref-403" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-403">[396]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-404" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-404">[397]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-405" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-405">[398]</a></sup> In the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index taken in 72 countries, Singapore place 6th and has been the only Asian country in the top ten.<sup id="cite_ref-406" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-406">[399]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-407" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-407">[400]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-408" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-408">[401]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-409" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-409">[402]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Healthcare">Healthcare</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Healthcare_in_Singapore" title="Healthcare in Singapore">Healthcare in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:KRW_Facade2_final.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/KRW_Facade2_final.jpg/220px-KRW_Facade2_final.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="143" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/KRW_Facade2_final.jpg/330px-KRW_Facade2_final.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c0/KRW_Facade2_final.jpg/440px-KRW_Facade2_final.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1043" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:KRW_Facade2_final.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/National_University_Hospital" title="National University Hospital">National University Hospital</a> is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries.<sup id="cite_ref-Wyatt_410-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wyatt-410">[403]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/World_Health_Organization" title="World Health Organization">World Health Organisation</a> ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its <a href="/wiki/World_Health_Report" title="World Health Report">World Health Report</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-WHO_411-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WHO-411">[404]</a></sup> In general, Singapore has had the <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_infant_mortality_rate" class="mw-redirect" title="List of countries by infant mortality rate">lowest infant mortality rates in the world</a> for the past two decades.<sup id="cite_ref-singstat2014births&deaths_412-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat2014births&deaths-412">[405]</a></sup> Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country <a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_life_expectancy#List_by_the_World_Health_Organization_(2011)" title="List of countries by life expectancy">4th in the world for life expectancy</a>, as almost the whole population has access to improved water and <a href="/wiki/Sanitation" title="Sanitation">sanitation</a> facilities.<sup id="cite_ref-413" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-413">[406]</a></sup>
</p><p>As of December 2011 and January 2013, 8,800 foreigners and 5,400 Singaporeans were respectively diagnosed with HIV,<sup id="cite_ref-414" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-414">[407]</a></sup> but there are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of <a href="/wiki/Immunisation" class="mw-redirect" title="Immunisation">immunisation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-415" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-415">[408]</a></sup> Adult obesity is below 10%.<sup id="cite_ref-autogenerated2_416-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated2-416">[409]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Economist_Intelligence_Unit" title="Economist Intelligence Unit">Economist Intelligence Unit</a>, in its 2013 <a href="/wiki/Where-to-be-born_Index#2013_rankings" title="Where-to-be-born Index">Where-to-be-born Index</a>, ranked Singapore as having the best quality of life in Asia and sixth overall in the world.<sup id="cite_ref-417" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-417">[410]</a></sup>
</p><p>The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, <a href="/wiki/Medisave" title="Medisave">Medisave</a>, a compulsory national <a href="/wiki/Medical_savings_account" title="Medical savings account">medical savings account</a> system covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program. Public hospitals in Singapore have a considerable autonomy in their management decisions, and notionally compete for patients, however they remain in government ownership and government appoints their boards and Chief Executive Officers and management reports and is responsible to these boards.<sup id="cite_ref-418" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-418">[411]</a></sup> A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income.<sup id="cite_ref-419" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-419">[412]</a></sup> In 2008, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.<sup id="cite_ref-420" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-420">[413]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2019, Singaporeans have the longest life expectancy of any country at 84.8 years. Females can expect to live an average of 87.6 years with 75.8 years in good health. The averages are lower for men.<sup id="cite_ref-auto_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-auto-29">[24]</a></sup> Singapore is ranked 1st on the <a href="/wiki/Global_Food_Security_Index" class="mw-redirect" title="Global Food Security Index">Global Food Security Index</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-421" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-421">[414]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Culture">Culture</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Culture_of_Singapore" title="Culture of Singapore">Culture of Singapore</a></div>
<p>Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures.<sup id="cite_ref-singapore21_422-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singapore21-422">[415]</a></sup> Former Prime Ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, have stated that Singapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs.<sup id="cite_ref-singapore21_422-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singapore21-422">[415]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-423" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-423">[416]</a></sup>
</p><p>From 1819, it served as a trading port for British ships on their way to India. Being a major trading hub and its close proximity to its neighbour Malaysia, Singapore was prone to many foreign influences, both from Britain and from other Asian countries. Chinese and Indian workers moved to Singapore to work at the harbour. The country remained a British colony until 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-424" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-424">[417]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg/170px-Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="280" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg/255px-Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg/340px-Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2304" data-file-height="3792" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827</div></div></div>
<p>When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most Singaporean citizens were transient labourers, seeking to make some money in Singapore, with no intention of staying permanently.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_425-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-425">[418]</a></sup> There was also a sizeable minority of middle-class, locally born people—known as <a href="/wiki/Peranakan" title="Peranakan">Peranakans</a> or Baba-Nyonya—descendants of 15th- and 16th-century Chinese immigrants. With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_425-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-425">[418]</a></sup>
</p><p>Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home <a href="/wiki/Language" title="Language">language</a> and his religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward <a href="/wiki/Western_culture" title="Western culture">Western culture</a>, while those who speak Chinese as their native language tend to lean toward <a href="/wiki/Chinese_culture" title="Chinese culture">Chinese culture</a> and <a href="/wiki/Confucianism" title="Confucianism">Confucianism</a>. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward <a href="/wiki/Ethnic_Malays" class="mw-redirect" title="Ethnic Malays">Malay culture</a>, which itself is closely linked to <a href="/wiki/Islamic_culture" title="Islamic culture">Islamic culture</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-426" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-426">[419]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-427" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-427">[420]</a></sup>
</p><p>Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singaporeans as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.<sup id="cite_ref-428" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-428">[421]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-429" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-429">[422]</a></sup>
</p><p>The national flower of Singapore is the <a href="/wiki/Hybrid_plant" class="mw-redirect" title="Hybrid plant">hybrid</a> <a href="/wiki/Orchid" class="mw-redirect" title="Orchid">orchid</a>, <a href="/wiki/Vanda_%27Miss_Joaquim%27" class="mw-redirect" title="Vanda 'Miss Joaquim'">Vanda 'Miss Joaquim'</a>, named in memory of a Singapore-born <a href="/wiki/Armenians" title="Armenians">Armenian</a> woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden at <a href="/wiki/Tanjong_Pagar" title="Tanjong Pagar">Tanjong Pagar</a> in 1893.<sup id="cite_ref-430" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-430">[423]</a></sup> Many national symbols such as the <a href="/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore" title="Coat of arms of Singapore">Coat of arms of Singapore</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Lion_head_symbol_of_Singapore" title="Lion head symbol of Singapore">Lion head symbol of Singapore</a> make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the <i>Lion City</i>. Major religious festivals are <a href="/wiki/Public_holidays_in_Singapore" title="Public holidays in Singapore">public holidays</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-431" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-431">[424]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore has a reputation as a <a href="/wiki/Nanny_state" title="Nanny state">nanny state</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-432" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-432">[425]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-433" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-433">[426]</a></sup> The government also places heavy emphasis on <a href="/wiki/Meritocracy" title="Meritocracy">meritocracy</a>, where one is judged based on one's ability.<sup id="cite_ref-434" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-434">[427]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Arts">Arts</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Dance_in_Singapore" title="Dance in Singapore">Dance in Singapore</a>, <a href="/wiki/Singaporean_literature" title="Singaporean literature">Singaporean literature</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Music_of_Singapore" title="Music of Singapore">Music of Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:National_Gallery_2_(31322988764).jpg" class="image"><img alt="The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Southeast Asian and Singapore art" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/National_Gallery_2_%2831322988764%29.jpg/220px-National_Gallery_2_%2831322988764%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="163" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/National_Gallery_2_%2831322988764%29.jpg/330px-National_Gallery_2_%2831322988764%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/National_Gallery_2_%2831322988764%29.jpg/440px-National_Gallery_2_%2831322988764%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4127" data-file-height="3056" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:National_Gallery_2_(31322988764).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/National_Gallery_Singapore" title="National Gallery Singapore">National Gallery Singapore</a> oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art</div></div></div>
<p>Since the 1990s when the <a href="/wiki/National_Arts_Council_(Singapore)" class="mw-redirect" title="National Arts Council (Singapore)">National Arts Council</a> was created to spearhead the development of performing arts, visual and literary art forms, to hasten a vibrant cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".<sup id="cite_ref-435" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-435">[428]</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/National_Gallery_Singapore" title="National Gallery Singapore">National Gallery Singapore</a> is the nation's flagship museum with some 8,000 works of Singapore and South East Asian artists. The <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Art_Museum" title="Singapore Art Museum">Singapore Art Museum</a> focuses on contemporary art. The <a href="/wiki/Red_Dot" title="Red Dot">Red Dot</a> Design Museum celebrates exceptional art and design of objects for everyday life, from more than 1,000 items from 50 countries. The lotus-shaped <a href="/wiki/ArtScience_Museum" title="ArtScience Museum">ArtScience Museum</a> host touring exhibitions that combine art with the sciences. Other major museums include the <a href="/wiki/Asian_Civilisations_Museum" title="Asian Civilisations Museum">Asian Civilisations Museum</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peranakan_Museum" title="Peranakan Museum">Peranakan Museum</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Arts_House" title="The Arts House">The Arts House</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-436" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-436">[429]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Esplanade_%E2%80%93_Theatres_on_the_Bay" title="Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay">The Esplanade</a> is Singapore's largest performing arts centre with many performances throughout the year, including 5,900 free arts and culture events in 2016.<sup id="cite_ref-437" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-437">[430]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-CNA1_438-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CNA1-438">[431]</a></sup> Some of the major music and dance groups include the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Symphony_Orchestra" title="Singapore Symphony Orchestra">Singapore Symphony Orchestra</a>, <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Chinese_Orchestra" title="Singapore Chinese Orchestra">Singapore Chinese Orchestra</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Dance_Theatre" title="Singapore Dance Theatre">Singapore Dance Theatre</a>.
</p><p>Literature of Singapore, or <i>SingLit</i>, comprises a collection of literary works by Singaporeans written chiefly in the country's four official languages: <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English language">English</a>, <a href="/wiki/Malay_language" title="Malay language">Malay</a>, <a href="/wiki/Standard_Chinese" title="Standard Chinese">Standard Mandarin</a> and <a href="/wiki/Tamil_language" title="Tamil language">Tamil</a>. It is increasingly regarded as having four sub-literatures instead of one. Many significant works has been translated and showcased in publications such as the literary journal <i>Singa</i>, published in the 1980s and 1990s with editors including <a href="/wiki/Edwin_Thumboo" title="Edwin Thumboo">Edwin Thumboo</a> and <a href="/wiki/Koh_Buck_Song" title="Koh Buck Song">Koh Buck Song</a>, as well as in multilingual anthologies such as <i>Rhythms: A Singaporean Millennial Anthology Of Poetry</i> (2000), in which the poems were all translated three times each into the three languages. A number of Singaporean writers such as <a href="/wiki/Tan_Swie_Hian" title="Tan Swie Hian">Tan Swie Hian</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kuo_Pao_Kun" title="Kuo Pao Kun">Kuo Pao Kun</a> have contributed work in more than one language.<sup id="cite_ref-439" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-439">[432]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-440" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-440">[433]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_(cropped).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_%28cropped%29.jpg/170px-%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_%28cropped%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="255" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_%28cropped%29.jpg/255px-%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_%28cropped%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_%28cropped%29.jpg/340px-%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_%28cropped%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2848" data-file-height="4272" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:%E6%9E%97%E4%BF%8A%E5%82%91_%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%8D%E6%9C%83%E6%85%B6%E5%8A%9F%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83_(cropped).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/JJ_Lin" title="JJ Lin">JJ Lin</a>, award-winning singer, songwriter, record producer, and actor also famous in the sinosphere such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China.</div></div></div>
<p>Singapore has a diverse music culture that ranges from pop and rock, to folk and classical. Western classical music plays a significant role in the cultural life in Singapore, with the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Symphony_Orchestra" title="Singapore Symphony Orchestra">Singapore Symphony Orchestra</a> (SSO) instituted in 1979. Other notable western orchestras in Singapore include <a href="/wiki/Singapore_National_Youth_Orchestra" title="Singapore National Youth Orchestra">Singapore National Youth Orchestra</a> which is funded by the Ministry of Education<sup id="cite_ref-441" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-441">[434]</a></sup> and the community-based <a href="/wiki/Braddell_Heights_Symphony_Orchestra" title="Braddell Heights Symphony Orchestra">Braddell Heights Symphony Orchestra</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-442" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-442">[435]</a></sup> Many orchestras and ensembles are also found in secondary schools and junior colleges. Various communities have their own distinct ethnic musical traditions: Chinese, Malays, Indians, and Eurasians. With their traditional forms of music and various modern musical styles, the fusion of different forms account for the musical diversity in the country.<sup id="cite_ref-garland_443-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-garland-443">[436]</a></sup> The nation's lively urban musical scene has made it a centre for international performances and festivals in the region. Some of Singapore's best known pop singers includes <a href="/wiki/Stefanie_Sun" title="Stefanie Sun">Stefanie Sun</a>, <a href="/wiki/JJ_Lin" title="JJ Lin">JJ Lin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Liang_Wern_Fook" title="Liang Wern Fook">Liang Wern Fook</a>, <a href="/wiki/Taufik_Batisah" title="Taufik Batisah">Taufik Batisah</a> and <a href="/wiki/Dick_Lee" title="Dick Lee">Dick Lee</a>, who is famous for composing National Day theme songs, including <i>Home</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-444" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-444">[437]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-445" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-445">[438]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Cuisine">Cuisine</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Singaporean_cuisine" title="Singaporean cuisine">Singaporean cuisine</a></div>
<p>Singapore's diversity of cuisine is touted as a reason to visit the country, one of the best locations when it comes to a combination of convenience, variety, quality and price.<sup id="cite_ref-Foodways_446-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Foodways-446">[439]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Hainanese_chicken_rice" title="Hainanese chicken rice">Hainanese chicken rice</a> (<span lang="zh">海南鸡饭</span>; <i><span lang="zh-Latn-pinyin">Hǎinán jī fàn</span></i>), based on the Hainanese dish <a href="/wiki/Wenchang_chicken" title="Wenchang chicken">Wenchang chicken</a>, is considered Singapore's national dish.<sup id="cite_ref-farleyBBC6nov2015_447-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-farleyBBC6nov2015-447">[440]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-lingCNN14apr2010_448-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lingCNN14apr2010-448">[441]</a></sup>
</p><p>The city-state has a burgeoning food scene ranging from hawker centres (open-air), food courts (air-conditioned), coffee shops (open-air with up to a dozen hawker stalls), cafes, fast food, simple kitchens, casual, celebrity and high-end restaurants.<sup id="cite_ref-streetfood_449-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-streetfood-449">[442]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Cloud_kitchen" class="mw-redirect" title="Cloud kitchen">Cloud kitchens</a> and food delivery are also on the rise, with 70% of residents ordering from delivery apps at least once a month.<sup id="cite_ref-450" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-450">[443]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-451" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-451">[444]</a></sup> Many international <a href="/wiki/Celebrity_chef" title="Celebrity chef">celebrity chef</a> restaurants are located within the <a href="/wiki/Integrated_resort" title="Integrated resort">integrated resorts</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-452" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-452">[445]</a></sup> Religious dietary strictures exist – Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not eat beef, and there is also a significant group of vegetarians. The <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Food_Festival" title="Singapore Food Festival">Singapore Food Festival</a> which celebrates Singapore's cuisine is held in July annually.<sup id="cite_ref-SFF_453-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SFF-453">[446]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Hawker_Centres">Hawker Centres</span></h4>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market,_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Satay stalls along Boon Tat Street next to Telok Ayer Market, better known as Lau Pa Sat" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market%2C_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg/220px-Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market%2C_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market%2C_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg/330px-Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market%2C_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market%2C_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg/440px-Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market%2C_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg 2x" data-file-width="6000" data-file-height="4000" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Satay_stalls_along_Boon_Tat_Street_next_to_Telok_Ayer_Market,_Singapore_-_20120629-02.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Lau_Pa_Sat" title="Lau Pa Sat">Lau Pa Sat</a> <a href="/wiki/Hawker_centre" title="Hawker centre">hawker centre</a> in the midst of the financial district. <a href="/wiki/Satay" title="Satay">Satay</a> cart-stalls rolls in after dusk, on a side street</div></div></div>
<p>Prior to the 1980s, <a href="/wiki/Street_food" title="Street food">street food</a> were mainly sold by immigrants from China, India and Malaysia to other immigrants seeking a familiar taste. In Singapore, street food has long migrated into <a href="/wiki/Hawker_centre" title="Hawker centre">hawker centres</a> with communal seating areas. Typically, these centres have a few dozen to hundreds of food stalls, with each specialising in a single or a number of related dishes. The choices are almost overwhelming even for locals.<sup id="cite_ref-fodor_454-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fodor-454">[447]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-streetfood_449-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-streetfood-449">[442]</a></sup> Although cooked food that originates from or still sold on streets can be found in many countries, the variety and reach of centralised hawker centres that serve heritage street food in Singapore is unmatched elsewhere.<sup id="cite_ref-Hawker2007_455-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hawker2007-455">[448]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2018, there are 114 hawker centres spread across the city centre and heartland housing estates. They are maintained by the <a href="/wiki/National_Environment_Agency" title="National Environment Agency">National Environment Agency</a>, which also grade each food stall for hygiene. The largest hawker centre is located on the second floor of Chinatown Complex with over 200 stalls.<sup id="cite_ref-Hawker2007_455-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hawker2007-455">[448]</a></sup> The complex is also home to the cheapest Michelin-starred meal in the world – a plate of soya-sauce chicken rice or noodles for S$2 (US$1.50). Two street food stalls in the city are the first in the world to be awarded a Michelin star each.<sup id="cite_ref-456" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-456">[449]</a></sup>
</p><p>Local food items generally belong to a particular ethnicity – Chinese, Malay and Indian; but diversity of cuisine has increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles (e.g., the <a href="/wiki/Peranakan_cuisine" title="Peranakan cuisine">Peranakan cuisine</a>, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine). In hawker centres, cultural diffusion can also be noted when traditionally Malay hawker stalls also sells Tamil food. Chinese stalls may introduce Malay ingredients, cooking techniques or entire dishes into their range of catering.<sup id="cite_ref-Foodways_446-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Foodways-446">[439]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Sport_and_recreation">Sport and recreation</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Sport_in_Singapore" title="Sport in Singapore">Sport in Singapore</a></div>
<p>The development of private sports and recreation clubs began in the 19th century colonial Singapore, such as the Cricket Club, Singapore Recreation Club, Singapore Swimming Club, Hollandse Club and others.<sup id="cite_ref-457" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-457">[450]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg/170px-Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="230" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg/255px-Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg/340px-Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg 2x" data-file-width="912" data-file-height="1232" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Joseph_Schooling_Kazan_2015.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Joseph_Schooling" title="Joseph Schooling">Joseph Schooling</a> is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the <a href="/wiki/Swimming_at_the_2016_Summer_Olympics_%E2%80%93_Men%27s_100_metre_butterfly" title="Swimming at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metre butterfly">Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Schooling-Rio_458-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Schooling-Rio-458">[451]</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>Water sports are some of the most popular in Singapore. At the 2016 Rio Olympics, <a href="/wiki/Joseph_Schooling" title="Joseph Schooling">Joseph Schooling</a> won Singapore's first Olympic gold medal, claiming the 100-metre butterfly in a new Olympic record time of 50.39 seconds. Three swimmers including <a href="/wiki/Michael_Phelps" title="Michael Phelps">Michael Phelps</a>, were in an unprecedented three-way tie for silver.<sup id="cite_ref-Schooling-Rio_458-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Schooling-Rio-458">[451]</a></sup> Singapore sailors have had success on the international stage, with their <a href="/wiki/Optimist_(dinghy)" title="Optimist (dinghy)">Optimist</a> team being considered among the best in the world.<sup id="cite_ref-459" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-459">[452]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-460" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-460">[453]</a></sup> Despite its size, the country has dominated swim meets in the <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia_Games" class="mw-redirect" title="Southeast Asia Games">Southeast Asia Games</a> (SEA). Its men water polo team has won the SEA Games gold medal for the 27th time in 2017, continuing Singapore sport's longest winning streak.<sup id="cite_ref-461" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-461">[454]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore's table tennis women team reached their peak as silver medalists at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.<sup id="cite_ref-462" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-462">[455]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-463" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-463">[456]</a></sup> They were also world champions in 2010 when they beat China at the World Team Table Tennis Championships in Russia, breaking the latter's 19-year winning streak.<sup id="cite_ref-464" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-464">[457]</a></sup> Weightlifter <a href="/wiki/Tan_Howe_Liang" title="Tan Howe Liang">Tan Howe Liang</a> was Singapore's first Olympic medalist, winning a silver at the 1960 Rome Games.<sup id="cite_ref-465" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-465">[458]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore's <a href="/wiki/Association_football" title="Association football">football</a> league, the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Premier_League" title="Singapore Premier League">Singapore Premier League</a>, was launched in 1996 as the S.League and currently comprises nine clubs, including two foreign teams.<sup id="cite_ref-466" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-466">[459]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-467" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-467">[460]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Slingers" title="Singapore Slingers">Singapore Slingers</a>, formerly the Hunter Pirates in the <a href="/wiki/Australian_National_Basketball_League" class="mw-redirect" title="Australian National Basketball League">Australian National Basketball League</a>, is one of the inaugural teams in the <a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Basketball_League" title="ASEAN Basketball League">ASEAN Basketball League</a> which was founded in October 2009.<sup id="cite_ref-468" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-468">[461]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Kranji_Racecourse" title="Kranji Racecourse">Kranji Racecourse</a> is run by the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Turf_Club" title="Singapore Turf Club">Singapore Turf Club</a> and hosts several meetings per week, including international races—notably the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Airlines_International_Cup" title="Singapore Airlines International Cup">Singapore Airlines International Cup</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-469" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-469">[462]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore began hosting a round of the <a href="/wiki/Formula_One_World_Championship" class="mw-redirect" title="Formula One World Championship">Formula One World Championship</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Grand_Prix" title="Singapore Grand Prix">Singapore Grand Prix</a> at the <a href="/wiki/Marina_Bay_Street_Circuit" title="Marina Bay Street Circuit">Marina Bay Street Circuit</a> in 2008. It was the inaugural F1 night race,<sup id="cite_ref-News_–_Singapore_confirms_2008_night_race_470-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-News_–_Singapore_confirms_2008_night_race-470">[463]</a></sup> and the first F1 street race in Asia.<sup id="cite_ref-1stStreet_471-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1stStreet-471">[464]</a></sup> It is considered a signature event on the F1 calendar.<sup id="cite_ref-472" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-472">[465]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore hosted the inaugural <a href="/wiki/2010_Summer_Youth_Olympics" title="2010 Summer Youth Olympics">2010 Summer Youth Olympics</a>, in which 3,600 athletes from 204 nations competed in 26 sports.<sup id="cite_ref-Singapore_to_host_first_edition_of_the_Youth_Olympic_Games_in_2010_473-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Singapore_to_host_first_edition_of_the_Youth_Olympic_Games_in_2010-473">[466]</a></sup> The island is home to <a href="/wiki/ONE_Championship" title="ONE Championship">ONE Championship</a>, the biggest <a href="/wiki/Mixed_Martial_Arts" class="mw-redirect" title="Mixed Martial Arts">Mixed Martial Arts</a> promotion in Asia.<sup id="cite_ref-474" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-474">[467]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Media">Media</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Media_of_Singapore" title="Media of Singapore">Media of Singapore</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Telecommunications_in_Singapore" title="Telecommunications in Singapore">Telecommunications in Singapore</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/03/Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg/220px-Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="107" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/03/Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg/330px-Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/03/Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg/440px-Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg 2x" data-file-width="5654" data-file-height="2748" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Singapore_Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Communications_and_Information" title="Ministry of Communications and Information">Ministry of Communications and Information</a> oversees the development of <a href="/wiki/Infocomm" class="mw-redirect" title="Infocomm">Infocomm</a>, Media and <a href="/wiki/The_arts" title="The arts">the arts</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-freedomhouse_a_475-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-freedomhouse_a-475">[468]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/MediaCorp" class="mw-redirect" title="MediaCorp">MediaCorp</a> operates most <a href="/wiki/Television_in_Singapore" title="Television in Singapore">free-to-air television channels</a> and <a href="/wiki/List_of_radio_stations_in_Singapore" title="List of radio stations in Singapore">free-to-air radio stations</a> in Singapore. There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp.<sup id="cite_ref-476" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-476">[469]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-477" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-477">[470]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Starhub" class="mw-redirect" title="Starhub">Starhub</a> Cable Vision (SCV) also offers cable television with channels from all around the world,<sup id="cite_ref-478" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-478">[471]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Singtel" title="Singtel">Singtel</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Mio_TV" class="mw-redirect" title="Mio TV">Mio TV</a> provides an <a href="/wiki/IPTV" class="mw-redirect" title="IPTV">IPTV</a> service.<sup id="cite_ref-479" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-479">[472]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Press_Holdings" title="Singapore Press Holdings">Singapore Press Holdings</a>, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-BBC_Media_480-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC_Media-480">[473]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being overly regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as <a href="/wiki/Freedom_House" title="Freedom House">Freedom House</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-freedomhouse_a_475-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-freedomhouse_a-475">[468]</a></sup> Self-censorship among journalists is said to be common.<sup id="cite_ref-BBC_Media_480-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC_Media-480">[473]</a></sup> In 2014, Singapore dipped to its lowest ranking ever (153rd of 180 nations) on the <a href="/wiki/Press_Freedom_Index" title="Press Freedom Index">Press Freedom Index</a> published by the French <a href="/wiki/Reporters_Without_Borders" title="Reporters Without Borders">Reporters Without Borders</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-481" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-481">[474]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Media_Development_Authority" title="Media Development Authority">Media Development Authority</a> regulates Singaporean media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material.<sup id="cite_ref-Mica_482-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mica-482">[475]</a></sup> Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned.<sup id="cite_ref-BBC_Media_480-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC_Media-480">[473]</a></sup> 
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Internet_in_Singapore" title="Internet in Singapore">Internet in Singapore</a> is provided by state owned <a href="/wiki/Singtel" title="Singtel">Singtel</a>, partially state owned <a href="/wiki/Starhub" class="mw-redirect" title="Starhub">Starhub</a> and <a href="/wiki/M1_Limited" title="M1 Limited">M1 Limited</a> as well as some other business <a href="/wiki/Internet_service_provider" title="Internet service provider">internet service providers</a> (ISPs) that offer residential service plans of speeds up to 2 <a href="/wiki/Gbit/s" class="mw-redirect" title="Gbit/s">Gbit/s</a> as of spring 2015.<sup id="cite_ref-483" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-483">[476]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Equinix" title="Equinix">Equinix</a> (332 participants) and also its smaller brother <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Internet_Exchange" title="Singapore Internet Exchange">Singapore Internet Exchange</a> (70 participants) are <a href="/wiki/Internet_exchange_point" title="Internet exchange point">Internet exchange points</a> where <a href="/wiki/Internet_service_provider" title="Internet service provider">Internet service providers</a> and <a href="/wiki/Content_delivery_network" title="Content delivery network">Content delivery networks</a> exchange Internet traffic between their networks (<a href="/wiki/Autonomous_system_(Internet)" title="Autonomous system (Internet)">autonomous systems</a>) in various locations in Singapore.<sup id="cite_ref-484" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-484">[477]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-485" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-485">[478]</a></sup> In the mid-1980s to 1990s, Singaporeans could also use the locally based videotext service <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Teleview" title="Singapore Teleview">Singapore Teleview</a> to communicate with one another.<sup id="cite_ref-sandfort_486-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sandfort-486">[479]</a></sup> The phrase <i>Intelligent Island</i> arose in the 1990s in reference to the island nation's early adaptive relationship with the internet.<sup id="cite_ref-sandfort_486-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sandfort-486">[479]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-487" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-487">[480]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2016, there were an estimated 4.7 million internet users in Singapore, representing 82.5% of the population.<sup id="cite_ref-488" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-488">[481]</a></sup> The Singapore government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet,<sup id="cite_ref-489" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-489">[482]</a></sup> but it maintains a list of one hundred websites—mostly pornographic—that it blocks as a "symbolic statement of the Singaporean community's stand on harmful and undesirable content on the Internet".<sup id="cite_ref-490" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-490">[483]</a></sup> As the block covers only home internet access, users may still visit the blocked websites from their office computers.<sup id="cite_ref-491" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-491">[484]</a></sup>
</p><p>Singapore has the world's highest <a href="/wiki/Smartphone" title="Smartphone">smartphone</a> penetration rates, in surveys by <a href="/wiki/Deloitte" title="Deloitte">Deloitte</a><sup id="cite_ref-492" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-492">[485]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-493" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-493">[486]</a></sup> and Google Consumer Barometer – at 89% and 85% of the population respectively in 2014.<sup id="cite_ref-494" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-494">[487]</a></sup> Overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 148 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people.<sup id="cite_ref-singstat2014mobile_495-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-singstat2014mobile-495">[488]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r936637989">.mw-parser-output .portal{border:solid #aaa 1px;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .portal.tleft{margin:0.5em 1em 0.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .portal.tright{margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul{display:table;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0.1em;max-width:175px;background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li{display:table-row}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li>span:first-child{display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li>span:last-child{display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle}</style><div role="navigation" aria-label="Portals" class="noprint portal plainlist tright">
<ul>
<li><span><img alt="flag" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/32px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="32" height="21" class="noviewer thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/48px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/64px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /></span><span><a href="/wiki/Portal:Singapore" title="Portal:Singapore">Singapore portal</a></span></li>
<li><span><a href="/wiki/File:Asia_(orthographic_projection).svg" class="image"><img alt="icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/28px-Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="28" height="28" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/42px-Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/56px-Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="541" data-file-height="541" /></a></span><span><a href="/wiki/Portal:Asia" title="Portal:Asia">Asia portal</a></span></li></ul></div>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Index_of_Singapore-related_articles" title="Index of Singapore-related articles">Index of Singapore-related articles</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Outline_of_Singapore" title="Outline of Singapore">Outline of Singapore</a></li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<dl><dt>Notes</dt></dl>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">English is the <i>de facto</i> main official language in Singapore, and is the language of instruction in all school subjects except for <a href="/wiki/First_language#Defining_"native_language"" title="First language">mother tongue</a> lessons in <a href="/wiki/Education_in_Singapore" title="Education in Singapore">Singapore's education system</a>. It is also the main language used in <a href="/wiki/Government_of_Singapore" title="Government of Singapore">administration</a>, <a href="/wiki/Law_of_Singapore" title="Law of Singapore">law</a> and <a href="/wiki/Economy_of_Singapore" title="Economy of Singapore">business</a>. It is the default <a href="/wiki/Lingua_franca" title="Lingua franca">lingua franca</a> despite four languages having official status to bridge the <a href="/wiki/Social_distance" title="Social distance">social distance</a> between the various groups of ethnic language speakers in the country.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-TanShermanp340-341_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TanShermanp340-341-6">[6]</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Of which 3,471,900 are citizens.<sup id="cite_ref-Population_and_Population_Structure_11-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Population_and_Population_Structure-11">[10]</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The Straits Settlements were originally composed of (in chronological order) the <a href="/wiki/British_Malaya" title="British Malaya">British Malayan</a> territories of <a href="/wiki/Penang" title="Penang">Penang</a>, Singapore, <a href="/wiki/Malacca" title="Malacca">Malacca</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Manjung_District" title="Manjung District">Dindings</a>. In the 1880s, the Settlements were expanded to include the British Indian Ocean territories of <a href="/wiki/Christmas_Island" title="Christmas Island">Christmas Island</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands" title="Cocos (Keeling) Islands">Cocos (Keeling) Islands</a>. The last territory to be incorporated into the Settlements was the <a href="/wiki/British_Borneo" title="British Borneo">British Bornean</a> territory of <a href="/wiki/Crown_Colony_of_Labuan" title="Crown Colony of Labuan">Labuan</a> in 1907.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Singapore federated with three other entities to form the country of Malaysia. <br /><br /> The first entity was the <a href="/wiki/Federation_of_Malaya" title="Federation of Malaya">Federation of Malaya</a>, which was the decolonised agglomeration of the erstwhile <a href="/wiki/British_Malaya" title="British Malaya">British Malaya</a> – composed of the <a href="/wiki/Unfederated_Malay_States" title="Unfederated Malay States">Unfederated Malay States</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Federated_Malay_States" title="Federated Malay States">Federated Malay States</a>, and the peninsular <a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements</a> of <a href="/wiki/Penang" title="Penang">Penang</a>, <a href="/wiki/Malacca" title="Malacca">Malacca</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Manjung_District" title="Manjung District">Dindings</a> (not including Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, but including Labuan, which was annexed to North Borneo in 1946). <br /><br /> The second and third entities were the <a href="/wiki/British_Borneo" title="British Borneo">British Bornean</a> crown colonies of <a href="/wiki/Crown_Colony_of_Sarawak" title="Crown Colony of Sarawak">Sarawak</a> and <a href="/wiki/Crown_Colony_of_North_Borneo" title="Crown Colony of North Borneo">North Borneo</a>, respectively; the latter came to be known as <a href="/wiki/Sabah" title="Sabah">Sabah</a> after the formation of Malaysia.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Singapore's secession from the Malaysian Federation in 1965 remains a contentious issue without a set narrative. The popular narrative is that Singapore was unanimously expelled from Malaysia, becoming the first country in modern history to gain independence against its will. This is factually accurate, as the Malaysian Parliament voted 126 to 0 in favour of expelling Singapore. <br /><br /> However, historians believe that Singapore's expulsion was almost certainly inevitable, being precipitated by the steadfast insistence of Singapore's political leaders on the concept of a <a href="/wiki/Malaysian_Malaysia" title="Malaysian Malaysia">Malaysian Malaysia</a>, not a <a href="/wiki/Malays_(ethnic_group)" title="Malays (ethnic group)">Malay</a>-dominated Malaysia. It is believed that Singapore's political class might have been acutely aware of the prospect of Singapore's secession because of the instability and acrimony brought about by the incompatibility of worldviews within the Federation.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">[15]</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Although the 1613 sack of Singapura by the Portuguese resulted in the termination of the island's status as a trade emporium, it continued to remain under the nominal suzerainty of the Johor Sultanate for the next two centuries.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-86"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-86">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The break down of British Empire losses included 38,496 United Kingdom, 18,490 Australian, 67,340 Indian and 14,382 local volunteer troops. Total Australian casualties included 1,789 killed and 1,306 wounded.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382_81-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382-81">[75]</a></sup></span>
</li>
</ol></div></div>
<dl><dt>References</dt></dl>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns"><ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.britannica.com/place/Singapore-capital">"Singapore"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 August</span> 2019</span>. <q>The city, once a distinct entity, so came to dominate the island that the Republic of Singapore essentially became a city-state.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Singapore&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.britannica.com%2Fplace%2FSingapore-capital&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r935243608">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Gupta, A.F.  Fischer, K. (ed.). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.leeds.ac.uk/english/staff/afg/pragp3.doc">"Epistemic modalities and the discourse particles of Singapore"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(DOC)</span>. <i>Approaches to Discourse Particles</i>. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 244–263. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110205010214/http://www.leeds.ac.uk/english/staff/afg/pragp3.doc">Archived</a> from the original on 5 February 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 February</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Approaches+to+Discourse+Particles&rft.atitle=Epistemic+modalities+and+the+discourse+particles+of+Singapore&rft.pages=244-263&rft.aulast=Gupta&rft.aufirst=A.F.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.leeds.ac.uk%2Fenglish%2Fstaff%2Fafg%2Fpragp3.doc&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Dixon,_L._Quentin_2005_p._625-635_3-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Dixon, L. Quentin. (2005). The Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: Implications for Second Language Acquisition. In James Cohen, J., McAlister, K. T., Rolstad, K., and MacSwan, J (Eds.), <i>ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism</i>. p. 625-635, Cascadilla Press, Somerville, MA.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120306034004/http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/speeches/2000/sp31032000a.htm">"31 March 2000"</a>. Moe.gov.sg. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/speeches/2000/sp31032000a.htm">the original</a> on 6 March 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">27 January</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=31+March+2000&rft.pub=Moe.gov.sg&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.moe.gov.sg%2Fmedia%2Fspeeches%2F2000%2Fsp31032000a.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://blogs.nlb.gov.sg/ask/children/481">What are some commonly misspelled English words?|ASK!ASK!</a><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120303222846/https://blogs.nlb.gov.sg/ask/children/481">Archived</a> 3 March 2012 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-TanShermanp340-341-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-TanShermanp340-341_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-TanShermanp340-341_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Tan, Sherman, p. 340-341. "The four recognised official languages are English, Mandarin, Tamil, and Malay, but in practice, English is Singapore's default lingua franca."</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Singapore_Statutes_Online-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Singapore_Statutes_Online_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/CONS1963">"Constitution of the Republic of Singapore"</a>. <i>Singapore Statutes Online</i>. Government of Singapore. 9 August 1965<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">28 February</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Singapore+Statutes+Online&rft.atitle=Constitution+of+the+Republic+of+Singapore&rft.date=1965-08-09&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fsso.agc.gov.sg%2FAct%2FCONS1963&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Singapore_Census_2015-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Singapore_Census_2015_9-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Singapore_Census_2015_9-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Singapore_Census_2015_9-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Statistics Singapore:
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<li id="cite_note-total_area_of_Singapore-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-total_area_of_Singapore_10-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.singstat.gov.sg/find-data/search-by-theme/society/environment/latest-data">"Environment"</a>. <i>Base</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 September</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Base&rft.atitle=Environment&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.singstat.gov.sg%2Ffind-data%2Fsearch-by-theme%2Fsociety%2Fenvironment%2Flatest-data&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="https://www.businessinsider.sg/singapore-military-best-air-force-navy-southeast-asia-2018-4/?r=US&IR=T">[2]</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-remains-top-asian-city-for-meetings">"Singapore remains top Asian city for meetings"</a>. <i>The Straits Times</i>. Singapore. 9 September 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Straits+Times&rft.atitle=Singapore+remains+top+Asian+city+for+meetings&rft.date=2015-09-09&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.straitstimes.com%2Fsingapore%2Fsingapore-remains-top-asian-city-for-meetings&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2017&ey=2024&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=60&pr1.y=11&c=137,516,453,576,178&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC&grp=0&a=">"Report for Selected Countries and Subjects"</a>. <i>www.imf.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 October</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.imf.org&rft.atitle=Report+for+Selected+Countries+and+Subjects&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.imf.org%2Fexternal%2Fpubs%2Fft%2Fweo%2F2019%2F01%2Fweodata%2Fweorept.aspx%3Fsy%3D2017%26ey%3D2024%26scsm%3D1%26ssd%3D1%26sort%3Dcountry%26ds%3D.%26br%3D1%26pr1.x%3D60%26pr1.y%3D11%26c%3D137%2C516%2C453%2C576%2C178%26s%3DNGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC%26grp%3D0%26a%3D&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-auto-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-auto_29-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-auto_29-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/singapore-tops-in-life-expectancy-at-848-years">"Singaporeans have world's longest life expectancy at 84.8 years"</a>. <i>The Straits Times</i>. 20 June 2019.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Straits+Times&rft.atitle=Singaporeans+have+world%27s+longest+life+expectancy+at+84.8+years&rft.date=2019-06-20&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.straitstimes.com%2Fsingapore%2Fhealth%2Fsingapore-tops-in-life-expectancy-at-848-years&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Lee Yen Nee (12 December 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.todayonline.com/business/singapore-fifth-worst-tax-haven-world-oxfam">"Singapore fifth worst tax haven in the world: Oxfam"</a>. <i>Today</i>. Singapore<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">28 August</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Today&rft.atitle=Singapore+fifth+worst+tax+haven+in+the+world%3A+Oxfam&rft.date=2016-12-12&rft.au=Lee+Yen+Nee&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.todayonline.com%2Fbusiness%2Fsingapore-fifth-worst-tax-haven-world-oxfam&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2018/03/daily-chart-9">"Asian and European cities compete for the title of most expensive city"</a>. <i>The Economist</i>. London. 15 March 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 April</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Economist&rft.atitle=Asian+and+European+cities+compete+for+the+title+of+most+expensive+city&rft.date=2018-03-15&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.economist.com%2Fblogs%2Fgraphicdetail%2F2018%2F03%2Fdaily-chart-9&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-botanic-gardens-clinches-prestigious-unesco-world-heritage-site-status">"Singapore Botanic Gardens clinches prestigious Unesco World Heritage site status"</a>. <i>The Straits Times</i>. Singapore. 4 July 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Straits+Times&rft.atitle=Singapore+Botanic+Gardens+clinches+prestigious+Unesco+World+Heritage+site+status&rft.date=2015-07-04&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.straitstimes.com%2Fsingapore%2Fsingapore-botanic-gardens-clinches-prestigious-unesco-world-heritage-site-status&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-sbg-trip-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-sbg-trip_33-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://news.asiaone.com/news/relax/botanic-gardens-top-park-asia-tripadvisor">"Botanic Gardens top park in Asia on Tripadvisor"</a>. <i>The Straits Times</i>. 20 June 2014. <q>TripAdvisor Travellers' Choice Awards</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Straits+Times&rft.atitle=Botanic+Gardens+top+park+in+Asia+on+Tripadvisor&rft.date=2014-06-20&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.asiaone.com%2Fnews%2Frelax%2Fbotanic-gardens-top-park-asia-tripadvisor&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20010411060419/http://www.bartleby.com/61/46/S0424600.html">"Singapore"</a>. bartleby.com. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bartleby.com/61/46/S0424600.html">the original</a> on 11 April 2001<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 April</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Singapore&rft.pub=bartleby.com&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bartleby.com%2F61%2F46%2FS0424600.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-turnbull-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-turnbull_35-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-turnbull_35-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Turnbull, C.M. (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=Y9yvBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA22"><i>A History of Modern Singapore, 1819–2005</i></a>. NUS Press. pp. 21–22. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-430-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-430-2"><bdi>978-9971-69-430-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=A+History+of+Modern+Singapore%2C+1819%E2%80%932005&rft.pages=21-22&rft.pub=NUS+Press&rft.date=2009&rft.isbn=978-9971-69-430-2&rft.aulast=Turnbull&rft.aufirst=C.M.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DY9yvBgAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA22&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA151_151–152]-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMiksic2013[httpsbooksgooglecombooksidbMt3BgAAQBAJpgPA151_151–152]_36-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMiksic2013">Miksic 2013</a>, pp. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=bMt3BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA151">151–152</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_93_2005-01-26.html">"Sang Nila Utama"</a>. <i>Singapore Infopedia</i>. National Library Board. 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Singapore+Infopedia&rft.atitle=Sang+Nila+Utama&rft.date=2016&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feresources.nlb.gov.sg%2Finfopedia%2Farticles%2FSIP_93_2005-01-26.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Xu Yunqiao, History of South East Asia, 1961 Singapore World Publishing Co. 许云樵 《南洋史》 星洲世界书局 1961年</span>
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<li id="cite_note-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">inc, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1991). <i>The New Encyclopædia Britannica</i> (15th ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 832. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991neb..book.....G">1991neb..book.....G</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-85229-529-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-85229-529-8"><bdi>978-0-85229-529-8</bdi></a>. <q>"Singapore, known variously as the 'Lion City,' or 'Garden City,' the latter for its many parks and tree-lined streets</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+New+Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&rft.place=Chicago&rft.pages=832&rft.edition=15th&rft.pub=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&rft.date=1991&rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F1991neb..book.....G&rft.isbn=978-0-85229-529-8&rft.aulast=inc&rft.aufirst=Encyclopaedia+Britannica&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Glennie, Charlotte; Ang, Mavis; Rhys, Gillian; Aul, Vidhu; Walton, Nicholas (6 August 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/singapore-50-reasons">"50 reasons Singapore is the best city in the world"</a>. CNN. <q>The Lion City. The Garden City. The Asian Tiger. The 'Fine' City. ¶ All venerable nicknames, but the longtime favourite is the 'Little Red Dot'</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=50+reasons+Singapore+is+the+best+city+in+the+world&rft.date=2015-08-06&rft.aulast=Glennie&rft.aufirst=Charlotte&rft.au=Ang%2C+Mavis&rft.au=Rhys%2C+Gillian&rft.au=Aul%2C+Vidhu&rft.au=Walton%2C+Nicholas&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fedition.cnn.com%2Ftravel%2Farticle%2Fsingapore-50-reasons&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21657610-sense-vulnerability-has-made-singapore-what-it-today-can-it-now-relax-bit">"A little red dot in a sea of green"</a>. <i>The Economist</i>. London. 16 July 2015. <q>..with a characteristic mixture of pride and paranoia, Singapore adopted 'little red dot' as a motto</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Economist&rft.atitle=A+little+red+dot+in+a+sea+of+green&rft.date=2015-07-16&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.economist.com%2Fnews%2Fspecial-report%2F21657610-sense-vulnerability-has-made-singapore-what-it-today-can-it-now-relax-bit&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2017/09/08/editorial-the-mighty-red-dot.html">"Editorial: The mighty red dot"</a>. <i>The Jakarta Post</i>. 8 September 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Jakarta+Post&rft.atitle=Editorial%3A+The+mighty+red+dot&rft.date=2017-09-08&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thejakartapost.com%2Facademia%2F2017%2F09%2F08%2Feditorial-the-mighty-red-dot.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Hack, Karl. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060426231828/http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/kahack/cc%202.3%20%28Little%20India%29.htm">"Records of Ancient Links between India and Singapore"</a>. National Institute of Education, Singapore. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/kahack/cc%202.3%20(Little%20India).htm">the original</a> on 26 April 2006<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 August</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Records+of+Ancient+Links+between+India+and+Singapore&rft.pub=National+Institute+of+Education%2C+Singapore&rft.aulast=Hack&rft.aufirst=Karl&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hsse.nie.edu.sg%2Fstaff%2Fkahack%2Fcc%25202.3%2520%28Little%2520India%29.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-utexas-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-utexas_46-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070323095958/http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/Singapore/Singapore-History.html">"Singapore: History, Singapore 1994"</a>. Asian Studies @ University of Texas at Austin. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/singapore/Singapore-History.html">the original</a> on 23 March 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 July</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Singapore%3A+History%2C+Singapore+1994&rft.pub=Asian+Studies+%40+University+of+Texas+at+Austin&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Finic.utexas.edu%2Fasnic%2Fcountries%2Fsingapore%2FSingapore-History.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Savage, Victor R.; Yeoh, Brenda (15 June 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=DTOJAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA381#v=onepage&q&f=false"><i>Singapore Street Names: A Study of Toponymics</i></a>. Marshall Cavendish. p. 381. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-981-4484-74-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-981-4484-74-9"><bdi>978-981-4484-74-9</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Singapore+Street+Names%3A+A+Study+of+Toponymics&rft.pages=381&rft.pub=Marshall+Cavendish&rft.date=2013-06-15&rft.isbn=978-981-4484-74-9&rft.aulast=Savage&rft.aufirst=Victor+R.&rft.au=Yeoh%2C+Brenda&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DDTOJAAAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA381%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Matisoff1990-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Matisoff1990_52-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFMatisoff1990" class="citation"><a href="/wiki/James_Matisoff" title="James Matisoff">Matisoff, James</a> (1990), "On Megalocomparison", <i>Language</i>, <b>66</b> (1): 106–120, <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F415281">10.2307/415281</a>, <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/415281">415281</a></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Language&rft.atitle=On+Megalocomparison&rft.volume=66&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=106-120&rft.date=1990&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F415281&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F415281&rft.aulast=Matisoff&rft.aufirst=James&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Enfield-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Enfield_53-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFEnfield2005" class="citation">Enfield, N.J. (2005), <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/item/escidoc:57458/component/escidoc:57459/Enfield_2005_areal.pdf">"Areal Linguistics and Mainland Southeast Asia"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>, <i>Annual Review of Anthropology</i>, <b>34</b>: 181–206, <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1146%2Fannurev.anthro.34.081804.120406">10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120406</a>, <a href="/wiki/Handle_System" title="Handle System">hdl</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//hdl.handle.net/11858%2F00-001M-0000-0013-167B-C">11858/00-001M-0000-0013-167B-C</a></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Annual+Review+of+Anthropology&rft.atitle=Areal+Linguistics+and+Mainland+Southeast+Asia&rft.volume=34&rft.pages=181-206&rft.date=2005&rft_id=info%3Ahdl%2F11858%2F00-001M-0000-0013-167B-C&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1146%2Fannurev.anthro.34.081804.120406&rft.aulast=Enfield&rft.aufirst=N.J.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fpubman.mpdl.mpg.de%2Fpubman%2Fitem%2Fescidoc%3A57458%2Fcomponent%2Fescidoc%3A57459%2FEnfield_2005_areal.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-58">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Pierre-Yves Manguin, "From Funan to Sriwijaya: Cultural continuities and discontinuities in the Early Historical maritime states of Southeast Asia", in <i>25 tahun kerjasama Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi dan Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient,</i> Jakarta, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi / EFEO, 2002, p. 59-82.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-YongRao1995-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-YongRao1995_63-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Mun Cheong Yong; V. V. Bhanoji Rao (1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=ZdZo5Ui8oS4C&pg=PA3"><i>Singapore-India Relations: A Primer</i></a>. NUS Press. p. 3. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-195-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-195-0"><bdi>978-9971-69-195-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Singapore-India+Relations%3A+A+Primer&rft.pages=3&rft.pub=NUS+Press&rft.date=1995&rft.isbn=978-9971-69-195-0&rft.au=Mun+Cheong+Yong&rft.au=V.+V.+Bhanoji+Rao&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DZdZo5Ui8oS4C%26pg%3DPA3&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Trocki2009-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Trocki2009_64-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Trocki, Carl A. (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=vA-CAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA73"><i>Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control</i></a>. Routledge. p. 73. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-134-50243-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-134-50243-1"><bdi>978-1-134-50243-1</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Singapore%3A+Wealth%2C+Power+and+the+Culture+of+Control&rft.pages=73&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.date=2009&rft.isbn=978-1-134-50243-1&rft.aulast=Trocki&rft.aufirst=Carl+A.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DvA-CAgAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA73&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-uslcFounding-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-uslcFounding_65-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://countrystudies.us/singapore/4.htm">"Singapore – Founding and Early Years"</a>. <a href="/wiki/U.S._Library_of_Congress" class="mw-redirect" title="U.S. Library of Congress">U.S. Library of Congress</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 July</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Singapore+%E2%80%93+Founding+and+Early+Years&rft.pub=U.S.+Library+of+Congress&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcountrystudies.us%2Fsingapore%2F4.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-66"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-66">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Ng, Jenny (7 February 1997). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/overview/the_early_years/v01n02b_history.html">"1819 – The February Documents"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Defence_(Singapore)" title="Ministry of Defence (Singapore)">Ministry of Defence</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 July</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=1819+%E2%80%93+The+February+Documents&rft.pub=Ministry+of+Defence&rft.date=1997-02-07&rft.aulast=Ng&rft.aufirst=Jenny&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mindef.gov.sg%2Fimindef%2Fabout_us%2Fhistory%2Foverview%2Fthe_early_years%2Fv01n02b_history.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070927183512/http://app.supremecourt.gov.sg/default.aspx?pgID=39">"Milestones in Singapore's Legal History"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Supreme_Court,_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Supreme Court, Singapore">Supreme Court, Singapore</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://app.supremecourt.gov.sg/default.aspx?pgID=39">the original</a> on 27 September 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 July</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Milestones+in+Singapore%27s+Legal+History&rft.pub=Supreme+Court%2C+Singapore&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fapp.supremecourt.gov.sg%2Fdefault.aspx%3FpgID%3D39&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore-68"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore_68-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore_68-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Founding_of_Modern_Singapore_68-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090508135636/http://app.www.sg/who/32/Founding-of-Modern-Singapore.aspx">"Founding of Modern Singapore"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Information,_Communications_and_the_Arts" class="mw-redirect" title="Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts">Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://app.www.sg/who/32/Founding-of-Modern-Singapore.aspx">the original</a> on 8 May 2009<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 April</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Founding+of+Modern+Singapore&rft.pub=Ministry+of+Information%2C+Communications+and+the+Arts&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fapp.www.sg%2Fwho%2F32%2FFounding-of-Modern-Singapore.aspx&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-69"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-69">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120609014003/http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/titledetails.asp?tid=17">"East & South-East Asia Titles: Straits Settlements Annual Reports (Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan) 1855–1941"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Cambridge_University_Press" title="Cambridge University Press">Cambridge University Press</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/titledetails.asp?tid=17">the original</a> on 9 June 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">31 July</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=East+%26+South-East+Asia+Titles%3A+Straits+Settlements+Annual+Reports+%28Singapore%2C+Penang%2C+Malacca%2C+Labuan%29+1855%E2%80%931941&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archiveeditions.co.uk%2Ftitledetails.asp%3Ftid%3D17&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-72">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/history/events/a8ceea4c-1c8b-4c9a-885c-b85038b39e4c">"First Rubber Trees are Planted in Singapore – 1877"</a>. <i>History SG</i>. National Library Board Singapore.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=History+SG&rft.atitle=First+Rubber+Trees+are+Planted+in+Singapore+%E2%80%93+1877&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feresources.nlb.gov.sg%2Fhistory%2Fevents%2Fa8ceea4c-1c8b-4c9a-885c-b85038b39e4c&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Brill1-73"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Brill1_73-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=cON5DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA17"><i>The Indian Army in the Two World Wars</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/Brill_Publishers" title="Brill Publishers">Brill Publishers</a>. 14 October 2011. pp. 17–18. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-90-04-21145-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-90-04-21145-2"><bdi>978-90-04-21145-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Indian+Army+in+the+Two+World+Wars&rft.pages=17-18&rft.pub=Brill+Publishers&rft.date=2011-10-14&rft.isbn=978-90-04-21145-2&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DcON5DwAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA17&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Tan2008-76"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Tan2008_76-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Tan, Kevin (2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=BH88kpvyrdYC&pg=PA90"><i>Marshall of Singapore: A Biography</i></a>. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 90–. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-981-230-878-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-981-230-878-8"><bdi>978-981-230-878-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Marshall+of+Singapore%3A+A+Biography&rft.pages=90-&rft.pub=Institute+of+Southeast+Asian+Studies&rft.date=2008&rft.isbn=978-981-230-878-8&rft.aulast=Tan&rft.aufirst=Kevin&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DBH88kpvyrdYC%26pg%3DPA90&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Hobbs2017-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Hobbs2017_77-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Hobbs, David (2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=FVEgDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA5"><i>The British Pacific Fleet: The Royal Navy's Most Powerful Strike Force</i></a>. Naval Institute Press. p. 5. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-61251-917-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-61251-917-3"><bdi>978-1-61251-917-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+British+Pacific+Fleet%3A+The+Royal+Navy%27s+Most+Powerful+Strike+Force&rft.pages=5&rft.pub=Naval+Institute+Press&rft.date=2017&rft.isbn=978-1-61251-917-3&rft.aulast=Hobbs&rft.aufirst=David&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DFVEgDAAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA5&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-LambTarling2001-78"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-LambTarling2001_78-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Lamb, Margaret; Tarling, Nicholas (2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=4izcCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA39"><i>From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Origins of the Second World War in Europe and Asia</i></a>. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 39. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4039-3772-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4039-3772-8"><bdi>978-1-4039-3772-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=From+Versailles+to+Pearl+Harbor%3A+The+Origins+of+the+Second+World+War+in+Europe+and+Asia&rft.pages=39&rft.pub=Macmillan+International+Higher+Education&rft.date=2001&rft.isbn=978-1-4039-3772-8&rft.aulast=Lamb&rft.aufirst=Margaret&rft.au=Tarling%2C+Nicholas&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D4izcCwAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA39&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Tan, Kevin (2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=BH88kpvyrdYC&pg=PA90"><i>Marshall of Singapore: A Biography</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-981-230-878-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-981-230-878-8"><bdi>978-981-230-878-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Marshall+of+Singapore%3A+A+Biography&rft.date=2008&rft.isbn=978-981-230-878-8&rft.aulast=Tan&rft.aufirst=Kevin&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DBH88kpvyrdYC%26pg%3DPA90&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-80"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-80">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_3529000/3529447.stm">"On This Day – 15 February 1942: Singapore forced to surrender"</a>. <i>BBC News</i>. 15 February 1942<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 May</span> 2007</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=BBC+News&rft.atitle=On+This+Day+%E2%80%93+15+February+1942%3A+Singapore+forced+to+surrender&rft.date=1942-02-15&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.bbc.co.uk%2Fonthisday%2Fhi%2Fdates%2Fstories%2Ffebruary%2F15%2Fnewsid_3529000%2F3529447.stm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382-81"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382_81-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382_81-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWigmore1957382_81-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWigmore1957">Wigmore 1957</a>, p. 382.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-82"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-82">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-singapore">"Battle of Singapore"</a>. World History Group<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 May</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Battle+of+Singapore&rft.pub=World+History+Group&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.historynet.com%2Fbattle-of-singapore&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELegg1965248-83"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELegg1965248_83-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLegg1965">Legg 1965</a>, p. 248.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Teresa Ooi (17 January 1995). "1,000 Aussie victims of WWII join suit against Japan". The Straits Times.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=1%2C000+Aussie+victims+of+WWII+join+suit+against+Japan&rft.date=1995-01-17&rft.au=Teresa+Ooi&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-85">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19460912-1.2.47?ST=1&AT=search&k=battle%20of%20singapore,%20world%20war%20ii,%20australians&QT=battle,of,singapore,world,war,ii,australians&oref=article">"South West Pacific War: Australia's Fine Record"</a>. The Straits Times. 12 September 1946.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=South+West+Pacific+War%3A+Australia%27s+Fine+Record&rft.date=1946-09-12&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feresources.nlb.gov.sg%2Fnewspapers%2FDigitised%2FArticle%2Fstraitstimes19460912-1.2.47%3FST%3D1%26AT%3Dsearch%26k%3Dbattle%2520of%2520singapore%2C%2520world%2520war%2520ii%2C%2520australians%26QT%3Dbattle%2Cof%2Csingapore%2Cworld%2Cwar%2Cii%2Caustralians%26oref%3Darticle&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEToland1970277-87"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEToland1970277_87-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFToland1970">Toland 1970</a>, p. 277.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-88"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-88">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/japanese-occupation-newspaper-in-library-portal">"Japanese Occupation newspaper in library portal"</a>. <i>Straits Times</i>. 21 January 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Straits+Times&rft.atitle=Japanese+Occupation+newspaper+in+library+portal&rft.date=2017-01-21&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.straitstimes.com%2Fsingapore%2Fjapanese-occupation-newspaper-in-library-portal&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-89"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Abshire, Jean (2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=AHF59oExO80C&lpg=PA83&pg=PA104#v=onepage&q&f=false"><i>The History of Singapore</i></a>. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-313-37743-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-313-37743-3"><bdi>978-0-313-37743-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+History+of+Singapore&rft.pages=104&rft.pub=ABC-CLIO&rft.date=2011&rft.isbn=978-0-313-37743-3&rft.aulast=Abshire&rft.aufirst=Jean&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DAHF59oExO80C%26lpg%3DPA83%26pg%3DPA104%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-90"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-90">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Blackburn, Kevin; Hack, Karl (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=TUC2qveu-b8C&lpg=PA132&pg=PA132#v=onepage&q&f=false"><i>Did Singapore Have to Fall?: Churchill and the Impregnable Fortress</i></a>. Routledge. p. 132. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-203-40440-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-203-40440-9"><bdi>978-0-203-40440-9</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Did+Singapore+Have+to+Fall%3F%3A+Churchill+and+the+Impregnable+Fortress&rft.pages=132&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.date=2004&rft.isbn=978-0-203-40440-9&rft.aulast=Blackburn&rft.aufirst=Kevin&rft.au=Hack%2C+Karl&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DTUC2qveu-b8C%26lpg%3DPA132%26pg%3DPA132%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-91"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-91">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Leitch Lepoer, Barbara (1989). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+sg0027)">"Singapore, Shonan: Light of the South"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Library_of_Congress_Country_Studies" title="Library of Congress Country Studies">Library of Congress Country Studies</a></i>. Washington, DC: <a href="/wiki/United_States_Government_Printing_Office" class="mw-redirect" title="United States Government Printing Office">Government Printing Office</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 January</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Library+of+Congress+Country+Studies&rft.atitle=Singapore%2C+Shonan%3A+Light+of+the+South&rft.date=1989&rft.aulast=Leitch+Lepoer&rft.aufirst=Barbara&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flcweb2.loc.gov%2Fcgi-bin%2Fquery%2Fr%3Ffrd%2Fcstdy%3A%40field%28DOCID%2Bsg0027%29&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBose201018–20-92"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBose201018–20_92-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBose2010">Bose 2010</a>, pp. 18–20.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPark2155-2156-93"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPark2155-2156_93-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFPark">Park</a>, pp. 2155-2156.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-94"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-94">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20080119210334/http://staff.science.nus.edu.sg/~sivasothi/blog/pdf/jap_surrender-st04sep2005.pdf">"The real Japanese surrender"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. The Sunday Times. 4 September 2005. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://staff.science.nus.edu.sg/~sivasothi/blog/pdf/jap_surrender-st04sep2005.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 19 January 2008<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 October</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=The+real+Japanese+surrender&rft.date=2005-09-04&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fstaff.science.nus.edu.sg%2F~sivasothi%2Fblog%2Fpdf%2Fjap_surrender-st04sep2005.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESmith2006556–557-95"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESmith2006556–557_95-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSmith2006">Smith 2006</a>, p. 556–557.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-96"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-96">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19460223-1.2.12">"Yamashita Hanged"</a>. <i>Malaya Tribune</i>. 23 February 1946.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Malaya+Tribune&rft.atitle=Yamashita+Hanged&rft.date=1946-02-23&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feresources.nlb.gov.sg%2Fnewspapers%2FDigitised%2FArticle%2Fmaltribune19460223-1.2.12&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-uslcAftermathOfWar-97"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-uslcAftermathOfWar_97-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-uslcAftermathOfWar_97-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://countrystudies.us/singapore/9.htm">"Singapore – Aftermath of War"</a>. U.S. Library of Congress<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 June</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Singapore+%E2%80%93+Aftermath+of+War&rft.pub=U.S.+Library+of+Congress&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcountrystudies.us%2Fsingapore%2F9.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-micaSelfGovernment-98"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-micaSelfGovernment_98-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sg/explore/history_towards.htm">"Towards Self-government"</a>. Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, Singapore<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 June</span> 2006</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Towards+Self-government&rft.pub=Ministry+of+Information%2C+Communications+and+the+Arts%2C+Singapore&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sg%2Fexplore%2Fhistory_towards.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Law-102"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Law_102-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Law_102-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110603225639/http://www.singaporelaw.sg/content/LegalSyst1.html">"The Singapore Legal System"</a>. Singapore Academy of Law. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.singaporelaw.sg/content/LegalSyst1.html">the original</a> on 3 June 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 June</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+Singapore+Legal+System&rft.pub=Singapore+Academy+of+Law&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.singaporelaw.sg%2Fcontent%2FLegalSyst1.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-105"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-105">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">"MCA: Wipe out extremists". <i>Singapore Standard</i>. 18 February 1959.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Singapore+Standard&rft.atitle=MCA%3A+Wipe+out+extremists&rft.date=1959-02-18&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-106"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-106">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19620328-1.2.70.1?ST=1&AT=advanced">"Appeal To Singapore"</a>. <i>The Straits Times</i>. Singapore. 28 March 1962. p. 10.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Straits+Times&rft.atitle=Appeal+To+Singapore&rft.pages=10&rft.date=1962-03-28&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feresources.nlb.gov.sg%2Fnewspapers%2FDigitised%2FArticle%2Fstraitstimes19620328-1.2.70.1%3FST%3D1%26AT%3Dadvanced&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-107"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-107">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/history/events/1dab53ea-788c-461c-acfb-ca625b974c9c">"Singapore becomes part of Malaysia"</a>. HistorySG<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 February</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Singapore+becomes+part+of+Malaysia&rft.pub=HistorySG&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feresources.nlb.gov.sg%2Fhistory%2Fevents%2F1dab53ea-788c-461c-acfb-ca625b974c9c&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-108"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-108">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFJamesSheil-Small1971" class="citation book">James, Harold; Sheil-Small, Denis (1971). <i>The Undeclared War: The Story of the Indonesian Confrontation 1962–1966</i>. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-87471-074-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-87471-074-8"><bdi>978-0-87471-074-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Undeclared+War%3A+The+Story+of+the+Indonesian+Confrontation+1962%E2%80%931966&rft.place=Totowa&rft.pub=Rowman+and+Littlefield&rft.date=1971&rft.isbn=978-0-87471-074-8&rft.aulast=James&rft.aufirst=Harold&rft.au=Sheil-Small%2C+Denis&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><cite id="CITEREFMackie1974" class="citation book">Mackie, J.A.C. (1974). <i>Konfrontasi: The Indonesia-Malaysia Dispute 1963–1966</i>. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-638247-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-638247-0"><bdi>978-0-19-638247-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Konfrontasi%3A+The+Indonesia-Malaysia+Dispute+1963%E2%80%931966&rft.place=Kuala+Lumpur&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=1974&rft.isbn=978-0-19-638247-0&rft.aulast=Mackie&rft.aufirst=J.A.C.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-111"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-111">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Tan Lay Yuan. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20111215082844/http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_62_2004-12-17.html">"MacDonald House bomb explosion"</a>. <i>Singapore Infopedia</i>. National Library Board. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_62_2004-12-17.html">the original</a> on 15 December 2011.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Singapore+Infopedia&rft.atitle=MacDonald+House+bomb+explosion&rft.au=Tan+Lay+Yuan&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Finfopedia.nl.sg%2Farticles%2FSIP_62_2004-12-17.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-123"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-123">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/news-events/events/details/lunch-dialogue-on-singapore-as-a-transport-hub">"LUNCH DIALOGUE ON 'SINGAPORE AS A TRANSPORT HUB<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy</i>. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 November</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Lee+Kuan+Yew+School+of+Public+Policy&rft.atitle=LUNCH+DIALOGUE+ON+%27SINGAPORE+AS+A+TRANSPORT+HUB%27&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Flkyspp.nus.edu.sg%2Fnews-events%2Fevents%2Fdetails%2Flunch-dialogue-on-singapore-as-a-transport-hub&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-124"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-124">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Lam, Yin Yin. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://blogs.worldbank.org/transport/three-factors-have-made-singapore-global-logistics-hub">"Three factors that have made Singapore a global logistics hub"</a>. <i>The World Bank Blogs</i>. The World Bank<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 November</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+World+Bank+Blogs&rft.atitle=Three+factors+that+have+made+Singapore+a+global+logistics+hub&rft.aulast=Lam&rft.aufirst=Yin+Yin&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fblogs.worldbank.org%2Ftransport%2Fthree-factors-have-made-singapore-global-logistics-hub&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-138"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-138">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110611130556/http://www.istana.gov.sg/content/istana/thepresident.html">"The President"</a>. Singapore Government. 19 December 2010. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.istana.gov.sg/content/istana/thepresident.html">the original</a> on 11 June 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 June</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+President&rft.pub=Singapore+Government&rft.date=2010-12-19&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.istana.gov.sg%2Fcontent%2Fistana%2Fthepresident.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-139"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-139">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Morgan, Grace, ed. (2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=studentpub"><i>A Guide to the Singapore Constitution</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Management_University" title="Singapore Management University">Singapore Management University</a>. p. 27.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=A+Guide+to+the+Singapore+Constitution&rft.pages=27&rft.pub=Singapore+Management+University&rft.date=2016&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fink.library.smu.edu.sg%2Fcgi%2Fviewcontent.cgi%3Farticle%3D1006%26context%3Dstudentpub&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-140"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-140">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Morgan, Grace, ed. (2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=studentpub"><i>A Guide to the Singapore Constitution</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/Singapore_Management_University" title="Singapore Management University">Singapore Management University</a>. pp. 63–67.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=A+Guide+to+the+Singapore+Constitution&rft.pages=63-67&rft.pub=Singapore+Management+University&rft.date=2016&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fink.library.smu.edu.sg%2Fcgi%2Fviewcontent.cgi%3Farticle%3D1006%26context%3Dstudentpub&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-141"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-141">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Tan, Kevin Y.L. (2019). "Legislating Dominance: Parliament and the Making of Singapore's Governance Model".  In Rahim, Lily Zubaidah; Barr, Michael D. (eds.). <i>The Limits of Authoritarian Governance in Singapore's Developmental State</i>. <a href="/wiki/Palgrave_Macmillan" title="Palgrave Macmillan">Palgrave Macmillan</a>. p. 264. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1007%2F978-981-13-1556-5">10.1007/978-981-13-1556-5</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-981-13-1555-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-981-13-1555-8"><bdi>978-981-13-1555-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Legislating+Dominance%3A+Parliament+and+the+Making+of+Singapore%27s+Governance+Model&rft.btitle=The+Limits+of+Authoritarian+Governance+in+Singapore%27s+Developmental+State&rft.pages=264&rft.pub=Palgrave+Macmillan&rft.date=2019&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1007%2F978-981-13-1556-5&rft.isbn=978-981-13-1555-8&rft.aulast=Tan&rft.aufirst=Kevin+Y.L.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Foodways-446"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Foodways_446-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Foodways_446-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Wu, David Y.H.; Chee Beng Tan (2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=p5Mw_WTLhiYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA161&dq=singapore*+cuisine"><i>Changing Chinese foodways in Asia</i></a>. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. pp. 161 ff. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-962-201-914-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-962-201-914-0"><bdi>978-962-201-914-0</bdi></a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">27 February</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Changing+Chinese+foodways+in+Asia&rft.place=Hong+Kong&rft.pages=161+ff&rft.pub=Chinese+University+Press&rft.date=2001&rft.isbn=978-962-201-914-0&rft.aulast=Wu&rft.aufirst=David+Y.H.&rft.au=Chee+Beng+Tan&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fhl%3Den%26lr%3D%26id%3Dp5Mw_WTLhiYC%26oi%3Dfnd%26pg%3DPA161%26dq%3Dsingapore%2A%2Bcuisine&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-494"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-494">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160126050015/http://digital.asiaone.com/digital/news/6-top-things-singaporeans-do-when-using-their-smartphones">"6 top things that Singaporeans do when using their smartphones"</a>. <i>Asiaone</i>. 6 November 2014. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://digital.asiaone.com/digital/news/6-top-things-singaporeans-do-when-using-their-smartphones">the original</a> on 26 January 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 January</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Asiaone&rft.atitle=6+top+things+that+Singaporeans+do+when+using+their+smartphones&rft.date=2014-11-06&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdigital.asiaone.com%2Fdigital%2Fnews%2F6-top-things-singaporeans-do-when-using-their-smartphones&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-singstat2014mobile-495"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-singstat2014mobile_495-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20151129094649/http://www.singstat.gov.sg/statistics/latest-data#19">"Statistics Singapore – Latest Data – Social Indicators"</a>. Singapore Department of Statistics. 2014. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.singstat.gov.sg/statistics/latest-data#19">the original</a> on 29 November 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 April</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Statistics+Singapore+%E2%80%93+Latest+Data+%E2%80%93+Social+Indicators&rft.pub=Singapore+Department+of+Statistics&rft.date=2014&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.singstat.gov.sg%2Fstatistics%2Flatest-data%2319&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
</ol></div></div>
<dl><dt>Bibliography</dt></dl>
<ul><li><i>This article incorporates public domain text from the websites of the <span class="plainlinks"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.singstat.gov.sg/">Singapore Department of Statistics</a></span>, the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Department_of_State" title="United States Department of State">United States Department of State</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Library_of_Congress" title="Library of Congress">United States Library of Congress</a> and the <a href="/wiki/The_World_Factbook" title="The World Factbook">CIA World Factbook</a>.</i></li></ul>
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<li><cite id="CITEREFMiksic2013" class="citation book">Miksic, John N. (2013). <i>Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800</i>. NUS Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-574-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-574-3"><bdi>978-9971-69-574-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Singapore+and+the+Silk+Road+of+the+Sea%2C+1300%E2%80%931800&rft.pub=NUS+Press&rft.date=2013&rft.isbn=978-9971-69-574-3&rft.aulast=Miksic&rft.aufirst=John+N.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Tan, Kenneth Paul (2007). <i>Renaissance Singapore? Economy, Culture, and Politics</i>. NUS Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-377-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-9971-69-377-0"><bdi>978-9971-69-377-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Renaissance+Singapore%3F+Economy%2C+Culture%2C+and+Politics&rft.pub=NUS+Press&rft.date=2007&rft.isbn=978-9971-69-377-0&rft.aulast=Tan&rft.aufirst=Kenneth+Paul&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li>Lee Kuan Yew (2000). <i>From Third World To First: The Singapore Story: 1965–2000</i>. New York: HarperCollins. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-06-019776-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-06-019776-5">0-06-019776-5</a>.</li>
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<li><cite class="citation book">Worthington, Ross (2002). <i>Governance in Singapore</i>. Routledge/Curzon. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7007-1474-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7007-1474-2"><bdi>978-0-7007-1474-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Governance+in+Singapore&rft.pub=Routledge%2FCurzon&rft.date=2002&rft.isbn=978-0-7007-1474-2&rft.aulast=Worthington&rft.aufirst=Ross&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation report"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20071127000711/http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/cop2000admin.pdf">Census of Population 2000</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> (Report). Singapore Department of Statistics. April 2002. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-981-04-6158-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-981-04-6158-4"><bdi>978-981-04-6158-4</bdi></a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/cop2000admin.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 27 November 2007.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=report&rft.btitle=Census+of+Population+2000&rft.pub=Singapore+Department+of+Statistics&rft.date=2002-04&rft.isbn=978-981-04-6158-4&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.singstat.gov.sg%2Fpubn%2Fpopn%2Fcop2000admin.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mot.gov.sg/">"Key Facts & Figures"</a>. <i>Ministry of Transport, Singapore</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 January</span> 2003</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Ministry+of+Transport%2C+Singapore&rft.atitle=Key+Facts+%26+Figures&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mot.gov.sg%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090421003417/http://app.www.sg/who/4/Our-History.aspx">"Nation's History"</a>. <i>Singapore Infomap</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://app.www.sg/who/4/Our-History.aspx">the original</a> on 21 April 2009<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 January</span> 2004</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Singapore+Infomap&rft.atitle=Nation%27s+History&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fapp.www.sg%2Fwho%2F4%2FOur-History.aspx&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070823024237/http://www.moe.gov.sg/prime/prime.htm">"MOE-PRIME"</a>. <i>Programme For Rebuilding and Improving Existing schools (PRIME)</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.moe.gov.sg/prime/prime.htm">the original</a> on 23 August 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 May</span> 2007</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Programme+For+Rebuilding+and+Improving+Existing+schools+%28PRIME%29&rft.atitle=MOE-PRIME&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.moe.gov.sg%2Fprime%2Fprime.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ASingapore" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
<div role="navigation" aria-labelledby="sister-projects" class="metadata plainlinks sistersitebox plainlist mbox-small" style="border:1px solid #aaa; padding:0; background:#f9f9f9;"><div style="padding: 0.75em 0; text-align: center;"><b style="display:block;">Singapore</b>at Wikipedia's <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects" title="Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects"><span id="sister-projects">sister projects</span></a></div><ul style="border-top:1px solid #aaa; padding: 0.75em 0; width:217px; margin:0 auto;"><li style="min-height: 31px;"><span style="display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/06/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg/27px-Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg.png" decoding="async" width="27" height="27" style="vertical-align: middle" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/06/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg/41px-Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/06/Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg/54px-Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="391" data-file-height="391" /></span><span style="display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;"><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Singapore" class="extiw" title="wikt:Special:Search/Singapore">Definitions</a> from Wiktionary</span>
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            </li><li style="min-height: 31px;"><span style="display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/26px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="26" height="27" style="vertical-align: middle" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/39px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/51px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="410" data-file-height="430" /></span><span style="display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;"><a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Special:Search/Singapore" class="extiw" title="s:Special:Search/Singapore">Texts</a> from Wikisource</span>
            </li><li style="min-height: 31px;"><span style="display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/27px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="27" height="27" style="vertical-align: middle" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/41px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/54px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /></span><span style="display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;"><a href="https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Singapore" class="extiw" title="b:Special:Search/Singapore">Textbooks</a> from Wikibooks</span>
            </li><li style="min-height: 31px;"><span style="display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg/27px-Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg.png" decoding="async" width="27" height="27" style="vertical-align: middle" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg/41px-Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg/54px-Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="193" data-file-height="193" /></span><span style="display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;"><a href="https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Singapore#Q334" class="extiw" title="voy:Singapore">Travel guide</a> from Wikivoyage</span>
            </li><li style="min-height: 31px;"><span style="display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/27px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png" decoding="async" width="27" height="24" style="vertical-align: middle" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/41px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/54px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="900" /></span><span style="display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;"><a href="https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Special:Search/Singapore" class="extiw" title="v:Special:Search/Singapore">Resources</a> from Wikiversity</span>
            </li><li style="min-height: 31px;"><span style="display: inline-block; width: 31px; line-height: 31px; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/27px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="27" height="15" style="vertical-align: middle" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/41px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/54px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1050" data-file-height="590" /></span><span style="display: inline-block; margin-left: 4px; width: 182px; vertical-align: middle;"><a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q334" class="extiw" title="d:Q334">Data</a> from Wikidata</span>
            </li></ul>
</div>
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:auto;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;text-align:left;"><tbody><tr><td style="padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:The_Wikipedia_Library" title="Wikipedia:The Wikipedia Library">Library resources</a> about <br /> <b>Singapore</b> <hr /></td></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=wp&su=Singapore&library=OLBP">Online books</a></li>
<li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=wp&su=Singapore">Resources in your library</a></li>
<li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=wp&su=Singapore&library=0CHOOSE0">Resources in other libraries</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
By Singapore</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?at=wp&au=Singapore&library=OLBP">Online books</a></li>
<li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?at=wp&au=Singapore">Resources in your library</a></li>
<li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?at=wp&au=Singapore&library=0CHOOSE0">Resources in other libraries</a></li></ul></td>
</tr></tbody></table>
<dl><dt>Government</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.gov.sg/">Singapore Government Online Portal</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>General information</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080607085722/http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/singapore.htm">Singapore</a> from <i>UCB Libraries GovPubs</i></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://curlie.org/Regional/Asia/Singapore">Singapore</a> at <a href="/wiki/Curlie" class="mw-redirect" title="Curlie">Curlie</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-15961759">Singapore profile</a> from the <a href="/wiki/BBC_News" title="BBC News">BBC News</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/545725">Singapore</a> at the <i><a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica" title="Encyclopædia Britannica">Encyclopædia Britannica</a></i></li>
<li><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Gnome-globe.svg/16px-Gnome-globe.svg.png" decoding="async" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Gnome-globe.svg/24px-Gnome-globe.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Gnome-globe.svg/32px-Gnome-globe.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="48" data-file-height="48" /> <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_Singapore" class="extiw" title="commons:Atlas of Singapore">Wikimedia Atlas of Singapore</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Openstreetmap_logo.svg/16px-Openstreetmap_logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Openstreetmap_logo.svg/24px-Openstreetmap_logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Openstreetmap_logo.svg/32px-Openstreetmap_logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="256" data-file-height="256" /> Geographic data related to <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.openstreetmap.org/relation/536780">Singapore</a> at <a href="/wiki/OpenStreetMap" title="OpenStreetMap">OpenStreetMap</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=1345015&x=103819427&z=11&l=0&m=a">WikiSatellite view of Singapore at WikiMapia</a></li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Singapore_articles" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible expanded navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Singapore_topics" title="Template:Singapore topics"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Singapore_topics" title="Template talk:Singapore topics"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Singapore_topics&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Singapore_articles" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a> <a href="/wiki/Index_of_Singapore-related_articles" title="Index of Singapore-related articles">articles</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/History_of_Singapore" title="History of Singapore">History</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Archaeology_in_Singapore" title="Archaeology in Singapore">Archaeology in Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Early_history_of_Singapore" title="Early history of Singapore">Early history (pre–1819)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Founding_of_modern_Singapore" title="Founding of modern Singapore">Founding of modern Singapore (1819–1826)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Straits_Settlements" title="Straits Settlements">Straits Settlements (1826–1942)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Singapore" title="Japanese occupation of Singapore">Japanese occupation (1942–1945)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/British_Military_Administration_(Malaya)" title="British Military Administration (Malaya)">British Military Administration (1945–1946)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Colony_of_Singapore" title="Colony of Singapore">Post-war Singapore (1946–1955)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Self-governance_of_Singapore" title="Self-governance of Singapore">Self-governance of Singapore (1955–1962)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_in_Malaysia" title="Singapore in Malaysia">Merger with Malaysia (1962–1965)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Republic_of_Singapore" title="History of the Republic of Singapore">Republic of Singapore (1965–<span style="font-size:90%;">present</span>)</a></li></ul>
</div></td><td class="navbox-image" rowspan="5" style="width:1px;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px"><div><a href="/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore" title="Coat of arms of Singapore"><img alt="Coat of arms of Singapore.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg/100px-Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="100" height="83" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg/150px-Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg/200px-Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1216" data-file-height="1008" /></a></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Geography_of_Singapore" title="Geography of Singapore">Geography</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_beaches_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="List of beaches of Singapore">Beaches</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_Singapore" title="Environmental issues in Singapore">Environmental issues</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Geology_of_Singapore" title="Geology of Singapore">Geology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Singapore" title="List of islands of Singapore">Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_parks_in_Singapore" title="List of parks in Singapore">Parks</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_dams_and_reservoirs_in_Singapore" title="List of dams and reservoirs in Singapore">Reservoirs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_rivers_of_Singapore" title="List of rivers of Singapore">Rivers</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Urban_planning_in_Singapore" title="Urban planning in Singapore">Urban planning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Urban_renewal_in_Singapore" title="Urban renewal in Singapore">Urban renewal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_waterways_in_Singapore" title="List of waterways in Singapore">Waterways</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wildlife_of_Singapore" title="Wildlife of Singapore">Wildlife</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Politics_of_Singapore" title="Politics of Singapore">Politics</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Administrative_divisions_of_Singapore" title="Administrative divisions of Singapore">Administrative divisions</a>
<ul><li><a href="/w/index.php?title=Town_Councils_(Singapore)&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Town Councils (Singapore) (page does not exist)">Town Councils</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Constitution_of_Singapore" title="Constitution of Singapore">Constitution</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Elections_in_Singapore" title="Elections in Singapore">Elections</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Singapore" title="Foreign relations of Singapore">Foreign relations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Government_of_Singapore" title="Government of Singapore">Government</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Cabinet_of_Singapore" title="Cabinet of Singapore">Cabinet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Singapore" title="Prime Minister of Singapore">Prime Minister</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Human_rights_in_Singapore" title="Human rights in Singapore">Human rights</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Law_of_Singapore" title="Law of Singapore">Law</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Armed_Forces" title="Singapore Armed Forces">Military</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Parliament_of_Singapore" title="Parliament of Singapore">Parliament</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Police_Force" title="Singapore Police Force">Police</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_political_parties_in_Singapore" title="List of political parties in Singapore">Political parties</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/President_of_Singapore" title="President of Singapore">President</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Economy_of_Singapore" title="Economy of Singapore">Economy</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Economic_statistics_of_Singapore" title="Economic statistics of Singapore">Economic statistics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Agriculture_in_Singapore" title="Agriculture in Singapore">Agriculture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aviation_in_Singapore" title="Aviation in Singapore">Aviation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monetary_Authority_of_Singapore" title="Monetary Authority of Singapore">Monetary Authority</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/China%E2%80%93Singapore_Suzhou_Industrial_Park" class="mw-redirect" title="China–Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park">China–Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_dollar" title="Singapore dollar">Dollar <span style="font-size:85%;">(currency)</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Energy_in_Singapore" title="Energy in Singapore">Energy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_movement_of_Singapore" title="Labour movement of Singapore">Labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Future_developments_in_Singapore" title="Future developments in Singapore">Proposed developments</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Exchange" title="Singapore Exchange">Singapore Exchange</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_Standard_(SS)" class="mw-redirect" title="Singapore Standard (SS)">Singapore Standard (SS)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Telecommunications_in_Singapore" title="Telecommunications in Singapore">Telecommunications</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tourism_in_Singapore" title="Tourism in Singapore">Tourism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Transport_in_Singapore" title="Transport in Singapore">Transport</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Category:Singaporean_society" title="Category:Singaporean society">Society</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Singaporean_communitarianism" title="Singaporean communitarianism">Communitarianism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Caning_in_Singapore" title="Caning in Singapore">Caning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Crime_in_Singapore" title="Crime in Singapore">Crime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Women_in_Singapore" title="Women in Singapore">Women</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Education_in_Singapore" title="Education in Singapore">Education</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Demographics_of_Singapore" title="Demographics of Singapore">Demographics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eat_Frozen_Pork" title="Eat Frozen Pork">Eat Frozen Pork</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Five_Cs_of_Singapore" title="Five Cs of Singapore">Five Cs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Healthcare_in_Singapore" title="Healthcare in Singapore">Health</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Long_hair_in_Singapore" title="Long hair in Singapore">Long hair in Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/National_Courtesy_Campaign_(Singapore)" title="National Courtesy Campaign (Singapore)">National Courtesy Campaign</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_National_Day_Parade" title="Singapore National Day Parade">National Day Parade</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/No_U-turn_syndrome" title="No U-turn syndrome">No U-turn syndrome</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OB_marker" title="OB marker">OB marker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Population_planning_in_Singapore" title="Population planning in Singapore">Population planning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Public_housing_in_Singapore" title="Public housing in Singapore">Public housing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holidays_in_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Holidays in Singapore">Public holidays</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Religion_in_Singapore" title="Religion in Singapore">Religion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Smoking_in_Singapore" title="Smoking in Singapore">Smoking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Central_Provident_Fund" title="Central Provident Fund">Social fund</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Singapore" title="Water supply and sanitation in Singapore">Water supply and sanitation</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;padding-left:0.5em;padding-right:0.5em;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/Culture_of_Singapore" title="Culture of Singapore">Culture</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Architecture_of_Singapore" title="Architecture of Singapore">Architecture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cinema_of_Singapore" title="Cinema of Singapore">Cinema</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singaporean_cuisine" title="Singaporean cuisine">Cuisine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Languages_of_Singapore" title="Languages of Singapore">Languages</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Literature_of_Singapore" class="mw-redirect" title="Literature of Singapore">Literature</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Media_of_Singapore" title="Media of Singapore">Media</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Music_of_Singapore" title="Music of Singapore">Music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sport_in_Singapore" title="Sport in Singapore">Sports</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;padding-left:0.5em;padding-right:0.5em;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/National_symbols_of_Singapore" title="National symbols of Singapore">Symbols</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Majulah_Singapura" title="Majulah Singapura">Anthem</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Singapore" title="Coat of arms of Singapore">Coat of arms</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flag_of_Singapore" title="Flag of Singapore">Flag</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vanda_%27Miss_Joaquim%27" class="mw-redirect" title="Vanda 'Miss Joaquim'">Flower</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lion_head_symbol_of_Singapore" title="Lion head symbol of Singapore">Lion head</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Merlion" title="Merlion">Merlion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Singapore_National_Pledge" title="Singapore National Pledge">Pledge</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="3" style="font-weight:bold;"><div><div style="margin-bottom:-0.4em;"><ul><li><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886047488">.mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}</style><span class="nobold"><a href="/wiki/Outline_of_Singapore" title="Outline of Singapore">Outline</a></span></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047488"/><span class="nobold"><a href="/wiki/Index_of_Singapore-related_articles" title="Index of Singapore-related articles">Index</a></span></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047488"/><span class="nobold"><a href="/wiki/Bibliography_of_Singapore" title="Bibliography of Singapore">Bibliography</a></span></li></ul></div>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Singapore" title="Category:Singapore">Category</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Portal:Singapore" title="Portal:Singapore">Portal</a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Articles_related_to_Singapore" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background:#e8e8ff;"><div id="Articles_related_to_Singapore" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Articles related to Singapore</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;font-size:114%"><div style="padding:0px">
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="25px_Geographic_locale" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background:#e8e8ff;"><div id="25px_Geographic_locale" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/File:Gnome-globe.svg" class="image"><img alt="Gnome-globe.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Gnome-globe.svg/25px-Gnome-globe.svg.png" decoding="async" width="25" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Gnome-globe.svg/38px-Gnome-globe.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Gnome-globe.svg/50px-Gnome-globe.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="48" data-file-height="48" /></a><span class="nowrap"> </span>Geographic locale</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;font-size:114%"><div style="padding:0px">
<p><b><a href="/wiki/Geographic_coordinate_system" title="Geographic coordinate system">Lat. <small>and</small> Long.</a> <span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Singapore&params=1_22_N_103_48_E_"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">1°22′N</span> <span class="longitude">103°48′E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct"> / </span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">1.367°N 103.800°E</span><span style="display:none"> / <span class="geo">1.367; 103.800</span></span></span></a></span></b>
</p>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Countries_and_dependencies_of_Asia" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Countries_of_Asia" title="Template:Countries of Asia"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Countries_of_Asia" title="Template talk:Countries of Asia"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Countries_of_Asia&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Countries_and_dependencies_of_Asia" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_and_dependent_territories_in_Asia" title="List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia">Countries and dependencies</a> of <a href="/wiki/Asia" title="Asia">Asia</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Afghanistan" title="Afghanistan">Afghanistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Armenia" title="Armenia">Armenia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Azerbaijan" title="Azerbaijan">Azerbaijan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bahrain" title="Bahrain">Bahrain</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bangladesh" title="Bangladesh">Bangladesh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bhutan" title="Bhutan">Bhutan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cambodia" title="Cambodia">Cambodia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/China" title="China">China</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cyprus" title="Cyprus">Cyprus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/East_Timor" title="East Timor">East Timor (Timor-Leste)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Georgia_(country)" title="Georgia (country)">Georgia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Iran" title="Iran">Iran</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Iraq" title="Iraq">Iraq</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Japan" title="Japan">Japan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jordan" title="Jordan">Jordan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kazakhstan" title="Kazakhstan">Kazakhstan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/North_Korea" title="North Korea">North Korea</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/South_Korea" title="South Korea">South Korea</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kuwait" title="Kuwait">Kuwait</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kyrgyzstan" title="Kyrgyzstan">Kyrgyzstan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lebanon" title="Lebanon">Lebanon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maldives" title="Maldives">Maldives</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mongolia" title="Mongolia">Mongolia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Myanmar" title="Myanmar">Myanmar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nepal" title="Nepal">Nepal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Oman" title="Oman">Oman</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pakistan" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Qatar" title="Qatar">Qatar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Russia" title="Russia">Russia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saudi_Arabia" title="Saudi Arabia">Saudi Arabia</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Syria" title="Syria">Syria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tajikistan" title="Tajikistan">Tajikistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thailand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turkey" title="Turkey">Turkey</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turkmenistan" title="Turkmenistan">Turkmenistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_Arab_Emirates" title="United Arab Emirates">United Arab Emirates</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uzbekistan" title="Uzbekistan">Uzbekistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yemen" title="Yemen">Yemen</a></li></ul>
</div></td><td class="navbox-image" rowspan="3" style="width:1px;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding: 0 0.5em;"><div><a href="/wiki/File:Asia_(orthographic_projection).svg" class="image"><img alt="Asia (orthographic projection).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/100px-Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="100" height="100" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/150px-Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg/200px-Asia_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="541" data-file-height="541" /></a></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_states_with_limited_recognition" title="List of states with limited recognition">States with limited recognition</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Abkhazia" title="Abkhazia">Abkhazia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Republic_of_Artsakh" title="Republic of Artsakh">Artsakh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Northern_Cyprus" title="Northern Cyprus">Northern Cyprus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/State_of_Palestine" title="State of Palestine">Palestine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/South_Ossetia" title="South Ossetia">South Ossetia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Taiwan" title="Taiwan">Taiwan</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependencies</a> <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886047488"/><span class="nobold">and</span> <a href="/wiki/Special_administrative_regions_of_China" title="Special administrative regions of China">special<br />administrative regions</a></div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;">Australia</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Christmas_Island" title="Christmas Island">Christmas Island</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands" title="Cocos (Keeling) Islands">Cocos (Keeling) Islands</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;">China</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Hong_Kong" title="Hong Kong">Hong Kong</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Macau" title="Macau">Macau</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;">United Kingdom</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Akrotiri_and_Dhekelia" title="Akrotiri and Dhekelia">Akrotiri and Dhekelia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/British_Indian_Ocean_Territory" title="British Indian Ocean Territory">British Indian Ocean Territory</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow hlist" colspan="3" style="font-weight:bold;"><div>
<ul><li><img alt="Wikipedia book" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/16px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Wikipedia book" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/23px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/31px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="180" data-file-height="185" /> <a href="/wiki/Book:Asia" title="Book:Asia">Book</a></li>
<li><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" /> <a href="/wiki/Category:Asia" title="Category:Asia">Category</a></li>
<li><img alt="Portal" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/16px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Portal" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/24px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/32px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="32" data-file-height="28" /> <a href="/wiki/Portal:Asia" title="Portal:Asia">Asia portal</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Countries_and_other_territories_in_Southeast_Asia" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Countries_and_territories_of_Southeast_Asia" title="Template:Countries and territories of Southeast Asia"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Countries_and_territories_of_Southeast_Asia" title="Template talk:Countries and territories of Southeast Asia"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Countries_and_territories_of_Southeast_Asia&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Countries_and_other_territories_in_Southeast_Asia" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Countries and other territories in <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">Sovereign states</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cambodia" title="Cambodia">Cambodia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/East_Timor" title="East Timor">East Timor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Myanmar" title="Myanmar">Myanmar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thailand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependent territories</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Christmas_Island" title="Christmas Island">Christmas Island</a> (<a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands" title="Cocos (Keeling) Islands">Cocos (Keeling) Islands</a> (<a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>)</li></ul>
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<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Countries_of_the_Malay_Archipelago" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Countries_of_the_Malay_Archipelago" title="Template:Countries of the Malay Archipelago"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Countries_of_the_Malay_Archipelago" title="Template talk:Countries of the Malay Archipelago"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Countries_of_the_Malay_Archipelago&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Countries_of_the_Malay_Archipelago" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Countries of the <a href="/wiki/Malay_Archipelago" title="Malay Archipelago">Malay Archipelago</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/East_Timor" title="East Timor">East Timor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea" title="Papua New Guinea">Papua New Guinea</a></li></ul>
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<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="International_membership" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background:#e8e8ff;"><div id="International_membership" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">International membership</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;font-size:114%"><div style="padding:0px">
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="International_ties_of_Singapore" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background:#ddf;"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Singapore_ties" title="Template:Singapore ties"><abbr title="View this template" style=";background:#ddf;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Singapore_ties" title="Template talk:Singapore ties"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";background:#ddf;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Singapore_ties&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";background:#ddf;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="International_ties_of_Singapore" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Singapore" title="Foreign relations of Singapore">International ties of Singapore</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Geographical and geopolitical</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Asia" title="Asia">Continent of Asia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Historical and cultural</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Template:The_Commonwealth" title="Template:The Commonwealth">Commonwealth of Nations</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">International organisations</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/United_Nations" title="United Nations">United Nations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asia-Pacific_Economic_Cooperation" title="Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation">APEC</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asian_Development_Bank" title="Asian Development Bank">Asian Development Bank</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/World_Trade_Organization" title="World Trade Organization">WTO</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" class="mw-redirect" title="Association of Southeast Asian Nations">ASEAN</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Group_of_77" title="Group of 77">G-77</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Non-Aligned Movement">Non-Aligned Movement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Interpol" title="Interpol">Interpol</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Permanent_Court_of_Arbitration" title="Permanent Court of Arbitration">PCA</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_Chamber_of_Commerce" title="International Chamber of Commerce">ICA</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_Red_Cross_and_Red_Crescent_Movement" title="International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement">ICRM</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/World_Customs_Organization" title="World Customs Organization">WCO</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_Atomic_Energy_Agency" title="International Atomic Energy Agency">IAEA</a></li></ul>
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<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations_(ASEAN)" title="Template:Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations_(ASEAN)" title="Template talk:Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations_(ASEAN)&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" class="mw-redirect" title="Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Association of Southeast Asian Nations</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Politics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Charter" title="ASEAN Charter">Charter</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Free_Trade_Area#The_Common_Effective_Preferential_Tariff_(CEPT)_scheme" title="ASEAN Free Trade Area">Customs union</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Declaration" title="ASEAN Declaration">Date of Establishment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Organisations_associated_with_the_Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" title="Organisations associated with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Organisations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Secretaries-General_of_the_Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" class="mw-redirect" title="List of Secretaries-General of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Secretariat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Treaty_of_Amity_and_Cooperation_in_Southeast_Asia" title="Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia">Treaty of Amity and Cooperation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Visa_policy_of_ASEAN_members" title="Visa policy of ASEAN members">Visa policies</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Symbols</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/The_ASEAN_Way" title="The ASEAN Way">Anthem</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Emblem_of_the_Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" title="Emblem of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Emblem</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flag_of_the_Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" title="Flag of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Flag</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Hymn" class="mw-redirect" title="ASEAN Hymn">Hymn</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Member_states_of_the_Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" title="Member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Membership</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cambodia" title="Cambodia">Cambodia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Myanmar" title="Myanmar">Myanmar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thailand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Enlargement_of_the_Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations" title="Enlargement of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations">Observer and Candidate for Member</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea" title="Papua New Guinea">Papua New Guinea</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/East_Timor" title="East Timor">East Timor</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Events</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Summits</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Summit" title="ASEAN Summit">ASEAN Summit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/East_Asia_Summit" title="East Asia Summit">East Asia Summit</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Other</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Free_Trade_Area#ASEAN_Plus_Three" title="ASEAN Free Trade Area">ASEAN Plus Three</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asian_Monetary_Unit" title="Asian Monetary Unit">Asian Monetary Unit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Regional_Forum" class="mw-redirect" title="ASEAN Regional Forum">ASEAN Regional Forum</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Asia%E2%80%93Europe_Meeting" title="Asia–Europe Meeting">Asia–Europe Meeting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chiang_Mai_Initiative" title="Chiang Mai Initiative">Chiang Mai Initiative</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Comprehensive_Economic_Partnership_for_East_Asia" title="Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia">Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Regional_Comprehensive_Economic_Partnership" title="Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership">Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Competitions</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/SEA_Games" class="mw-redirect" title="SEA Games">SEA Games</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_University_Games" title="ASEAN University Games">ASEAN University Games</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_School_Games" title="ASEAN School Games">ASEAN School Games</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_ParaGames" class="mw-redirect" title="ASEAN ParaGames">ASEAN Para Games</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Football_Championship" class="mw-redirect" title="ASEAN Football Championship">ASEAN Football Championship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Armies_Rifle_Meet" title="ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet">ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Related</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Football_Federation" title="ASEAN Football Federation">ASEAN Football Federation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Free_Trade_Area" title="ASEAN Free Trade Area">ASEAN Free Trade Area</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN%E2%80%93China_Free_Trade_Area" title="ASEAN–China Free Trade Area">ASEAN–China Free Trade Area</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN%E2%80%93India_Free_Trade_Area" title="ASEAN–India Free Trade Area">ASEAN–India Free Trade Area</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ASEAN_Common_Time" title="ASEAN Common Time">Common Time</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_ASEAN_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)" class="mw-redirect" title="List of ASEAN countries by GDP (nominal)">Economy</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="East_Asia_Summit_(EAS)" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:East_Asia_Summit_(EAS)" title="Template:East Asia Summit (EAS)"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:East_Asia_Summit_(EAS)" title="Template talk:East Asia Summit (EAS)"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:East_Asia_Summit_(EAS)&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="East_Asia_Summit_(EAS)" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/East_Asia_Summit" title="East Asia Summit">East Asia Summit (EAS)</a></div></th></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow hlist" colspan="2" style="font-weight: bold;"><div id="*_First&#10;*_Second&#10;*_Third&#10;*_Fourth&#10;*_Fifth&#10;*_Sixth&#10;*_Seventh&#10;*_Eighth&#10;*_Ninth&#10;*_Tenth&#10;*_Eleventh&#10;*_Twelfth&#10;*_Thirteenth&#10;*_Fourteenth">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/First_East_Asia_Summit" title="First East Asia Summit">First</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Second_East_Asia_Summit" title="Second East Asia Summit">Second</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Third_East_Asia_Summit" title="Third East Asia Summit">Third</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fourth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Fourth East Asia Summit">Fourth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fifth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Fifth East Asia Summit">Fifth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sixth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Sixth East Asia Summit">Sixth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Seventh_East_Asia_Summit" title="Seventh East Asia Summit">Seventh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eighth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Eighth East Asia Summit">Eighth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ninth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Ninth East Asia Summit">Ninth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tenth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Tenth East Asia Summit">Tenth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eleventh_East_Asia_Summit" title="Eleventh East Asia Summit">Eleventh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Twelfth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Twelfth East Asia Summit">Twelfth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thirteenth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Thirteenth East Asia Summit">Thirteenth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fourteenth_East_Asia_Summit" title="Fourteenth East Asia Summit">Fourteenth</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd plainlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px;text-align:left; padding-left:0.3em;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 12em; -webkit-column-width: 12em; column-width: 12em;">
<ul><li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1280" data-file-height="640" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Flag_of_Brunei.svg/23px-Flag_of_Brunei.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Flag_of_Brunei.svg/35px-Flag_of_Brunei.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Flag_of_Brunei.svg/46px-Flag_of_Brunei.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1440" data-file-height="720" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a></li>
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<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/45px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/China" title="China">China</a></li>
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<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/23px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/35px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg/45px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Japan" title="Japan">Japan</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Flag_of_Laos.svg/23px-Flag_of_Laos.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Flag_of_Laos.svg/35px-Flag_of_Laos.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Flag_of_Laos.svg/45px-Flag_of_Laos.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="400" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
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<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Russia" title="Russia">Russia</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/23px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/35px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg/45px-Flag_of_Singapore.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="4320" data-file-height="2880" /> </span><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg/23px-Flag_of_South_Korea.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg/35px-Flag_of_South_Korea.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg/45px-Flag_of_South_Korea.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/South_Korea" title="South Korea">South Korea</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/35px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/45px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thailand</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg/46px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1235" data-file-height="650" /> </span><a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a></li>
<li><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/23px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/35px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/45px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600" /> </span><a href="/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a></li></ul>
</div></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Members_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Nations" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:The_Commonwealth" title="Template:The Commonwealth"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:The_Commonwealth" title="Template talk:The Commonwealth"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:The_Commonwealth&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Members_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Nations" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Member_states_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Nations" title="Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations">Members of the</a> <a href="/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations" title="Commonwealth of Nations">Commonwealth of Nations</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states" title="List of sovereign states">Sovereign states</a> <br /> (Members)</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda" title="Antigua and Barbuda">Antigua and Barbuda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Bahamas" title="The Bahamas">Bahamas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bangladesh" title="Bangladesh">Bangladesh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Barbados" title="Barbados">Barbados</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Belize" title="Belize">Belize</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Botswana" title="Botswana">Botswana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brunei" title="Brunei">Brunei</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cameroon" title="Cameroon">Cameroon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cyprus" title="Cyprus">Cyprus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dominica" title="Dominica">Dominica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eswatini" title="Eswatini">Eswatini (Swaziland)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fiji" title="Fiji">Fiji</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Gambia" title="The Gambia">The Gambia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ghana" title="Ghana">Ghana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Grenada" title="Grenada">Grenada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Guyana" title="Guyana">Guyana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jamaica" title="Jamaica">Jamaica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kenya" title="Kenya">Kenya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kiribati" title="Kiribati">Kiribati</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lesotho" title="Lesotho">Lesotho</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malawi" title="Malawi">Malawi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maldives" title="Maldives">Maldives</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malta" title="Malta">Malta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mauritius" title="Mauritius">Mauritius</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mozambique" title="Mozambique">Mozambique</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Namibia" title="Namibia">Namibia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nauru" title="Nauru">Nauru</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nigeria" title="Nigeria">Nigeria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pakistan" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea" title="Papua New Guinea">Papua New Guinea</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rwanda" title="Rwanda">Rwanda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis" title="Saint Kitts and Nevis">St. Kitts and Nevis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Lucia" title="Saint Lucia">St. Lucia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines" title="Saint Vincent and the Grenadines">St. Vincent and the Grenadines</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Samoa" title="Samoa">Samoa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Seychelles" title="Seychelles">Seychelles</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sierra_Leone" title="Sierra Leone">Sierra Leone</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Singapore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Solomon_Islands" title="Solomon Islands">Solomon Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/South_Africa" title="South Africa">South Africa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tanzania" title="Tanzania">Tanzania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tonga" title="Tonga">Tonga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trinidad_and_Tobago" title="Trinidad and Tobago">Trinidad and Tobago</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tuvalu" title="Tuvalu">Tuvalu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uganda" title="Uganda">Uganda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vanuatu" title="Vanuatu">Vanuatu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Dependent_territory" title="Dependent territory">Dependencies</a><br /> of Members</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Australia</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ashmore_and_Cartier_Islands" title="Ashmore and Cartier Islands">Ashmore and Cartier Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Australian_Antarctic_Territory" title="Australian Antarctic Territory">Australian Antarctic Territory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Christmas_Island" title="Christmas Island">Christmas Island</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands" title="Cocos (Keeling) Islands">Cocos (Keeling) Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Coral_Sea_Islands" title="Coral Sea Islands">Coral Sea Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heard_Island_and_McDonald_Islands" title="Heard Island and McDonald Islands">Heard Island and McDonald Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Norfolk_Island" title="Norfolk Island">Norfolk Island</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">New Zealand</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Cook_Islands" title="Cook Islands">Cook Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Niue" title="Niue">Niue</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ross_Dependency" title="Ross Dependency">Ross Dependency</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tokelau" title="Tokelau">Tokelau</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">United Kingdom</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Akrotiri_and_Dhekelia" title="Akrotiri and Dhekelia">Akrotiri and Dhekelia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anguilla" title="Anguilla">Anguilla</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bermuda" title="Bermuda">Bermuda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/British_Antarctic_Territory" title="British Antarctic Territory">British Antarctic Territory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/British_Indian_Ocean_Territory" title="British Indian Ocean Territory">British Indian Ocean Territory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/British_Virgin_Islands" title="British Virgin Islands">British Virgin Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cayman_Islands" title="Cayman Islands">Cayman Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Falkland_Islands" title="Falkland Islands">Falkland Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gibraltar" title="Gibraltar">Gibraltar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Guernsey" title="Guernsey">Guernsey</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Isle_of_Man" title="Isle of Man">Isle of Man</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jersey" title="Jersey">Jersey</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Montserrat" title="Montserrat">Montserrat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pitcairn_Islands" title="Pitcairn Islands">Pitcairn Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Helena,_Ascension_and_Tristan_da_Cunha" title="Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha">St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands" title="South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands">South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turks_and_Caicos_Islands" title="Turks and Caicos Islands">Turks and Caicos Islands</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div>Source: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/142227/members/">Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Non-Aligned_Movement" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Template:Non-Aligned Movement"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Template talk:Non-Aligned Movement"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Non-Aligned_Movement&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Non-Aligned_Movement" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Non-Aligned Movement">Non-Aligned Movement</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Members</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Non-Aligned_Movement#Members,_observers_and_guests" title="Non-Aligned Movement">List of members of Non-Aligned Movement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/India_and_the_Non-Aligned_Movement" title="India and the Non-Aligned Movement">India and the Non-Aligned Movement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yugoslavia_and_the_Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement">Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Structure</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Organizations</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/NAM_News_Network" title="NAM News Network">NAM News Network</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Principles</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Five_Principles_of_Peaceful_Coexistence" title="Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence">Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Summits</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bandung_Conference" title="Bandung Conference">Bandung Conference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Non-Aligned_Foreign_Ministers_Conference" title="Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference">Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/16th_Summit_of_the_Non-Aligned_Movement" title="16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement">16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Founders</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito#Non-Alignment" title="Josip Broz Tito">Josip Broz Tito</a> (<a href="/wiki/Yugoslavia" title="Yugoslavia">Yugoslavia</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sukarno#Figurehead_president" title="Sukarno">Sukarno</a> (<a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jawaharlal_Nehru" title="Jawaharlal Nehru">Jawaharlal Nehru</a> (<a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kwame_Nkrumah" title="Kwame Nkrumah">Kwame Nkrumah</a> (<a href="/wiki/Ghana" title="Ghana">Ghana</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gamal_Abdel_Nasser#Adoption_of_neutralism" title="Gamal Abdel Nasser">Gamal Abdel Nasser</a> (<a href="/wiki/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a>)</li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">People</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Houari_Boumediene#Foreign_policy" class="mw-redirect" title="Houari Boumediene">Houari Boumediene</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fidel_Castro#Foreign_wars_and_NAM_Presidency:_1975–1979" title="Fidel Castro">Fidel Castro</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nelson_Mandela#Foreign_affairs" title="Nelson Mandela">Nelson Mandela</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mohamed_Morsi#Non-Aligned_Movement" title="Mohamed Morsi">Mohamed Morsi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nicol%C3%A1s_Maduro" title="Nicolás Maduro">Nicolás Maduro</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="English-speaking_world" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:English_official_language_clickable_map" title="Template:English official language clickable map"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:English_official_language_clickable_map" title="Template talk:English official language clickable map"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:English_official_language_clickable_map&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="English-speaking_world" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/English_language#Geographic_distribution" title="English language">English-speaking world</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><div style="text-align: center;">
<p><i>Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region</i>
</p>
</div>
<div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><div class="noresize"><map name="ImageMap_5a6fc4d7f2adc147"><area href="/wiki/British_English" shape="poly" coords="233,91,274,79,277,93,310,94,311,88,295,88,298,80,303,73,298,41,307,20,269,22,254,41,259,57,244,63,235,72,231,82" alt="British English" title="British English" /><area href="/wiki/Languages_of_Malta" shape="circle" coords="273,90,5" alt="Languages of Malta" title="Languages of Malta" /><area href="/wiki/Canadian_English" shape="poly" coords="67,25,46,40,50,43,52,46,52,49,49,53,48,58,46,56,46,64,52,64,54,63,100,64,109,66,112,70,115,70,114,73,112,77,130,71,129,68,125,67,125,61,124,55,127,49,117,44,124,37,130,37,136,37,142,36,150,35,154,40,160,40,169,29,157,18,172,12,190,2,144,6,95,16" alt="Canadian English" title="Canadian English" /><area href="/wiki/Quebec_English" shape="poly" coords="147,36,133,42,126,55,126,61,125,67,130,70,138,67,151,67,163,58,150,56,150,54,154,52,157,44" alt="Quebec English" title="Quebec English" /><area href="/wiki/Canadian_English" shape="poly" coords="158,41,154,52,148,52,149,56,153,58,161,58,160,60,155,65,140,67,140,72,142,73,168,65,168,51" alt="Canadian English" title="Canadian English" /><area href="/wiki/Alaska#Languages" shape="poly" coords="67,23,43,43,30,45,4,53,4,46,24,27,43,22,65,22" alt="Alaska#Languages" title="Alaska#Languages" /><area href="/wiki/Falkland_Islands_English" shape="circle" coords="158,265,11" alt="Falkland Islands English" title="Falkland Islands English" /><area href="/wiki/Scottish_English" shape="rect" coords="242,40,251,53" alt="Scottish English" title="Scottish English" /><area href="/wiki/Hiberno-English" shape="poly" coords="246,55,235,52,232,61,242,62" alt="Hiberno-English" title="Hiberno-English" /><area href="/wiki/Mid-Ulster_English" shape="rect" coords="233,48,243,55" alt="Mid-Ulster English" title="Mid-Ulster English" /><area href="/wiki/British_English" shape="poly" coords="246,54,244,63,252,62,256,51" alt="British English" title="British 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coords="547,226,520,246,521,264,565,260,577,226" alt="New Zealand English" title="New Zealand English" /><area href="/wiki/Languages_of_Papua_New_Guinea" shape="rect" coords="511,160,526,190" alt="Languages of Papua New Guinea" title="Languages of Papua New Guinea" /><area href="/wiki/Solomon_Islands#Demographics" shape="rect" coords="529,165,547,190" alt="Solomon Islands#Demographics" title="Solomon Islands#Demographics" /><area href="/wiki/Palau#Demographics" shape="circle" coords="494,151,7" alt="Palau#Demographics" title="Palau#Demographics" /><area href="/wiki/Federated_States_of_Micronesia#Languages" shape="poly" coords="503,136,497,143,531,158,544,155,546,151" alt="Federated States of Micronesia#Languages" title="Federated States of Micronesia#Languages" /><area href="/wiki/Languages_of_Fiji" shape="rect" coords="565,184,601,211" alt="Languages of Fiji" title="Languages of Fiji" /><area href="/wiki/Singapore_English" shape="circle" coords="442,161,4" alt="Singapore English" 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shape="circle" coords="100,123,5" alt="Demographics of the Cayman Islands#Languages" title="Demographics of the Cayman Islands#Languages" /><area href="/wiki/Jamaican_English" shape="circle" coords="108,128,6" alt="Jamaican English" title="Jamaican English" /><area href="/wiki/Languages_of_Belize" shape="rect" coords="82,119,94,135" alt="Languages of Belize" title="Languages of Belize" /><area href="/wiki/Demographics_of_Saint_Helena,_Ascension_and_Tristan_da_Cunha" shape="circle" coords="240,196,15" alt="Demographics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha" title="Demographics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha" /><area href="/wiki/Languages_of_Guyana" shape="rect" coords="132,145,151,168" alt="Languages of Guyana" title="Languages of Guyana" /><area href="/wiki/Puerto_Rico#Languages" shape="rect" coords="123,117,131,133" alt="Puerto Rico#Languages" title="Puerto Rico#Languages" /><area href="/wiki/Caribbean_English" shape="rect" coords="131,117,148,145" alt="English of the Windward Islands and Leeward Islands" title="English of the Windward Islands and Leeward Islands" /><area href="/wiki/Bermudian_English" shape="circle" coords="138,97,9" alt="Bermudian English" title="Bermudian English" /></map><img alt="English speaking countries" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Anglospeak%28800px%29Countries.png/600px-Anglospeak%28800px%29Countries.png" decoding="async" width="600" height="263" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Anglospeak%28800px%29Countries.png 1.5x" data-file-width="800" data-file-height="351" usemap="#ImageMap_5a6fc4d7f2adc147" /></div></div></div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Further_links" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Further links</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;width:8.25em;">Articles</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;width:auto;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/English-speaking_world" title="English-speaking world">English-speaking world</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_English_language" class="mw-redirect" title="History of the English language">History of the English language</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/British_Empire" title="British Empire">British Empire</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/English_in_the_Commonwealth_of_Nations" title="English in the Commonwealth of Nations">English in the Commonwealth of Nations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anglosphere" title="Anglosphere">Anglosphere</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;width:8.25em;">Lists</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;width:auto;;text-align:left;color:darkblue;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_English-speaking_population" title="List of countries by English-speaking population">List of countries by English-speaking population</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_where_English_is_an_official_language" class="mw-redirect" title="List of countries where English is an official language">List of countries where English is an official language</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;width:auto;"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:blue;"><span style="padding-left:1.0em;"> </span></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div id="*_Countries_and_territories_where_English_is_the_national_language_or_the_native_language_of_the_majority">
<ul><li><b>Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority</b></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Languages_of_Africa" title="Languages of Africa">Africa</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Saint_Helena,_Ascension_and_Tristan_da_Cunha" title="Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha">Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha</a></i></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Anglo-America" title="Anglo-America">Americas</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Anguilla" title="Anguilla">Anguilla</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda" title="Antigua and Barbuda">Antigua and Barbuda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Bahamas" title="The Bahamas">The Bahamas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Barbados" title="Barbados">Barbados</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Belize" title="Belize">Belize</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Bermuda" title="Bermuda">Bermuda</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/British_Virgin_Islands" title="British Virgin Islands">British Virgin Islands</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Cayman_Islands" title="Cayman Islands">Cayman Islands</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dominica" title="Dominica">Dominica</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Falkland_Islands" title="Falkland Islands">Falkland Islands</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Grenada" title="Grenada">Grenada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Guyana" title="Guyana">Guyana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jamaica" title="Jamaica">Jamaica</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Montserrat" title="Montserrat">Montserrat</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Saba" title="Saba">Saba</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis" title="Saint Kitts and Nevis">Saint Kitts and Nevis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Lucia" title="Saint Lucia">Saint Lucia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines" title="Saint Vincent and the Grenadines">Saint Vincent and the Grenadines</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Sint_Eustatius" title="Sint Eustatius">Sint Eustatius</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Sint_Maarten" title="Sint Maarten">Sint Maarten</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands" title="South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands">South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trinidad_and_Tobago" title="Trinidad and Tobago">Trinidad and Tobago</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Turks_and_Caicos_Islands" title="Turks and Caicos Islands">Turks and Caicos Islands</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/United_States_Virgin_Islands" title="United States Virgin Islands">United States Virgin Islands</a></i></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/English_language_in_Europe" title="English language in Europe">Europe</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Guernsey" title="Guernsey">Guernsey</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Republic_of_Ireland" title="Republic of Ireland">Ireland</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Isle_of_Man" title="Isle of Man">Isle of Man</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Jersey" title="Jersey">Jersey</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Languages_of_Oceania" title="Languages of Oceania">Oceania</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Norfolk_Island" title="Norfolk Island">Norfolk Island</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Pitcairn_Islands" title="Pitcairn Islands">Pitcairn Islands</a></i></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:lightblue;"><span style="padding-left:1.0em;"> </span></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div id="*_Countries_and_territories_where_English_is_an_official_language,_but_not_the_majority_first_language">
<ul><li><b>Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language</b></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Africa</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Botswana" title="Botswana">Botswana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cameroon" title="Cameroon">Cameroon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eswatini" title="Eswatini">Eswatini</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Gambia" title="The Gambia">The Gambia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ghana" title="Ghana">Ghana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kenya" title="Kenya">Kenya</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lesotho" title="Lesotho">Lesotho</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Liberia" title="Liberia">Liberia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Malawi" title="Malawi">Malawi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mauritius" title="Mauritius">Mauritius</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Namibia" title="Namibia">Namibia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nigeria" title="Nigeria">Nigeria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rwanda" title="Rwanda">Rwanda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sierra_Leone" title="Sierra Leone">Sierra Leone</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Somaliland" title="Somaliland">Somaliland</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/South_Africa" title="South Africa">South Africa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/South_Sudan" title="South Sudan">South Sudan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sudan" title="Sudan">Sudan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tanzania" title="Tanzania">Tanzania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uganda" title="Uganda">Uganda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zambia" title="Zambia">Zambia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zimbabwe" title="Zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Americas</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Puerto_Rico" title="Puerto Rico">Puerto Rico</a></i></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Languages_of_Asia" title="Languages of Asia">Asia</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Christmas_Island" title="Christmas Island">Christmas Island</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands" title="Cocos (Keeling) Islands">Cocos (Keeling) Islands</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Hong_Kong" title="Hong Kong">Hong Kong</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pakistan" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippine