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Hydrogen production - Wikipedia

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	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Hydrogen production</h1>
	
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		<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
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		<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">Family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen</div>
<p><b>Hydrogen production</b> is the family of industrial methods for generating <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a>. As of 2018, the majority of hydrogen (∼95%) is produced from fossil fuels by <a href="/wiki/Steam_reforming" title="Steam reforming">steam reforming</a> of natural gas, partial oxidation of <a href="/wiki/Methane" title="Methane">methane</a> and <a href="/wiki/Coal_gas" title="Coal gas">coal gasification</a>. Other methods of hydrogen production include biomass gasification and electrolysis of water.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ogden_1999_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ogden_1999-2">[2]</a></sup> 
Around 8 GW of electrolysis capacity is installed worldwide, accounting for around 4% of global hydrogen production. Developing affordable methods for producing hydrogen with less damage to the environment is a goal of the <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_economy" title="Hydrogen economy">hydrogen economy</a>.
Pure hydrogen is not generally found in large quantities on Earth. As of 2019, there is only one known natural hydrogen gas deposit in the world, and it has been discovered in Mali.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup> 
</p><p>The production of hydrogen plays a key role in any industrialized society, since hydrogen is required for many essential chemical processes.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup> As of 2019<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, roughly 70 million tons of hydrogen are produced annually worldwide for various uses, such as, oil refining, and in the production of <a href="/wiki/Ammonia" title="Ammonia">ammonia</a> (<a href="/wiki/Haber_process" title="Haber process">Haber process</a>) and <a href="/wiki/Methanol" title="Methanol">methanol</a> (reduction of <a href="/wiki/Carbon_monoxide" title="Carbon monoxide">carbon monoxide</a>), and also as a fuel in transportation. The hydrogen generation market is expected to be valued at US$115.25 billion in 2017.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup>
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Methods_of_hydrogen_production"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Methods of hydrogen production</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Steam_reforming"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Steam reforming</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Other_production_methods_from_fossil_fuels"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Other production methods from fossil fuels</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Partial_oxidation"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Partial oxidation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Plasma_reforming"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Plasma reforming</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Coal"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Coal</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Petroleum_coke"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Petroleum coke</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#From_water"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">From water</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Electrolysis"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Electrolysis</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-10"><a href="#Industrial_output_and_efficiency"><span class="tocnumber">4.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Industrial output and efficiency</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Chemically_assisted_electrolysis"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Chemically assisted electrolysis</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Radiolysis"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Radiolysis</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Thermolysis"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Thermolysis</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Thermochemical_cycle"><span class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Thermochemical cycle</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Ferrosilicon_method"><span class="tocnumber">4.6</span> <span class="toctext">Ferrosilicon method</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Photobiological_water_splitting"><span class="tocnumber">4.7</span> <span class="toctext">Photobiological water splitting</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Photocatalytic_water_splitting"><span class="tocnumber">4.8</span> <span class="toctext">Photocatalytic water splitting</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Biohydrogen_routes"><span class="tocnumber">4.9</span> <span class="toctext">Biohydrogen routes</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-19"><a href="#Fermentative_hydrogen_production"><span class="tocnumber">4.9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Fermentative hydrogen production</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-20"><a href="#Enzymatic_hydrogen_generation"><span class="tocnumber">4.9.2</span> <span class="toctext">Enzymatic hydrogen generation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-21"><a href="#Biocatalysed_electrolysis"><span class="tocnumber">4.9.3</span> <span class="toctext">Biocatalysed electrolysis</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Nanogalvanic_aluminum_alloy_powder"><span class="tocnumber">4.10</span> <span class="toctext">Nanogalvanic aluminum alloy powder</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#Environmental_impact"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Environmental impact</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a href="#Use_of_hydrogen"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Use of hydrogen</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Methods_of_hydrogen_production">Methods of hydrogen production</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Methods of hydrogen production">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>There are four main sources for the commercial production of hydrogen: natural gas, oil, coal, and electrolysis; which account for 48%, 30%, 18% and 4% of the world's hydrogen production respectively.<sup id="cite_ref-rotech_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rotech-6">[6]</a></sup>
Fossil fuels are the dominant source of industrial hydrogen.<sup id="cite_ref-Ullmann_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ullmann-7">[7]</a></sup> Carbon dioxide can be separated from <a href="/wiki/Natural_gas" title="Natural gas">natural gas</a> with a 70-85% efficiency for hydrogen production and from other <a href="/wiki/Hydrocarbon" title="Hydrocarbon">hydrocarbons</a> to varying degrees of efficiency.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8">[8]</a></sup> Specifically, bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the <a href="/wiki/Steam_reforming" title="Steam reforming">steam reforming</a> of methane or natural gas.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup> 
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Steam_reforming">Steam reforming</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Steam reforming">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Steam_reforming" title="Steam reforming">Steam reforming</a></div>
<p>Steam reforming is a hydrogen production process from natural gas. This method is currently the cheapest source of hydrogen. The process consists of heating the gas to between 700-1100 °C in the presence of steam and a nickel catalyst. The resulting <a href="/wiki/Endothermic_reaction" class="mw-redirect" title="Endothermic reaction">endothermic reaction</a> breaks up the methane molecules and forms carbon monoxide CO and hydrogen H<sub>2</sub>. The carbon monoxide gas can then be passed with steam over <a href="/wiki/Iron_oxide" title="Iron oxide">iron oxide</a> or other oxides and undergo a <a href="/wiki/Water_gas_shift_reaction" class="mw-redirect" title="Water gas shift reaction">water gas shift reaction</a> to obtain further quantities of H<sub>2</sub>. The downside to this process is that its major byproducts are CO, CO<sub>2</sub> and other greenhouse gases.<sup id="cite_ref-rotech_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rotech-6">[6]</a></sup> Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO<sub>2</sub>.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">[10]</a></sup>
</p><p>For this process high temperature (700–1100 °C) steam (H<sub>2</sub>O) reacts with <a href="/wiki/Methane" title="Methane">methane</a> (CH<sub>4</sub>) in an <a href="/wiki/Endothermic_reaction" class="mw-redirect" title="Endothermic reaction">endothermic reaction</a> to yield <a href="/wiki/Syngas" title="Syngas">syngas</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">[11]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Hydrogen.from.Coal.gasification_tampa.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Hydrogen.from.Coal.gasification_tampa.jpg" decoding="async" width="200" height="126" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="200" data-file-height="126" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Hydrogen.from.Coal.gasification_tampa.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Gasification</div></div></div>
<dl><dd>CH<sub>4</sub> + H<sub>2</sub>O   →   CO  +  3 H<sub>2</sub></dd></dl>
<p>In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, <a href="/wiki/Water_gas_shift_reaction" class="mw-redirect" title="Water gas shift reaction">water gas shift reaction</a>, performed at about 360 °C:
</p>
<dl><dd>CO + H<sub>2</sub>O → CO<sub>2</sub> + H<sub>2</sub></dd></dl>
<p>Essentially, the <a href="/wiki/Oxygen" title="Oxygen">oxygen</a> (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO<sub>2</sub>. This oxidation also provides energy to maintain the reaction.  Additional heat required to drive the process is generally supplied by burning some portion of the methane.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_production_methods_from_fossil_fuels">Other production methods from fossil fuels</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Other production methods from fossil fuels">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Partial_oxidation">Partial oxidation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: Partial oxidation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Hydrogen production from natural gas or other hydrocarbons is achieved by partial oxidation. A fuel-air or fuel-oxygen mixture is partially combusted resulting in a hydrogen rich <a href="/wiki/Syngas" title="Syngas">syngas</a>. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are obtained via the water-gas shift reaction.<sup id="cite_ref-rotech_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rotech-6">[6]</a></sup>  Carbon dioxide can be co-fed to lower the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio.
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Partial_oxidation" title="Partial oxidation">partial oxidation</a> reaction occurs when a <a href="/wiki/Stoichiometry" title="Stoichiometry">substoichiometric</a> fuel-air mixture or fuel-oxygen is partially <a href="/wiki/Combustion" title="Combustion">combusted</a> in a reformer or partial oxidation reactor. A distinction is made between <i>thermal partial oxidation</i> (TPOX) and <i>catalytic partial oxidation</i> (CPOX). The chemical reaction takes the general form:
</p>
<dl><dd>C<sub><i>n</i></sub>H<sub><i>m</i></sub> + <sup><i>n</i></sup>/<sub>2</sub> O<sub>2</sub> → <i>n</i> CO + <sup><i>m</i></sup>/<sub>2</sub> H<sub>2</sub></dd></dl>
<p>Idealized examples for heating oil and coal, assuming compositions C<sub>12</sub>H<sub>24</sub> and C<sub>24</sub>H<sub>12</sub> respectively, are as follows:
</p>
<dl><dd>C<sub>12</sub>H<sub>24</sub> + 6 O<sub>2</sub> → 12 CO + 12 H<sub>2</sub></dd>
<dd>C<sub>24</sub>H<sub>12</sub> + 12 O<sub>2</sub> → 24 CO + 6 H<sub>2</sub></dd></dl>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Plasma_reforming">Plasma reforming</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: Plasma reforming">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Kv%C3%A6rner-process" class="mw-redirect" title="Kværner-process">Kværner-process</a> or Kvaerner <a href="/wiki/Carbon_black" title="Carbon black">carbon black</a> & <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a> process (CB&H)<sup id="cite_ref-BHR_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BHR-12">[12]</a></sup> is a plasma reforming method, developed in the 1980s by a <a href="/wiki/Norway" title="Norway">Norwegian</a> company of the same name, for the production of hydrogen and <a href="/wiki/Carbon_black" title="Carbon black">carbon black</a> from liquid hydrocarbons (C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>m</sub>). Of the available energy of the feed, approximately 48% is contained in the hydrogen, 40% is contained in <a href="/wiki/Activated_carbon" title="Activated carbon">activated carbon</a> and 10% in superheated steam.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">[13]</a></sup> CO<sub>2</sub> is not produced in the process.
</p><p>A variation of this process is presented in 2009 using <a href="/wiki/Plasma_arc_waste_disposal" class="mw-redirect" title="Plasma arc waste disposal">plasma arc waste disposal</a> technology for the production of hydrogen, heat and carbon from methane and natural gas in a plasma converter<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Coal">Coal</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=6" title="Edit section: Coal">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>For the production of hydrogen from <a href="/wiki/Coal" title="Coal">coal</a>, <a href="/wiki/Coal_gasification" title="Coal gasification">coal gasification</a> is used. The process of coal gasification uses steam and a carefully controlled concentration of gases to break molecular bonds in coal and form a gaseous mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.<sup id="cite_ref-Hordeski_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hordeski-15">[15]</a></sup>
This source of hydrogen is advantageous since its main product is coal-derived gas which can be used for fuel. The gas obtained from coal gasification can later be used to produce electricity more efficiently and allow a better capture of greenhouse gases than the traditional burning of coal.
</p><p>Another method for conversion is low temperature and high temperature <a href="/wiki/Coal_carbonization" class="mw-redirect" title="Coal carbonization">coal carbonization</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">[16]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Petroleum_coke">Petroleum coke</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: Petroleum coke">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Similarly to coal, <a href="/wiki/Petroleum_coke" title="Petroleum coke">petroleum coke</a> can also be converted in hydrogen rich <a href="/wiki/Syngas" title="Syngas">syngas</a>, via coal gasification. The syngas in this case consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and H<sub>2</sub>S, depending on the sulfur content of the coke feed. <a href="/wiki/Gasification" title="Gasification">Gasification</a> is an attractive option for producing hydrogen from almost any carbon source, while providing attractive hydrogen utilization alternatives through process integration.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[17]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="From_water">From water</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=8" title="Edit section: From water">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Water_splitting" title="Water splitting">Water splitting</a></div>
<p>Methods to produce hydrogen without the use of fossil fuels involve the process of <a href="/wiki/Water_splitting" title="Water splitting">water splitting</a>, or splitting the water molecule H<sub>2</sub>O into its components oxygen and hydrogen. This can be accomplished in several ways.
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Electrolysis">Electrolysis</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=9" title="Edit section: Electrolysis">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Electrolysis_of_water" title="Electrolysis of water">Electrolysis of water</a></div>
<p>Electrolysis consists of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. <a href="/wiki/Electrolysis_of_water" title="Electrolysis of water">Electrolysis of water</a> is 70-80% efficient (a 20-30% conversion loss)<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">[19]</a></sup> while <a href="/wiki/Steam_reforming" title="Steam reforming">steam reforming</a> of natural gas has a thermal efficiency between 70-85%.<sup id="cite_ref-Steam_reforming_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Steam_reforming-20">[20]</a></sup> The (electrical) efficiency of electrolysis is expected to reach 82-86%<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">[21]</a></sup> before 2030, while also maintaining durability as progress in this area continues at a pace.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">[22]</a></sup>  Water electrolysis can operate between 50-80 °C, while steam methane reforming requires temperatures between 700-1100 °C.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">[23]</a></sup> The difference between the two methods is the primary energy used; either electricity (for electrolysis) or natural gas (for steam methane reforming).  Due to their use of water, a readily available resource, electrolysis and similar water-splitting methods have attracted the interest of the scientific community. With the objective of reducing the cost of hydrogen production, renewable sources of energy have been targeted to allow electrolysis.<sup id="cite_ref-Hordeski_15-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hordeski-15">[15]</a></sup>
There are three main types of cells, <a href="/wiki/Solid_oxide_electrolyser_cell" title="Solid oxide electrolyser cell">solid oxide electrolyser cells</a> (SOECs), <a href="/wiki/Polymer_electrolyte_membrane_electrolysis" title="Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis">polymer electrolyte membrane cells</a> (PEM) and alkaline electrolysis cells (AECs).<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">[24]</a></sup> SOECs operate at high temperatures, typically around 800 °C. At these high temperatures a significant amount of the energy required can be provided as thermal energy (heat), and as such is termed <a href="/wiki/High_temperature_electrolysis" class="mw-redirect" title="High temperature electrolysis">High temperature electrolysis</a>. The heat energy can be provided from a number of different sources, including waste industrial heat, nuclear power stations or concentrated solar thermal plants. This has the potential to reduce the overall cost of the hydrogen produced by reducing the amount of electrical energy required for electrolysis.<sup id="cite_ref-Ogden_1999_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ogden_1999-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">[25]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">[26]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">[27]</a></sup> PEM electrolysis cells typically operate below 100 °C and are becoming increasingly available commercially.<sup id="cite_ref-Ogden_1999_2-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ogden_1999-2">[2]</a></sup> These cells have the advantage of being comparatively simple and can be designed to accept widely varying voltage inputs which makes them ideal for use with renewable sources of energy such as solar PV.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28">[28]</a></sup> AECs optimally operate at high concentrations electrolyte (KOH or potassium carbonate) and at high temperatures, often near 200 °C.
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Industrial_output_and_efficiency">Industrial output and efficiency</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=10" title="Edit section: Industrial output and efficiency">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>Efficiency of modern hydrogen generators is measured by <i>energy consumed per standard volume of hydrogen</i> (MJ/m<sup>3</sup>), assuming <a href="/wiki/Standard_temperature_and_pressure" class="mw-redirect" title="Standard temperature and pressure">standard temperature and pressure</a> of the H<sub>2</sub>. The lower the energy used by a generator, the higher would be its efficiency; a 100%-efficient electrolyser would consume 39.4 kilowatt-hours per kilogram (142 MJ/kg) of <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-EU140207_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EU140207-29">[29]</a></sup> 12,749 joules per litre (12.75 MJ/m<sup>3</sup>).  Practical electrolysis (using a rotating electrolyser at 15 bar pressure) may consume 50 kilowatt-hours per kilogram (180 MJ/kg), and a further 15 kilowatt-hours (54 MJ) if the hydrogen is compressed for use in hydrogen cars.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">[30]</a></sup>
</p><p>Electrolyser vendors provide efficiencies based on <a href="/wiki/Enthalpy" title="Enthalpy">enthalpy</a>.  To assess the claimed efficiency of an electrolyser it is important to establish how it was defined by the vendor (i.e. what enthalpy value, what current density, etc.).
</p><p>There are two main technologies available on the market, <i>alkaline</i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Proton_exchange_membrane" class="mw-redirect" title="Proton exchange membrane">proton exchange membrane</a></i> (PEM) electrolysers.
Traditionally, alkaline electrolysers are cheaper in terms of investment (they generally use nickel catalysts), but less efficient; PEM electrolysers, conversely, are more expensive (they generally use expensive platinum-group metal catalysts) but are more efficient and can operate at higher current densities, and can therefore be possibly cheaper if the hydrogen production is large enough.
</p><p>Conventional alkaline electrolysis has an efficiency of about 70%,<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">[31]</a></sup> however thyssenkrupp have recently developed an advanced alkaline water electrolyser with an efficiency of 82%.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">[32]</a></sup> Accounting for the use of the higher heat value (because inefficiency via heat can be redirected back into the system to create the steam required by the catalyst), average working efficiencies for <a href="/wiki/PEM_electrolysis" class="mw-redirect" title="PEM electrolysis">PEM electrolysis</a> are around 80%, or 82% using the most modern alkaline electrolysers.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">[33]</a></sup> PEM efficiency is expected to increase to approximately 86%<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">[34]</a></sup> before 2030. Theoretical efficiency for PEM electrolysers are predicted up to 94%.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">[35]</a></sup>
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<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:402px;"><a href="/wiki/File:H2_production_cost_($-gge_untaxed)_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/H2_production_cost_%28%24-gge_untaxed%29_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg/400px-H2_production_cost_%28%24-gge_untaxed%29_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg" decoding="async" width="400" height="232" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/H2_production_cost_%28%24-gge_untaxed%29_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg/600px-H2_production_cost_%28%24-gge_untaxed%29_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/H2_production_cost_%28%24-gge_untaxed%29_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg 2x" data-file-width="649" data-file-height="377" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:H2_production_cost_($-gge_untaxed)_at_varying_natural_gas_prices.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>H<sub>2</sub> production cost ($-gge untaxed) at varying natural gas prices</div></div></div>
<p>Considering the industrial production of hydrogen, and using current best processes for water electrolysis (PEM or alkaline electrolysis) which have an effective electrical efficiency of 70-82%,<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">[36]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38">[38]</a></sup> producing 1 kg of hydrogen (which has a <a href="/wiki/Specific_energy" title="Specific energy">specific energy</a> of 143 MJ/kg or about 40 kWh/kg) requires 50–55 kWh of electricity. At an electricity cost of $0.06/kWh, as set out in the Department of Energy hydrogen production 
targets for 2015,<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39">[39]</a></sup> the hydrogen cost is $3/kg. With the range of natural gas prices from 2016 as shown in the graph (<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/11/f46/HPTT%20Roadmap%20FY17%20Final_Nov%202017.pdf">Hydrogen Production Tech Team Roadmap, November 2017</a>) putting the cost of SMR hydrogen at between $1.20 and $1.50, the cost price of hydrogen via electrolysis is still over double 2015 DOE hydrogen target prices. The US DOE target price for hydrogen in 2020 is $2.30/kg, requiring an electricity cost of $0.037/kWh, which is achievable given recent PPA tenders<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40">[40]</a></sup> for wind and solar in many regions. This puts the $4/gge H2 dispensed objective well within reach, and close to a slightly elevated natural gas production cost for SMR.
</p><p>In many cases, the advantage of electrolysis over SMR hydrogen is that the hydrogen can be produced on-site, meaning that the costly process of delivery via truck or pipeline is avoided.
</p><p>In other parts of the world, steam methane reforming is between $1–3/kg on average. This makes production of hydrogen via electrolysis cost competitive in many regions already, as outlined by Nel Hydrogen<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">[41]</a></sup> and others, including an article by the IEA<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">[42]</a></sup> examining the conditions which could lead to a competitive advantage for electrolysis.
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Chemically_assisted_electrolysis">Chemically assisted electrolysis</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=11" title="Edit section: Chemically assisted electrolysis">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In addition to reduce the voltage required for electrolysis via the increasing of the temperature of the electrolysis cell it is also possible to electrochemically consume the oxygen produced in an electrolyser by introducing a fuel (such as carbon/coal,<sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43">[43]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Methanol" title="Methanol">methanol</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Uhm_et_al_2012_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Uhm_et_al_2012-44">[44]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ju_et_al_2017_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ju_et_al_2017-45">[45]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Ethanol" title="Ethanol">ethanol</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Ju_et_al_2016_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ju_et_al_2016-46">[46]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Formic_acid" title="Formic acid">formic acid</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Lamy_et_al_2012_47-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Lamy_et_al_2012-47">[47]</a></sup>  glycerol,<sup id="cite_ref-Lamy_et_al_2012_47-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Lamy_et_al_2012-47">[47]</a></sup> etc.) into the oxygen side of the reactor. This reduces the required electrical energy and has the potential to reduce the cost of hydrogen to less than 40~60% with the remaining energy provided in this manner.<sup id="cite_ref-Sukhvinder_P._S_2014_48-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sukhvinder_P._S_2014-48">[48]</a></sup> In addition, carbon/hydrocarbon assisted water electrolysis (CAWE) has the potential to offer a less energy intensive, cleaner method of using chemical energy in various sources of carbon, such as low-rank and high sulfur coals, biomass, alcohols and methane (Natural Gas), where pure CO<small>2</small> produced can be easily sequestered without the need for separation.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">[49]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">[50]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Radiolysis">Radiolysis</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=12" title="Edit section: Radiolysis">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Nuclear radiation can break water bonds through <a href="/wiki/Radiolysis" title="Radiolysis">radiolysis</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">[51]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">[52]</a></sup> In the <a href="/wiki/Mponeng" class="mw-redirect" title="Mponeng">Mponeng</a> <a href="/wiki/Gold_mine" class="mw-redirect" title="Gold mine">gold mine</a>, <a href="/wiki/South_Africa" title="South Africa">South Africa</a>, researchers found in a naturally high radiation zone a community dominated by a new <a href="/wiki/Phylotype" title="Phylotype">phylotype</a> of <i><a href="/wiki/Desulfotomaculum" title="Desulfotomaculum">Desulfotomaculum</a></i>, feeding on primarily <a href="/wiki/Radiolysis" title="Radiolysis">radiolytically</a> produced <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53">[53]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Spent_nuclear_fuel" title="Spent nuclear fuel">Spent nuclear fuel</a> is also being looked at as a potential source of hydrogen.
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Thermolysis">Thermolysis</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=13" title="Edit section: Thermolysis">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Water spontaneously dissociates at around 2500 °C, but this <a href="/wiki/Thermolysis" class="mw-redirect" title="Thermolysis">thermolysis</a> occurs at temperatures too high for usual process piping and equipment. Catalysts are required to reduce the dissociation temperature.
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Thermochemical_cycle">Thermochemical cycle</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=14" title="Edit section: Thermochemical cycle">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Thermochemical_cycle" title="Thermochemical cycle">thermochemical cycle</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Thermochemical_cycle" title="Thermochemical cycle">Thermochemical cycles</a> combine solely heat sources (<i>thermo</i>) with <i>chemical</i> reactions to split <a href="/wiki/Water" title="Water">water</a> into its <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a> and <a href="/wiki/Oxygen" title="Oxygen">oxygen</a> components.<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">[54]</a></sup> The term <i>cycle</i> is used because aside from water, hydrogen and oxygen, the chemical compounds used in these processes are continuously recycled. If electricity is partially used as an input, the resulting thermochemical cycle is defined as a <a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hybrid" class="extiw" title="wikt:hybrid">hybrid</a> one.
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Sulfur-iodine_cycle" class="mw-redirect" title="Sulfur-iodine cycle">sulfur-iodine cycle</a> (S-I cycle) is a thermochemical cycle processes which generates hydrogen from water with an efficiency of approximately 50%.  The sulfur and iodine used in the process are recovered and reused, and not consumed by the process.  The cycle can be performed with any source of very high temperatures, approximately 950 °C, such as by <a href="/wiki/Concentrating_solar_power" class="mw-redirect" title="Concentrating solar power">Concentrating solar power</a> systems (CSP) and is regarded as being well suited to the production of hydrogen by <a href="/wiki/Very_high_temperature_reactor" class="mw-redirect" title="Very high temperature reactor">high-temperature nuclear reactors</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">[55]</a></sup> and as such, is being studied in the <a href="/wiki/High-temperature_engineering_test_reactor" title="High-temperature engineering test reactor">High-temperature engineering test reactor</a> in Japan.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">[56]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">[57]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">[58]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">[59]</a></sup> There are other hybrid cycles that use both high temperatures and some electricity, such as the <a href="/wiki/Copper%E2%80%93chlorine_cycle" title="Copper–chlorine cycle">Copper–chlorine cycle</a>, it is classified as a hybrid <a href="/wiki/Thermochemical_cycle" title="Thermochemical cycle">thermochemical cycle</a> because it uses an <a href="/wiki/Electrochemical" class="mw-redirect" title="Electrochemical">electrochemical</a> reaction in one of the reaction steps, it operates at 530 °C and has an efficiency of 43 percent.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">[60]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ferrosilicon_method">Ferrosilicon method</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=15" title="Edit section: Ferrosilicon method">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Ferrosilicon is used by the military to quickly produce <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a> for <a href="/wiki/Balloon_(aircraft)" class="mw-redirect" title="Balloon (aircraft)">balloons</a>. The chemical reaction uses <a href="/wiki/Sodium_hydroxide" title="Sodium hydroxide">sodium hydroxide</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ferrosilicon" title="Ferrosilicon">ferrosilicon</a>, and water. The generator is small enough to fit a truck and requires only a small amount of electric power, the materials are stable and not combustible, and they do not generate hydrogen until mixed.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">[61]</a></sup> The method has been in use since <a href="/wiki/World_War_I" title="World War I">World War I</a>.  A heavy steel <a href="/wiki/Pressure_vessel" title="Pressure vessel">pressure vessel</a> is filled with sodium hydroxide and ferrosilicon, closed, and a controlled amount of water is added; the dissolving of the hydroxide heats the mixture to about 93 °C and starts the reaction; <a href="/wiki/Sodium_silicate" title="Sodium silicate">sodium silicate</a>, hydrogen and steam are produced.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">[62]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Photobiological_water_splitting">Photobiological water splitting</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=16" title="Edit section: Photobiological water splitting">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:142px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Algae_hydrogen_production.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Algae_hydrogen_production.jpg" decoding="async" width="140" height="191" class="thumbimage" data-file-width="140" data-file-height="191" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Algae_hydrogen_production.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>An <a href="/wiki/Algae_bioreactor" title="Algae bioreactor">algae bioreactor</a> for hydrogen production.</div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Biological_hydrogen_production_(Algae)" class="mw-redirect" title="Biological hydrogen production (Algae)">Biological hydrogen production (Algae)</a></div>
<p>Biological hydrogen can be produced in an <a href="/wiki/Algae" title="Algae">algae</a> <a href="/wiki/Bioreactor" title="Bioreactor">bioreactor</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">[63]</a></sup> In the late 1990s it was discovered that if the algae are deprived of <a href="/wiki/Sulfur" title="Sulfur">sulfur</a> it will switch from the production of <a href="/wiki/Oxygen" title="Oxygen">oxygen</a>, i.e. normal <a href="/wiki/Photosynthesis" title="Photosynthesis">photosynthesis</a>, to the production of hydrogen. It seems that the production is now economically feasible by surpassing the 7–10 percent energy efficiency (the conversion of sunlight into hydrogen) barrier.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64">[64]</a></sup> with a hydrogen production rate of 10-12 ml per liter culture per hour.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">[65]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Photocatalytic_water_splitting">Photocatalytic water splitting</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=17" title="Edit section: Photocatalytic water splitting">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Photocatalytic_water_splitting" title="Photocatalytic water splitting">Photocatalytic water splitting</a></div>
<p>The conversion of solar energy to hydrogen by means of water splitting process is one of the most interesting ways to achieve clean and renewable energy systems. However, if this process is assisted by photocatalysts suspended directly in water instead of using photovoltaic and an electrolytic system the reaction is in just one step, it can be made more efficient.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66">[66]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">[67]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biohydrogen_routes">Biohydrogen routes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=18" title="Edit section: Biohydrogen routes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p><a href="/wiki/Biomass" title="Biomass">Biomass</a> and waste streams can in principle be converted into <a href="/wiki/Biohydrogen" title="Biohydrogen">biohydrogen</a> with biomass <a href="/wiki/Gasification" title="Gasification">gasification</a>, steam reforming, or biological conversion like biocatalysed electrolysis<sup id="cite_ref-Sukhvinder_P._S_2014_48-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sukhvinder_P._S_2014-48">[48]</a></sup> or fermentative hydrogen production.<sup id="cite_ref-Ullmann_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ullmann-7">[7]</a></sup>
</p><p>Among hydrogen production methods such as steam methane reforming, thermal cracking, coal and biomass gasification and pyrolysis, electrolysis, and photolysis, biological ones are more eco-friendly and less energy intensive. In addition, a wide variety of waste and low-value materials such as agricultural biomass as renewable sources can be utilized to produce hydrogen via biochemical pathways. Nevertheless, at present hydrogen is produced mainly from fossil fuels, in particular, natural gas which are non-renewable sources. Hydrogen is not only the cleanest fuel but also widely used in a number of industries, especially fertilizer, petrochemical and food ones. This makes it logical to investigate alternative sources for hydrogen production. The main biochemical technologies to produce hydrogen are dark and photo fermentation processes. In dark fermentation, carbohydrates are converted to hydrogen by fermentative microorganisms including strict anaerobe and facultative anaerobe bacteria. A theoretical maximum of 4 mol H<sub>2</sub>/mol glucose can be produced and, besides hydrogen, sugars are converted to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols as by-products during this process. Photo fermentative bacteria are able to generate hydrogen from VFAs. Hence, metabolites formed in dark fermentation can be used as feedstock in photo fermentation to enhance the overall yield of hydrogen.<sup id="cite_ref-Hydrogen_Step_68-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hydrogen_Step-68">[68]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Fermentative_hydrogen_production">Fermentative hydrogen production</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=19" title="Edit section: Fermentative hydrogen production">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Fermentative_hydrogen_production" title="Fermentative hydrogen production">fermentative hydrogen production</a> and <a href="/wiki/Dark_fermentation" title="Dark fermentation">dark fermentation</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Fermentative_hydrogen_production" title="Fermentative hydrogen production">Fermentative hydrogen production</a> is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to <a href="/wiki/Biohydrogen" title="Biohydrogen">biohydrogen</a> manifested by a diverse group of <a href="/wiki/Bacteria" title="Bacteria">bacteria</a> using multi <a href="/wiki/Enzyme" title="Enzyme">enzyme</a> systems involving three steps similar to <a href="/wiki/Anaerobic_digestion" title="Anaerobic digestion">anaerobic conversion</a>. <a href="/wiki/Dark_fermentation" title="Dark fermentation">Dark fermentation</a> reactions do not require light energy, so they are capable of constantly producing <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">hydrogen</a> from organic compounds throughout the day and night. <a href="/wiki/Photofermentation" title="Photofermentation">Photofermentation</a> differs from <a href="/wiki/Dark_fermentation" title="Dark fermentation">dark fermentation</a> because it only proceeds in the presence of <a href="/wiki/Light" title="Light">light</a>. For example, photo-fermentation with <a href="/wiki/Rhodobacter_sphaeroides" title="Rhodobacter sphaeroides">Rhodobacter sphaeroides</a> SH2C can be employed to convert small molecular fatty acids into hydrogen.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">[69]</a></sup>
</p><p>Fermentative hydrogen production can be done using direct biophotolysis by green algae, indirect biophotolysis by cyanobacteria, photo-fermentation by anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria and dark fermentation by anaerobic fermentative bacteria. For example, studies on hydrogen production using <i>H. salinarium</i>, an anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria, coupled to a hydrogenase donor like <i>E. coli</i>,  are reported in literature.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">[70]</a></sup>
</p><p><i>Enterobacter aerogenes</i> is an outstanding hydrogen producer. It is an anaerobic facultative and mesophilic bacterium that is able to consume different sugars and in contrast to cultivation of strict anaerobes, no special operation is required to remove all oxygen from the fermenter. <i>E. aerogenes</i> has a short doubling time and high hydrogen productivity and evolution rate. Furthermore, hydrogen production by this bacterium is not inhibited at high hydrogen partial pressures; however, its yield is lower compared to strict anaerobes like <i>Clostridia</i>. A theoretical maximum of 4 mol H<sub>2</sub>/mol glucose can be produced by strict anaerobic bacteria. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as <i>E. aerogenes</i> have a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol H<sub>2</sub>/mol glucose.<sup id="cite_ref-Organosolv_71-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Organosolv-71">[71]</a></sup>
</p><p>Biohydrogen can be produced in bioreactors that utilize feedstocks, the most common feedstock being waste streams. The process involves bacteria feeding on hydrocarbons and exhaling hydrogen and CO<sub>2</sub>. The CO<sub>2</sub> can be sequestered successfully by several methods, leaving hydrogen gas.  In 2006-2007, NanoLogix first demonstrated a prototype hydrogen bioreactor using waste as a feedstock at Welch's grape juice factory in Pennsylvania (U.S.).<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">[72]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Enzymatic_hydrogen_generation">Enzymatic hydrogen generation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=20" title="Edit section: Enzymatic hydrogen generation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>Due to the Thauer limit (four H<sub>2</sub>/glucose) for dark fermentation, a non-natural enzymatic pathway was designed that can generate 12 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose units of polysaccharides and water in 2007.<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">[73]</a></sup> The stoichiometric reaction is:
</p>
<dl><dd>C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>10</sub>O<sub>5</sub> + 7 H<sub>2</sub>O → 12 H<sub>2</sub> + 6 CO<sub>2</sub></dd></dl>
<p>The key technology is cell-free synthetic enzymatic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB).<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">[74]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75">[75]</a></sup>  A biochemist can understand it as "glucose oxidation by using water as oxidant". A chemist can describe it as "water splitting by energy in carbohydrate". A thermodynamics scientist can describe it as the first entropy-driving chemical reaction that can produce hydrogen by absorbing <a href="/wiki/Waste_heat" title="Waste heat">waste heat</a>.  In 2009, cellulosic materials were first used to generate high-yield hydrogen.<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">[76]</a></sup> Furthermore, the use of carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier was proposed so to solve the largest obstacle to the hydrogen economy and propose the concept of sugar fuel cell vehicles.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">[77]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Synthetic_biology" title="Synthetic biology">Synthetic biology</a><sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">[78]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79">[79]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">[80]</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Biocatalysed_electrolysis">Biocatalysed electrolysis</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=21" title="Edit section: Biocatalysed electrolysis">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/31/Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png/220px-Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="99" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/31/Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png/330px-Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/31/Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png/440px-Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png 2x" data-file-width="2584" data-file-height="1160" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A microbial electrolysis cell</div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Electrohydrogenesis" title="Electrohydrogenesis">electrohydrogenesis</a> and <a href="/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell" title="Microbial fuel cell">microbial fuel cell</a></div>
<p>Besides dark fermentation, <a href="/wiki/Electrohydrogenesis" title="Electrohydrogenesis">electrohydrogenesis</a> (electrolysis using microbes) is another possibility. Using <a href="/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell" title="Microbial fuel cell">microbial fuel cells</a>, wastewater or plants can be used to generate power. Biocatalysed electrolysis should not be confused with <a href="/wiki/Biological_hydrogen_production_(Algae)" class="mw-redirect" title="Biological hydrogen production (Algae)">biological hydrogen production</a>, as the latter only uses algae and with the latter, the algae itself generates the hydrogen instantly, where with biocatalysed electrolysis, this happens after running through the microbial fuel cell and a variety of aquatic plants<sup id="cite_ref-81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81">[81]</a></sup> can be used. These include <a href="/wiki/Glyceria_maxima" title="Glyceria maxima">reed sweetgrass</a>, cordgrass, rice, tomatoes, lupines and algae.<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82">[82]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg/220px-Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg/330px-Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg/440px-Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="426" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Nanogalvanic_powder.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Nano-galvanic aluminum-based powder developed by the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Army_Research_Laboratory" title="United States Army Research Laboratory">U.S. Army Research Laboratory</a></div></div></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nanogalvanic_aluminum_alloy_powder">Nanogalvanic aluminum alloy powder</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=22" title="Edit section: Nanogalvanic aluminum alloy powder">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Aluminum_based_nanogalvanic_alloys" title="Aluminum based nanogalvanic alloys">Aluminum based nanogalvanic alloys</a></div>
<p>An aluminum alloy powder invented by the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Army_Research_Laboratory" title="United States Army Research Laboratory">U.S. Army Research Laboratory</a> in 2017 was shown to be capable of producing hydrogen gas upon contact with water or any liquid containing water due to its unique nanoscale galvanic microstructure. It reportedly generates hydrogen at 100 percent of the theoretical yield without the need for any catalysts, chemicals, or externally supplied power.<sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83">[83]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">[84]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Environmental_impact">Environmental impact</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=23" title="Edit section: Environmental impact">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table class="box-Expand_section plainlinks metadata ambox mbox-small-left ambox-content" role="presentation"><tbody><tr><td class="mbox-image"><a href="/wiki/File:Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg" class="image"><img alt="[icon]" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg/20px-Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg.png" decoding="async" width="20" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg/30px-Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg/40px-Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="44" data-file-height="31" /></a></td><td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-span">This section <b>needs expansion</b>. <small>You can help by <a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=">adding to it</a>.</small>  <small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">January 2020</span>)</i></small></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>Most of hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels, resulting in carbon emissions.
</p><p>Hydrogen can also be produced from renewable energy sources. In this case, it is often referred to as <i>green hydrogen</i>. There are two practical ways of producing hydrogen from renewable energy sources. One is to use <a href="/wiki/Power_to_gas" class="mw-redirect" title="Power to gas">power to gas</a>, in which electric power is used to produce hydrogen from electrolysis, and the other is to use <a href="/wiki/Landfill_gas" title="Landfill gas">landfill gas</a> to produce hydrogen in a steam reformer. Hydrogen fuel, when produced by renewable sources of energy like wind or solar power, is a <a href="/wiki/Renewable_fuel" class="mw-redirect" title="Renewable fuel">renewable fuel</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85">[85]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Use_of_hydrogen">Use of hydrogen</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=24" title="Edit section: Use of hydrogen">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Hydrogen is used for the conversion of heavy petroleum fractions into lighter ones via <a href="/wiki/Hydrocracking" class="mw-redirect" title="Hydrocracking">hydrocracking</a>.  It is also used in other processes including the <a href="/wiki/Aromatization" title="Aromatization">aromatization</a> process, <a href="/wiki/Hydrodesulfurization" title="Hydrodesulfurization">hydrodesulfurization</a> and the production of <a href="/wiki/Ammonia" title="Ammonia">ammonia</a> via the <a href="/wiki/Haber_process" title="Haber process">Haber process</a>.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">Hydrogen</a> may be used in <a href="/wiki/Fuel_cells" class="mw-redirect" title="Fuel cells">fuel cells</a> for local electricity generation or potentially as a transportation fuel.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">Hydrogen</a> is produced as a <a href="/wiki/By-product" title="By-product">by-product</a> of <a href="/wiki/Chlorine#Industrial_production" title="Chlorine">industrial chlorine production by electrolysis</a>. Although requiring expensive technologies, hydrogen can be cooled, compressed and purified for use in other processes on site or sold to a customer via pipeline, cylinders or trucks. The discovery and development of less expensive methods of production of bulk hydrogen is relevant to the establishment of a <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_economy" title="Hydrogen economy">hydrogen economy</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ullmann_7-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ullmann-7">[7]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=25" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 20em; -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ammonia_production" title="Ammonia production">Ammonia production</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Artificial_photosynthesis" title="Artificial photosynthesis">Artificial photosynthesis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Biological_hydrogen_production_(Algae)" class="mw-redirect" title="Biological hydrogen production (Algae)">Biological hydrogen production (Algae)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen" title="Hydrogen">Hydrogen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_analyzer" title="Hydrogen analyzer">Hydrogen analyzer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_compressor" title="Hydrogen compressor">Hydrogen compressor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_economy" title="Hydrogen economy">Hydrogen economy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_embrittlement" title="Hydrogen embrittlement">Hydrogen embrittlement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_leak_testing" title="Hydrogen leak testing">Hydrogen leak testing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_pipeline_transport" title="Hydrogen pipeline transport">Hydrogen pipeline transport</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_piping" class="mw-redirect" title="Hydrogen piping">Hydrogen piping</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_purifier" title="Hydrogen purifier">Hydrogen purifier</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_purity" title="Hydrogen purity">Hydrogen purity</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_safety" title="Hydrogen safety">Hydrogen safety</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_sensor" title="Hydrogen sensor">Hydrogen sensor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_storage" title="Hydrogen storage">Hydrogen storage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_station" title="Hydrogen station">Hydrogen station</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_tank" title="Hydrogen tank">Hydrogen tank</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_tanker" title="Hydrogen tanker">Hydrogen tanker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_technologies" title="Hydrogen technologies">Hydrogen technologies</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_valve" title="Hydrogen valve">Hydrogen valve</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_gas" title="Industrial gas">Industrial gas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Liquid_Hydrogen" class="mw-redirect" title="Liquid Hydrogen">Liquid Hydrogen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Next_Generation_Nuclear_Plant" title="Next Generation Nuclear Plant">Next Generation Nuclear Plant</a> (partly for hydrogen production)</li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/The_Phoenix_Project:_Shifting_from_Oil_To_Hydrogen" class="mw-redirect" title="The Phoenix Project: Shifting from Oil To Hydrogen">The Phoenix Project: Shifting from Oil To Hydrogen</a></i> (book)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Northern_Gas_Networks#Hy4heat" title="Northern Gas Networks">Hy4Heat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Renewable_energy" title="Renewable energy">Renewable energy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Hype_about_Hydrogen" class="mw-redirect" title="The Hype about Hydrogen">The Hype about Hydrogen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lane_hydrogen_producer" title="Lane hydrogen producer">Lane hydrogen producer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Linde-Frank-Caro_process" class="mw-redirect" title="Linde-Frank-Caro process">Linde-Frank-Caro process</a></li>
<li><a href="/w/index.php?title=Liquid_nitrogen_production&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Liquid nitrogen production (page does not exist)">Liquid nitrogen production</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Underground_hydrogen_storage" title="Underground hydrogen storage">Underground hydrogen storage</a></li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=26" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Roberts, David (2018-02-16). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2018/2/16/16926950/hydrogen-fuel-technology-economy-hytech-storage">"This company may have solved one of the hardest problems in clean energy"</a>. <i>Vox</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-10-30</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Vox&rft.atitle=This+company+may+have+solved+one+of+the+hardest+problems+in+clean+energy&rft.date=2018-02-16&rft.aulast=Roberts&rft.aufirst=David&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.vox.com%2Fenergy-and-environment%2F2018%2F2%2F16%2F16926950%2Fhydrogen-fuel-technology-economy-hytech-storage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r935243608">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Ogden_1999-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Ogden_1999_2-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Ogden_1999_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Ogden_1999_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Ogden, J.M. (1999). "Prospects for building a hydrogen energy infrastructure". <i>Annual Review of Energy and the Environment</i>. <b>24</b>: 227–279. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1146%2Fannurev.energy.24.1.227">10.1146/annurev.energy.24.1.227</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Annual+Review+of+Energy+and+the+Environment&rft.atitle=Prospects+for+building+a+hydrogen+energy+infrastructure&rft.volume=24&rft.pages=227-279&rft.date=1999&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1146%2Fannurev.energy.24.1.227&rft.aulast=Ogden&rft.aufirst=J.M.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">On generating a Geological Model for Hydrogen Gas in the Southern Taoudeni Megabasin (Bourakebougou area, Mali)</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Energy, U. S. D. o. The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions. 84 (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, 2008)</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://ieahydrogen.org/pdfs/Global-Outlook-and-Trends-for-Hydrogen_Dec2017_WEB.aspx">http://ieahydrogen.org/pdfs/Global-Outlook-and-Trends-for-Hydrogen_Dec2017_WEB.aspx</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">In the laboratory, water electrolysis can be done with a simple apparatus like a <a href="/wiki/Hofmann_voltameter" title="Hofmann voltameter">Hofmann voltameter</a>:<cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20100613112114/http://practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_677.html">"Electrolysis of water and the concept of charge"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_677.html">the original</a> on 2010-06-13.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Electrolysis+of+water+and+the+concept+of+charge&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.practicalphysics.org%2Fgo%2FExperiment_677.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation conference">Jenvanitpanjakul, Peesamai (February 3–4, 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130704120720/http://www.apecadvbioh2.org/Download/Renewable%20Energy%20Technology%20and%20Prospect%20on%20Biohydrogen%20Study%20in%20Thailand_Peesamai%20Jenvanitpanjakul.pdf"><i>Renewable Energy Technology And Prospect On Biohydrogen Study In Thailand</i></a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Steering Committee Meeting and Workshop of APEC Research Network for Advanced Biohydrogen Technology. <a href="/wiki/Taichung" title="Taichung">Taichung</a>: <a href="/wiki/Feng_Chia_University" title="Feng Chia University">Feng Chia University</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.apecadvbioh2.org/Download/Renewable%20Energy%20Technology%20and%20Prospect%20on%20Biohydrogen%20Study%20in%20Thailand_Peesamai%20Jenvanitpanjakul.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on July 4, 2013.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=conference&rft.btitle=Renewable+Energy+Technology+And+Prospect+On+Biohydrogen+Study+In+Thailand&rft.place=Taichung&rft.pub=Feng+Chia+University&rft.date=2010-02-03%2F2010-02-04&rft.aulast=Jenvanitpanjakul&rft.aufirst=Peesamai&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.apecadvbioh2.org%2FDownload%2FRenewable%2520Energy%2520Technology%2520and%2520Prospect%2520on%2520Biohydrogen%2520Study%2520in%2520Thailand_Peesamai%2520Jenvanitpanjakul.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-75"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-75">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Percival Zhang, Y-H; Sun, Jibin; Zhong, Jian-Jiang (2010). "Biofuel production by in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway biotransformation". <i>Current Opinion in Biotechnology</i>. <b>21</b> (5): 663–9. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.copbio.2010.05.005">10.1016/j.copbio.2010.05.005</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20566280">20566280</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Current+Opinion+in+Biotechnology&rft.atitle=Biofuel+production+by+in+vitro+synthetic+enzymatic+pathway+biotransformation&rft.volume=21&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=663-9&rft.date=2010&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.copbio.2010.05.005&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F20566280&rft.aulast=Percival+Zhang&rft.aufirst=Y-H&rft.au=Sun%2C+Jibin&rft.au=Zhong%2C+Jian-Jiang&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-76"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Ye, Xinhao; Wang, Yiran; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Percival Zhang, Y.-H. (2009). "Spontaneous High-Yield Production of Hydrogen from Cellulosic Materials and Water Catalyzed by Enzyme Cocktails". <i>ChemSusChem</i>. <b>2</b> (2): 149–52. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fcssc.200900017">10.1002/cssc.200900017</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19185036">19185036</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ChemSusChem&rft.atitle=Spontaneous+High-Yield+Production+of+Hydrogen+from+Cellulosic+Materials+and+Water+Catalyzed+by+Enzyme+Cocktails&rft.volume=2&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=149-52&rft.date=2009&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1002%2Fcssc.200900017&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F19185036&rft.aulast=Ye&rft.aufirst=Xinhao&rft.au=Wang%2C+Yiran&rft.au=Hopkins%2C+Robert+C.&rft.au=Adams%2C+Michael+W.+W.&rft.au=Evans%2C+Barbara+R.&rft.au=Mielenz%2C+Jonathan+R.&rft.au=Percival+Zhang%2C+Y.-H.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-77">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Percival Zhang, Y.-H. (2009). "A sweet out-of-the-box solution to the hydrogen economy: Is the sugar-powered car science fiction?". <i>Energy & Environmental Science</i>. <b>2</b> (3): 272–82. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1039%2Fb818694d">10.1039/b818694d</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Energy+%26+Environmental+Science&rft.atitle=A+sweet+out-of-the-box+solution+to+the+hydrogen+economy%3A+Is+the+sugar-powered+car+science+fiction%3F&rft.volume=2&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=272-82&rft.date=2009&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1039%2Fb818694d&rft.aulast=Percival+Zhang&rft.aufirst=Y.-H.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-78"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-78">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.economist.com/node/9217782">"Gassed up: A new, green way to make hydrogen"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Economist" title="The Economist">The Economist</a></i>. May 24, 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">March 9,</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Economist&rft.atitle=Gassed+up%3A+A+new%2C+green+way+to+make+hydrogen&rft.date=2007-05-24&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.economist.com%2Fnode%2F9217782&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Edwards, Chris (June 18, 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/science/2008/jun/19/chemistry.agriculture">"Synthetic biology aims to solve energy conundrum"</a>. <i>The Guardian</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">March 9,</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft.atitle=Synthetic+biology+aims+to+solve+energy+conundrum&rft.date=2008-06-18&rft.aulast=Edwards&rft.aufirst=Chris&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fscience%2F2008%2Fjun%2F19%2Fchemistry.agriculture&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-80"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-80">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070705015941/http://pbd.lbl.gov/synthbio/aims.htm">"Synthetic Biology Department: Aims"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Lawrence_Berkeley_National_Laboratory" title="Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory">Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://pbd.lbl.gov/synthbio/aims.htm">the original</a> on July 5, 2007.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Synthetic+Biology+Department%3A+Aims&rft.pub=Lawrence+Berkeley+National+Laboratory&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fpbd.lbl.gov%2Fsynthbio%2Faims.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-81"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-81">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Strik, David P. B. T. B.; Hamelers (Bert), H. V. M.; Snel, Jan F. H.; Buisman, Cees J. N. (2008). "Green electricity production with living plants and bacteria in a fuel cell". <i><a href="/wiki/International_Journal_of_Energy_Research" title="International Journal of Energy Research">International Journal of Energy Research</a></i>. <b>32</b> (9): 870–6. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fer.1397">10.1002/er.1397</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.glastuinbouw.wur.nl/UK/expertise/energy/innovations/plantenergy/">Lay summary</a> – <i><a href="/wiki/Wageningen_University_and_Research_Centre" class="mw-redirect" title="Wageningen University and Research Centre">Wageningen University and Research Centre</a></i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Energy+Research&rft.atitle=Green+electricity+production+with+living+plants+and+bacteria+in+a+fuel+cell&rft.volume=32&rft.issue=9&rft.pages=870-6&rft.date=2008&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1002%2Fer.1397&rft.aulast=Strik&rft.aufirst=David+P.+B.+T.+B.&rft.au=Hamelers+%28Bert%29%2C+H.+V.+M.&rft.au=Snel%2C+Jan+F.+H.&rft.au=Buisman%2C+Cees+J.+N.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-82"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-82">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Timmers, Ruud (2012). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/clc/1992064"><i>Electricity generation by living plants in a plant microbial fuel cell</i></a> (PhD Thesis). <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-94-6191-282-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-94-6191-282-4"><bdi>978-94-6191-282-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Electricity+generation+by+living+plants+in+a+plant+microbial+fuel+cell&rft.date=2012&rft.isbn=978-94-6191-282-4&rft.aulast=Timmers&rft.aufirst=Ruud&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flibrary.wur.nl%2FWebQuery%2Fclc%2F1992064&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"><span title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears. (March 2013)">page needed</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-83"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-83">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.arl.army.mil/business/intellectual-property/alnanogalvanicpowder/">"Aluminum Based Nanogalvanic Alloys for Hydrogen Generation"</a>. <i>U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Army Research Laboratory</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">January 6,</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=U.S.+Army+Combat+Capabilities+Development+Command+Army+Research+Laboratory&rft.atitle=Aluminum+Based+Nanogalvanic+Alloys+for+Hydrogen+Generation&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.arl.army.mil%2Fbusiness%2Fintellectual-property%2Falnanogalvanicpowder%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">McNally, David (July 25, 2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.army.mil/article/191212/army_discovery_may_offer_new_energy_source">"Army discovery may offer new energy source"</a>. <i>U.S. Army</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">January 6,</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=U.S.+Army&rft.atitle=Army+discovery+may+offer+new+energy+source&rft.date=2017-07-25&rft.aulast=McNally&rft.aufirst=David&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.army.mil%2Farticle%2F191212%2Farmy_discovery_may_offer_new_energy_source&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-85">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/36178.pdf#page=4">"New Horizons for Hydrogen"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Research Review</i>. <a href="/wiki/National_Renewable_Energy_Laboratory" title="National Renewable Energy Laboratory">National Renewable Energy Laboratory</a> (2): 2–9. April 2004.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Research+Review&rft.atitle=New+Horizons+for+Hydrogen&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=2-9&rft.date=2004-04&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nrel.gov%2Fdocs%2Ffy04osti%2F36178.pdf%23page%3D4&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=27" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="30" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/45px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/59px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_production" class="extiw" title="commons:Hydrogen production">Hydrogen production</a></b></i>.</td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_progress12_production.html">U.S. DOE 2012-Technical progress in hydrogen production</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130305093655/http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/proj_production_delivery.html">U.S. NREL article on hydrogen production</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation journal">Komatsu, Teruyuki; Wang, Rong-Min; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Curry, Stephen; Tsuchida, Eishun (2006). "Photosensitized Reduction of Water to Hydrogen Using Human Serum Albumin Complexed with Zinc−Protoporphyrin IX". <i>Journal of the American Chemical Society</i>. <b>128</b> (50): 16297–301. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1021%2Fja0656806">10.1021/ja0656806</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17165784">17165784</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_1-12-2006-11-4-23?newsid=3016">Lay summary</a> – <i><a href="/wiki/Imperial_College_London" title="Imperial College London">Imperial College London</a></i> (December 1, 2006).</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+American+Chemical+Society&rft.atitle=Photosensitized+Reduction+of+Water+to+Hydrogen+Using+Human+Serum+Albumin+Complexed+with+Zinc%E2%88%92Protoporphyrin+IX&rft.volume=128&rft.issue=50&rft.pages=16297-301&rft.date=2006&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1021%2Fja0656806&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F17165784&rft.aulast=Komatsu&rft.aufirst=Teruyuki&rft.au=Wang%2C+Rong-Min&rft.au=Zunszain%2C+Patricia+A.&rft.au=Curry%2C+Stephen&rft.au=Tsuchida%2C+Eishun&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/> 1</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_production&action=edit&section=28" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li><cite class="citation book">Francesco Calise et al. editors (2019). <i>Solar Hydrogen Production</i>. Academic Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-12-814853-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-12-814853-2"><bdi>978-0-12-814853-2</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Solar+Hydrogen+Production&rft.pub=Academic+Press&rft.date=2019&rft.isbn=978-0-12-814853-2&rft.au=Francesco+Calise+et+al.+editors&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHydrogen+production" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></li></ul>
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