source.by

User interface - Wikipedia

Source 2020: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interface | 2020-02-15

        <!DOCTYPE html>
<html class="client-nojs" lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8"/>
<title>User interface - Wikipedia</title>
<script>document.documentElement.className="client-js";RLCONF={"wgBreakFrames":!1,"wgSeparatorTransformTable":["",""],"wgDigitTransformTable":["",""],"wgDefaultDateFormat":"dmy","wgMonthNames":["","January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December"],"wgMonthNamesShort":["","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec"],"wgRequestId":"Xl0TSwpAMFMAABxFX0cAAADK","wgCSPNonce":!1,"wgCanonicalNamespace":"","wgCanonicalSpecialPageName":!1,"wgNamespaceNumber":0,"wgPageName":"User_interface","wgTitle":"User interface","wgCurRevisionId":943547719,"wgRevisionId":943547719,"wgArticleId":45249,"wgIsArticle":!0,"wgIsRedirect":!1,"wgAction":"view","wgUserName":null,"wgUserGroups":["*"],"wgCategories":["CS1 errors: missing periodical","Webarchive template wayback links","Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2010","All articles with unsourced statements",
"Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019","Commons category link is on Wikidata","User interfaces","User interface techniques","Virtual reality","Human communication","Human–machine interaction"],"wgPageContentLanguage":"en","wgPageContentModel":"wikitext","wgRelevantPageName":"User_interface","wgRelevantArticleId":45249,"wgIsProbablyEditable":!0,"wgRelevantPageIsProbablyEditable":!0,"wgRestrictionEdit":[],"wgRestrictionMove":[],"wgMediaViewerOnClick":!0,"wgMediaViewerEnabledByDefault":!0,"wgPopupsReferencePreviews":!1,"wgPopupsConflictsWithNavPopupGadget":!1,"wgVisualEditor":{"pageLanguageCode":"en","pageLanguageDir":"ltr","pageVariantFallbacks":"en"},"wgMFDisplayWikibaseDescriptions":{"search":!0,"nearby":!0,"watchlist":!0,"tagline":!1},"wgWMESchemaEditAttemptStepOversample":!1,"wgULSCurrentAutonym":"English","wgNoticeProject":"wikipedia","wgWikibaseItemId":"Q47146","wgCentralAuthMobileDomain":!1,"wgEditSubmitButtonLabelPublish":!0};RLSTATE
={"ext.globalCssJs.user.styles":"ready","site.styles":"ready","noscript":"ready","user.styles":"ready","ext.globalCssJs.user":"ready","user":"ready","user.options":"ready","user.tokens":"loading","ext.cite.styles":"ready","mediawiki.page.gallery.styles":"ready","mediawiki.legacy.shared":"ready","mediawiki.legacy.commonPrint":"ready","jquery.makeCollapsible.styles":"ready","mediawiki.toc.styles":"ready","skins.vector.styles":"ready","wikibase.client.init":"ready","ext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.noscript":"ready","ext.uls.interlanguage":"ready","ext.wikimediaBadges":"ready"};RLPAGEMODULES=["ext.cite.ux-enhancements","site","mediawiki.page.startup","skins.vector.js","mediawiki.page.ready","jquery.makeCollapsible","mediawiki.toc","ext.gadget.ReferenceTooltips","ext.gadget.watchlist-notice","ext.gadget.DRN-wizard","ext.gadget.charinsert","ext.gadget.refToolbar","ext.gadget.extra-toolbar-buttons","ext.gadget.switcher","ext.centralauth.centralautologin","mmv.head",
"mmv.bootstrap.autostart","ext.popups","ext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.init","ext.visualEditor.targetLoader","ext.eventLogging","ext.wikimediaEvents","ext.navigationTiming","ext.uls.compactlinks","ext.uls.interface","ext.cx.eventlogging.campaigns","ext.quicksurveys.init","ext.centralNotice.geoIP","ext.centralNotice.startUp"];</script>
<script>(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.loader.implement("user.tokens@tffin",function($,jQuery,require,module){/*@nomin*/mw.user.tokens.set({"patrolToken":"+\\","watchToken":"+\\","csrfToken":"+\\"});
});});</script>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/w/load.php?lang=en&modules=ext.cite.styles%7Cext.uls.interlanguage%7Cext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.noscript%7Cext.wikimediaBadges%7Cjquery.makeCollapsible.styles%7Cmediawiki.legacy.commonPrint%2Cshared%7Cmediawiki.page.gallery.styles%7Cmediawiki.toc.styles%7Cskins.vector.styles%7Cwikibase.client.init&only=styles&skin=vector"/>
<script async="" src="/w/load.php?lang=en&modules=startup&only=scripts&raw=1&skin=vector"></script>
<meta name="ResourceLoaderDynamicStyles" content=""/>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/w/load.php?lang=en&modules=site.styles&only=styles&skin=vector"/>
<meta name="generator" content="MediaWiki 1.35.0-wmf.21"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin-when-crossorigin"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin-when-cross-origin"/>
<meta property="og:image" content="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Reactable_Multitouch.jpg/1200px-Reactable_Multitouch.jpg"/>
<link rel="alternate" type="application/x-wiki" title="Edit this page" href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit"/>
<link rel="edit" title="Edit this page" href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit"/>
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="/static/apple-touch/wikipedia.png"/>
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="/static/favicon/wikipedia.ico"/>
<link rel="search" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" href="/w/opensearch_desc.php" title="Wikipedia (en)"/>
<link rel="EditURI" type="application/rsd+xml" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/api.php?action=rsd"/>
<link rel="license" href="//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/"/>
<link rel="alternate" type="application/atom+xml" title="Wikipedia Atom feed" href="/w/index.php?title=Special:RecentChanges&feed=atom"/>
<link rel="canonical" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interface"/>
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//login.wikimedia.org"/>
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//meta.wikimedia.org" />
<!--[if lt IE 9]><script src="/w/resources/lib/html5shiv/html5shiv.js"></script><![endif]-->
</head>
<body class="mediawiki ltr sitedir-ltr mw-hide-empty-elt ns-0 ns-subject mw-editable page-User_interface rootpage-User_interface skin-vector action-view">
<div id="mw-page-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="mw-head-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="content" class="mw-body" role="main">
	<a id="top"></a>
	<div id="siteNotice" class="mw-body-content"><!-- CentralNotice --></div>
	<div class="mw-indicators mw-body-content">
</div>

	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">User interface</h1>
	
	<div id="bodyContent" class="mw-body-content">
		<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
		<div id="contentSub"></div>
		
		
		<div id="jump-to-nav"></div>
		<a class="mw-jump-link" href="#mw-head">Jump to navigation</a>
		<a class="mw-jump-link" href="#p-search">Jump to search</a>
		<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For the boundary between computer systems, see <a href="/wiki/Interface_(computing)" title="Interface (computing)">Interface (computing)</a>. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Interface_(disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect mw-disambig" title="Interface (disambiguation)">Interface</a>.</div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Reactable_Multitouch.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Reactable_Multitouch.jpg/300px-Reactable_Multitouch.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="201" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Reactable_Multitouch.jpg/450px-Reactable_Multitouch.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Reactable_Multitouch.jpg/600px-Reactable_Multitouch.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1371" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Reactable_Multitouch.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Reactable" title="Reactable">Reactable</a>, an example of a <a href="/wiki/Tangible_user_interface" title="Tangible user interface">tangible user interface</a></div></div></div>
<p>The <b>user interface</b> (<b>UI</b>), in the <a href="/wiki/Industrial_design" title="Industrial design">industrial design</a> field of <a href="/wiki/Human%E2%80%93computer_interaction" title="Human–computer interaction">human-computer interaction</a>, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' <a href="/wiki/Decision-making" title="Decision-making">decision-making</a> process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer <a href="/wiki/Operating_system" title="Operating system">operating systems</a>, hand <a href="/wiki/Tools" class="mw-redirect" title="Tools">tools</a>, <a href="/wiki/Heavy_machinery" class="mw-redirect" title="Heavy machinery">heavy machinery</a> operator controls, and <a href="/wiki/Unit_operation" title="Unit operation">process</a> controls. The design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as <a href="/wiki/Ergonomics" class="mw-redirect" title="Ergonomics">ergonomics</a> and <a href="/wiki/Psychology" title="Psychology">psychology</a>.
</p><p>Generally, the goal of <a href="/wiki/User_interface_design" title="User interface design">user interface design</a> is to produce a user interface which makes it easy, efficient, and enjoyable (user-friendly) to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result. This generally means that the operator needs to provide minimal input to achieve the desired output, and also that the machine minimizes undesired outputs to the human.
</p><p>User interfaces are composed of one or more layers including a <b>human-machine interface</b> (<b>HMI</b>) interfaces machines with physical input hardware such as keyboards, mice, game pads and output hardware such as computer monitors, speakers, and printers. A device that implements an HMI is called a <a href="/wiki/Human_interface_device" title="Human interface device">human interface device</a> (HID). Other terms for human-machine interfaces are <b>man-machine interface</b> (<b>MMI</b>) and when the machine in question is a computer <b>human-computer interface</b>. Additional UI layers may interact with one or more human sense, including: tactile UI (touch), visual UI (sight), auditory UI (sound), olfactory UI (smell), equilibrial UI (balance), and gustatory UI (taste).
</p><p>Composite user interfaces (CUI) are UIs that interact with two or more senses. The most common CUI is a <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">graphical user interface</a> (GUI), which is composed of a tactile UI and a visual UI capable of displaying <a href="/wiki/Graphics" title="Graphics">graphics</a>. When sound is added to a GUI it becomes a multimedia user interface (MUI). There are three broad categories of CUI: <i>standard</i>, <i>virtual</i> and <i>augmented</i>. Standard composite user interfaces use standard human interface devices like keyboards, mice, and computer monitors. When the CUI blocks out the real world to create a <a href="/wiki/Virtual_reality" title="Virtual reality">virtual reality</a>, the CUI is virtual and uses a virtual reality interface. When the CUI does not block out the real world and creates <a href="/wiki/Augmented_reality" title="Augmented reality">augmented reality</a>, the CUI is augmented and uses an augmented reality interface. When a UI interacts with all human senses, it is called a qualia interface, named after the theory of <a href="/wiki/Qualia" title="Qualia">qualia</a>. CUI may also be classified by how many senses they interact with as either an X-sense virtual reality interface or X-sense augmented reality interface, where X is the number of senses interfaced with. For example, a <a href="/wiki/Smell-O-Vision" title="Smell-O-Vision">Smell-O-Vision</a> is a 3-sense (3S) Standard CUI with visual display, sound and smells; when <i>virtual reality interfaces</i> interface with smells and touch it is said to be a 4-sense (4S) virtual reality interface; and when <i>augmented reality interfaces</i> interface with smells and touch it is said to be a 4-sense (4S) augmented reality interface.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Overview"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Overview</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Terminology"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Terminology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#1945–1968:_Batch_interface"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">1945–1968: Batch interface</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#1969–present:_Command-line_user_interface"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">1969–present: Command-line user interface</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#1985:_SAA_User_Interface_or_Text-Based_User_Interface"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">1985: SAA User Interface or Text-Based User Interface</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#1968–present:_Graphical_User_Interface"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">1968–present: Graphical User Interface</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Interface_design"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Interface design</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Quality"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Quality</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Principle_of_least_astonishment"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Principle of least astonishment</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Habit_formation"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Habit formation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#The_User_Experience_Honeycomb_Guide"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">The User Experience Honeycomb Guide</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Types"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Types</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-14"><a href="#Gallery"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Gallery</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Overview">Overview</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Overview">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png/220px-XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="138" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png/330px-XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png/440px-XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png 2x" data-file-width="1280" data-file-height="800" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:XFCE-4.10-Desktop.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">graphical user interface</a> following the <a href="/wiki/Desktop_metaphor" title="Desktop metaphor">desktop metaphor</a></div></div></div>
<p>The user interface or <i>human–machine interface</i> is the part of the machine that handles the human–machine interaction. Membrane switches, rubber keypads and touchscreens are examples of the physical part of the Human Machine Interface which we can see and touch.
</p><p>In complex systems, the human–machine interface is typically computerized. The term <i>human–computer interface</i> refers to this kind of system. In the context of computing, the term typically extends as well to the software dedicated to control the physical elements used for <a href="/wiki/Human-computer_interaction" class="mw-redirect" title="Human-computer interaction">human-computer interaction</a>.
</p><p>The engineering of human–machine interfaces is enhanced by considering <a href="/wiki/Ergonomics" class="mw-redirect" title="Ergonomics">ergonomics</a> (<a href="/wiki/Human_factors" class="mw-redirect" title="Human factors">human factors</a>). The corresponding disciplines are <a href="/wiki/Human_factors_engineering" class="mw-redirect" title="Human factors engineering">human factors engineering</a> (HFE) and <a href="/wiki/Usability_engineering" title="Usability engineering">usability engineering</a> (UE), which is part of <a href="/wiki/Systems_engineering" title="Systems engineering">systems engineering</a>.
</p><p>Tools used for incorporating human factors in the interface design are developed based on knowledge of <a href="/wiki/Computer_science" title="Computer science">computer science</a>, such as <a href="/wiki/Computer_graphics" title="Computer graphics">computer graphics</a>, <a href="/wiki/Operating_systems" class="mw-redirect" title="Operating systems">operating systems</a>, <a href="/wiki/Programming_language" title="Programming language">programming languages</a>. Nowadays, we use the expression <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">graphical user interface</a> for human–machine interface on computers, as nearly all of them are now using graphics.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Terminology">Terminology</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Terminology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg/300px-Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg.png" decoding="async" width="300" height="169" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg/450px-Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg/600px-Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1920" data-file-height="1080" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Linux_kernel_INPUT_OUPUT_evdev_gem_USB_framebuffer.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A human–machine interface usually involves <a href="/wiki/Peripheral" title="Peripheral">peripheral hardware</a> for the INPUT and for the OUTPUT. Often, there is an additional component implemented in software, like e.g. a <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">graphical user interface</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>There is a difference between a user interface and an operator interface or a human–machine interface (HMI).
</p>
<ul><li>The term "user interface" is often used in the context of (personal) computer systems and <a href="/wiki/Electronics" title="Electronics">electronic devices</a>.
<ul><li>Where a network of equipment or computers are interlinked through an MES (Manufacturing Execution System)-or Host to display information.</li>
<li>A human-machine interface (HMI) is typically local to one machine or piece of equipment, and is the interface method between the human and the equipment/machine. An operator interface is the interface method by which multiple pieces of equipment that are linked by a host control system are accessed or controlled.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="margin-left:0.1em; white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" title="Wikipedia:Please clarify"><span title="The text near this tag may need clarification or removal of jargon. (January 2010)">clarification needed</span></a></i>]</sup></li>
<li>The system may expose several user interfaces to serve different kinds of users. For example, a <a href="/wiki/Digital_library" title="Digital library">computerized library database</a> might provide two user interfaces, one for library patrons (limited set of functions, optimized for ease of use) and the other for library personnel (wide set of functions, optimized for efficiency).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="margin-left:0.1em; white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" title="Wikipedia:Please clarify"><span title="The text near this tag may need clarification or removal of jargon. (January 2010)">clarification needed</span></a></i>]</sup></li></ul></li>
<li>The user interface of a <a href="/wiki/Machine" title="Machine">mechanical</a> system, a vehicle or an <a href="/wiki/Industry" title="Industry">industrial</a> installation is sometimes referred to as the human–machine interface (HMI).<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup> HMI is a modification of the original term MMI (man-machine interface).<sup id="cite_ref-Nigeria_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nigeria-2">[2]</a></sup> In practice, the abbreviation MMI is still frequently used<sup id="cite_ref-Nigeria_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nigeria-2">[2]</a></sup> although some may claim that MMI stands for something different now.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (March 2019)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> Another abbreviation is HCI, but is more commonly used for <a href="/wiki/Human%E2%80%93computer_interaction" title="Human–computer interaction">human–computer interaction</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Nigeria_2-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nigeria-2">[2]</a></sup> Other terms used are operator interface console (OIC) and operator interface terminal (OIT).<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup> However it is abbreviated, the terms refer to the 'layer' that separates a human that is operating a machine from the machine itself.<sup id="cite_ref-Nigeria_2-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nigeria-2">[2]</a></sup> Without a clean and usable interface, humans would not be able to interact with information systems.</li></ul>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Science_fiction" title="Science fiction">science fiction</a>, HMI is sometimes used to refer to what is better described as a <a href="/wiki/Direct_neural_interface" class="mw-redirect" title="Direct neural interface">direct neural interface</a>. However, this latter usage is seeing increasing application in the real-life use of (medical) <a href="/wiki/Prostheses" class="mw-redirect" title="Prostheses">prostheses</a>—the artificial extension that replaces a missing body part (e.g., <a href="/wiki/Cochlear_implants" class="mw-redirect" title="Cochlear implants">cochlear implants</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup>
</p><p>In some circumstances, computers might observe the user and react according to their actions without specific commands. A means of <a href="/wiki/Positional_tracking" title="Positional tracking">tracking parts of the body</a> is required, and sensors noting the position of the head, direction of gaze and so on have been used experimentally. This is particularly relevant to <a href="/wiki/Immersive_digital_environment" class="mw-redirect" title="Immersive digital environment">immersive interfaces</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">[6]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">[7]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: History">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The history of user interfaces can be divided into the following phases according to the dominant type of user interface:
</p>
<h3><span id="1945.E2.80.931968:_Batch_interface"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="1945–1968:_Batch_interface">1945–1968: Batch interface</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: 1945–1968: Batch interface">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg" class="image"><img alt="IBM 029 card punch" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg/220px-LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg/330px-LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg/440px-LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4288" data-file-height="2848" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:LCM_-_IBM_029_Card_Punch_01.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>IBM 029</div></div></div>
<p>In the batch era, computing power was extremely scarce and expensive. User interfaces were rudimentary. Users had to accommodate computers rather than the other way around; user interfaces were considered overhead, and software was designed to keep the processor at maximum utilization with as little overhead as possible.
</p><p>The input side of the user interfaces for batch machines was mainly <a href="/wiki/Punched_card" title="Punched card">punched cards</a> or equivalent media like <a href="/wiki/Paper_tape" class="mw-redirect" title="Paper tape">paper tape</a>. The output side added <a href="/wiki/Line_printer" title="Line printer">line printers</a> to these media. With the limited exception of the system <a href="/wiki/System_console" title="System console">operator's console</a>, human beings did not interact with batch machines in real time at all.
</p><p>Submitting a job to a batch machine involved, first, preparing a deck of punched cards describing a program and a dataset. Punching the program cards wasn't done on the computer itself, but on <a href="/wiki/Keypunch" title="Keypunch">keypunches</a>, specialized typewriter-like machines that were notoriously bulky, unforgiving, and prone to mechanical failure. The software interface was similarly unforgiving, with very strict syntaxes meant to be parsed by the smallest possible compilers and interpreters.
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg/220px-Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="173" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg/330px-Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg/440px-Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2960" data-file-height="2332" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Card_puncher_-_NARA_-_513295.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Holes are punched in the card according to a prearranged code transferring the facts from the census questionnaire into <a href="/wiki/Statistics" title="Statistics">statistics</a></div></div></div>
<p>Once the cards were punched, one would drop them in a job queue and wait. Eventually, operators would feed the deck to the computer, perhaps mounting <a href="/wiki/Magnetic_tape_data_storage" title="Magnetic tape data storage">magnetic tapes</a> to supply another dataset or helper software. The job would generate a printout, containing final results or an abort notice with an attached error log. Successful runs might also write a result on magnetic tape or generate some data cards to be used in a later computation.
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Turnaround_time" title="Turnaround time">turnaround time</a> for a single job often spanned entire days. If one were very lucky, it might be hours; there was no real-time response. But there were worse fates than the card queue; some computers required an even more tedious and error-prone process of toggling in programs in binary code using console switches. The very earliest machines had to be partly rewired to incorporate program logic into themselves, using devices known as <a href="/wiki/Plugboard" title="Plugboard">plugboards</a>.
</p><p>Early batch systems gave the currently running job the entire computer; program decks and tapes had to include what we would now think of as <a href="/wiki/Operating_system" title="Operating system">operating system</a> code to talk to I/O devices and do whatever other housekeeping was needed. Midway through the batch period, after 1957, various groups began to experiment with so-called “<a href="/wiki/Compile_and_go_system" title="Compile and go system">load-and-go</a>” systems. These used a <a href="/wiki/Resident_monitor" title="Resident monitor">monitor program</a> which was always resident on the computer. Programs could call the monitor for services. Another function of the monitor was to do better error checking on submitted jobs, catching errors earlier and more intelligently and generating more useful feedback to the users. Thus, monitors represented the first step towards both operating systems and explicitly designed user interfaces.
</p>
<h3><span id="1969.E2.80.93present:_Command-line_user_interface"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="1969–present:_Command-line_user_interface">1969–present: Command-line user interface</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: 1969–present: Command-line user interface">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Command-line_interface" title="Command-line interface">Command-line interface</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Teletype Model 33" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg/220px-ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg/330px-ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg/440px-ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3264" data-file-height="2448" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:ASR-33_at_CHM.agr.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Teletype Model 33 ASR</div></div></div>
<p><b>Command-line interfaces</b> (CLIs) evolved from batch monitors connected to the system console. Their interaction model was a series of request-response transactions, with requests expressed as textual commands in a specialized vocabulary. Latency was far lower than for batch systems, dropping from days or hours to seconds. Accordingly, command-line systems allowed the user to change his or her mind about later stages of the transaction in response to real-time or near-real-time feedback on earlier results. Software could be exploratory and interactive in ways not possible before. But these interfaces still placed a relatively heavy <a href="/wiki/Mnemonic" title="Mnemonic">mnemonic</a> load on the user, requiring a serious investment of effort and learning time to master.<sup id="cite_ref-anaheimguide_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-anaheimguide-8">[8]</a></sup>
</p><p>The earliest command-line systems combined <a href="/wiki/Teleprinter" title="Teleprinter">teleprinters</a> with computers, adapting a mature technology that had proven effective for mediating the transfer of information over wires between human beings. Teleprinters had originally been invented as devices for automatic telegraph transmission and reception; they had a history going back to 1902 and had already become well-established in newsrooms and elsewhere by 1920. In reusing them, economy was certainly a consideration, but psychology and the <a href="/wiki/Principle_of_least_astonishment" title="Principle of least astonishment">Rule of Least Surprise</a> mattered as well; teleprinters provided a point of interface with the system that was familiar to many engineers and users.
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg" class="image"><img alt="The VT100, introduced in 197″8, was the most popular VDT of all time. Most terminal emulators still default to VT100 mode." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg/220px-DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="195" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg/330px-DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg/440px-DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2776" data-file-height="2464" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:DEC_VT100_terminal.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>DEC VT100 terminal</div></div></div>
<p>The widespread adoption of video-display terminals (VDTs) in the mid-1970s ushered in the second phase of command-line systems. These cut latency further, because characters could be thrown on the phosphor dots of a screen more quickly than a printer head or carriage can move. They helped quell conservative resistance to interactive programming by cutting ink and paper consumables out of the cost picture, and were to the first TV generation of the late 1950s and 60s even more iconic and comfortable than teleprinters had been to the computer pioneers of the 1940s.
</p><p>Just as importantly, the existence of an accessible screen — a two-dimensional display of text that could be rapidly and reversibly modified — made it economical for software designers to deploy interfaces that could be described as visual rather than textual. The pioneering applications of this kind were computer games and text editors; close descendants of some of the earliest specimens, such as <a href="/wiki/Rogue_(video_game)" title="Rogue (video game)">rogue</a>(6), and <a href="/wiki/Vi" title="Vi">vi</a>(1), are still a live part of <a href="/wiki/Unix" title="Unix">Unix</a> tradition.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="1985:_SAA_User_Interface_or_Text-Based_User_Interface">1985: SAA User Interface or Text-Based User Interface</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=6" title="Edit section: 1985: SAA User Interface or Text-Based User Interface">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 1985, with the beginning of <a href="/wiki/Microsoft_Windows" title="Microsoft Windows">Microsoft Windows</a> and other <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">graphical user interfaces</a>, IBM created what is called the <a href="/wiki/IBM_Systems_Application_Architecture" title="IBM Systems Application Architecture">Systems Application Architecture</a> (SAA) standard which include the <a href="/wiki/IBM_Common_User_Access" title="IBM Common User Access">Common User Access</a> (CUA) derivative. CUA successfully created what we know and use today in Windows, and most of the more recent <a href="/wiki/DOS" title="DOS">DOS</a> or Windows <a href="/w/index.php?title=Console_Applications&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Console Applications (page does not exist)">Console Applications</a> will use that standard as well.
</p><p>This defined that a pulldown menu system should be at the top of the screen, status bar at the bottom, shortcut keys should stay the same for all common functionality (F2 to Open for example would work in all applications that followed the SAA standard). This greatly helped the speed at which users could learn an application so it caught on quick and became an industry standard.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="1968.E2.80.93present:_Graphical_User_Interface"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="1968–present:_Graphical_User_Interface">1968–present: Graphical User Interface</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: 1968–present: Graphical User Interface">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:AMX_desk_box.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/AMX_desk_box.jpg/220px-AMX_desk_box.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="263" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/AMX_desk_box.jpg/330px-AMX_desk_box.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/AMX_desk_box.jpg 2x" data-file-width="401" data-file-height="480" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:AMX_desk_box.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>AMX Desk made a basic <a href="/wiki/WIMP_(computing)" title="WIMP (computing)">WIMP</a> GUI</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg/220px-1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="312" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg/330px-1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg/440px-1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg 2x" data-file-width="628" data-file-height="892" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:1989_-_Linotype_Wysiwyg_2000.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Linotype WYSIWYG 2000, 1989</div></div></div>
<ul><li>1968 – <a href="/wiki/Douglas_Engelbart" title="Douglas Engelbart">Douglas Engelbart</a> demonstrated <a href="/wiki/NLS_(computer_system)" title="NLS (computer system)">NLS</a>, a system which uses a <a href="/wiki/Computer_mouse" title="Computer mouse">mouse</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pointer_(user_interface)" title="Pointer (user interface)">pointers</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hypertext" title="Hypertext">hypertext</a>, and multiple <a href="/wiki/Window_(computing)" title="Window (computing)">windows</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-harding_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-harding-10">[10]</a></sup></li>
<li>1970 – Researchers at <a href="/wiki/PARC_(company)" title="PARC (company)">Xerox Palo Alto Research Center</a> (many from <a href="/wiki/SRI_International" title="SRI International">SRI</a>) develop <a href="/wiki/WIMP_(computing)" title="WIMP (computing)">WIMP</a> paradigm (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers)<sup id="cite_ref-harding_10-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-harding-10">[10]</a></sup></li>
<li>1973 – <a href="/wiki/Xerox_Alto" title="Xerox Alto">Xerox Alto</a>: commercial failure due to expense, poor user interface, and lack of programs<sup id="cite_ref-harding_10-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-harding-10">[10]</a></sup></li>
<li>1979 – <a href="/wiki/Steve_Jobs" title="Steve Jobs">Steve Jobs</a> and other <a href="/wiki/Apple_Inc." title="Apple Inc.">Apple</a> engineers visit Xerox PARC. Though <a href="/wiki/Pirates_of_Silicon_Valley" title="Pirates of Silicon Valley">Pirates of Silicon Valley</a> dramatizes the events, Apple had already been working on developing a GUI, such as the Macintosh and Lisa projects, before the visit<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">[11]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">[12]</a></sup>.</li>
<li>1981 – <a href="/wiki/Xerox_Star" title="Xerox Star">Xerox Star</a>: focus on <a href="/wiki/WYSIWYG" title="WYSIWYG">WYSIWYG</a>. Commercial failure (25K sold) due to cost ($16K each), performance (minutes to save a file, couple of hours to recover from crash), and poor marketing</li>
<li>1984 – Apple <a href="/wiki/Macintosh" title="Macintosh">Macintosh</a> popularizes the <a href="/wiki/GUI" class="mw-redirect" title="GUI">GUI</a>. <a href="/wiki/Super_Bowl_commercials#Macintosh:_.221984.22" title="Super Bowl commercials">Super Bowl commercial</a> shown twice, was the most expensive commercial ever made at that time</li>
<li>1984 – <a href="/wiki/MIT" class="mw-redirect" title="MIT">MIT</a>'s <a href="/wiki/X_Window_System" title="X Window System">X Window System</a>: hardware-independent platform and networking protocol for developing GUIs on UNIX-like systems</li>
<li>1985 – <a href="/wiki/Windows_1.0" title="Windows 1.0">Windows 1.0</a> – provided GUI interface to MS-DOS. No overlapping windows (tiled instead).</li>
<li>1985 – Microsoft and IBM start work on OS/2 meant to eventually replace MS-DOS and Windows</li>
<li>1986 – Apple threatens to sue <a href="/wiki/Digital_Research" title="Digital Research">Digital Research</a> because their GUI desktop looked too much like Apple's Mac.</li>
<li>1987 – <a href="/wiki/Windows_2.0" title="Windows 2.0">Windows 2.0</a> – Overlapping and resizable windows, keyboard and mouse enhancements</li>
<li>1987 – Macintosh II: first full-color Mac</li>
<li>1988 – <a href="/wiki/OS/2" title="OS/2">OS/2</a> 1.10 Standard Edition (SE) has GUI written by Microsoft, looks a lot like Windows 2</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Interface_design">Interface design</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=8" title="Edit section: Interface design">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/User_interface_design" title="User interface design">User interface design</a></div>
<p>Primary methods used in the interface design include prototyping and simulation.
</p><p>Typical human–machine interface design consists of the following stages: interaction specification, interface software specification and prototyping:
</p>
<ul><li>Common practices for interaction specification include <a href="/wiki/User-centered_design" title="User-centered design">user-centered design</a>, <a href="/wiki/Persona" title="Persona">persona</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Activity-oriented_design&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Activity-oriented design (page does not exist)">activity-oriented design</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Scenario-based_design&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Scenario-based design (page does not exist)">scenario-based design</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Resiliency_design&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Resiliency design (page does not exist)">resiliency design</a>.</li>
<li>Common practices for interface software specification include <a href="/wiki/Use_cases" class="mw-redirect" title="Use cases">use cases</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Constrain_enforcement&action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Constrain enforcement (page does not exist)">constrain enforcement</a> by <a href="/wiki/Interaction_protocol" title="Interaction protocol">interaction protocols</a> (intended to avoid use errors).</li>
<li>Common practices for prototyping are based on interactive design based on libraries of interface elements (controls, decoration, etc.).</li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Quality">Quality</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=9" title="Edit section: Quality">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>All great interfaces share eight qualities or characteristics:
</p>
<ol><li><b>Clarity</b> The interface avoids ambiguity by making everything clear through language, flow, hierarchy and metaphors for visual elements.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Concision" title="Concision">Concision</a></b><sup id="cite_ref-artofunix_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-artofunix-13">[13]</a></sup> It's easy to make the interface clear by over-clarifying and labeling everything, but this leads to interface bloat, where there is just too much stuff on the screen at the same time. If too many things are on the screen, finding what you're looking for is difficult, and so the interface becomes tedious to use. The real challenge in making a great interface is to make it concise and clear at the same time.</li>
<li><b>Familiarity</b><sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup> Even if someone uses an interface for the first time, certain elements can still be familiar. Real-life metaphors can be used to communicate meaning.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Responsiveness" title="Responsiveness">Responsiveness</a></b><sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">[15]</a></sup> A good interface should not feel sluggish. This means that the interface should provide good feedback to the user about what's happening and whether the user's input is being successfully processed.</li>
<li><b>Consistency</b><sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">[16]</a></sup> Keeping your interface consistent across your application is important because it allows users to recognize usage patterns.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Aesthetics" title="Aesthetics">Aesthetics</a></b> While you don't need to make an interface attractive for it to do its job, making something look good will make the time your users spend using your application more enjoyable; and happier users can only be a good thing.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Efficiency" title="Efficiency">Efficiency</a></b> Time is money, and a great interface should make the user more productive through shortcuts and good design.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Forgiveness" title="Forgiveness">Forgiveness</a></b> A good interface should not punish users for their mistakes but should instead provide the means to remedy them.</li></ol>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Principle_of_least_astonishment">Principle of least astonishment</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=10" title="Edit section: Principle of least astonishment">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Principle_of_least_astonishment" title="Principle of least astonishment">principle of least astonishment</a> (POLA) is a general principle in the design of all kinds of interfaces. It is based on the idea that human beings can only pay full attention to one thing at one time,<sup id="cite_ref-Raskin_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Raskin-17">[17]</a></sup> leading to the conclusion that novelty should be minimized.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Habit_formation">Habit formation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=11" title="Edit section: Habit formation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>If an interface is used persistently, the user will unavoidably develop <a href="/wiki/Habit" title="Habit">habits</a> for using the interface. The designer's role can thus be characterized as ensuring the user forms good habits. If the designer is experienced with other interfaces, they will similarly develop habits, and often make unconscious assumptions regarding how the user will interact with the interface.<sup id="cite_ref-Raskin_17-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Raskin-17">[17]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:223px;"><a href="/wiki/File:UX_Honeycomb.png" class="image"><img alt="User interface / user experience guide" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/UX_Honeycomb.png/221px-UX_Honeycomb.png" decoding="async" width="221" height="230" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/UX_Honeycomb.png/331px-UX_Honeycomb.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/UX_Honeycomb.png/442px-UX_Honeycomb.png 2x" data-file-width="1370" data-file-height="1427" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:UX_Honeycomb.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>User Experience Design Honeycomb<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup> designed by <a href="/wiki/Peter_Morville" title="Peter Morville">Peter Morville</a><sup id="cite_ref-:1_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-20">[20]</a></sup></div></div></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_User_Experience_Honeycomb_Guide">The User Experience Honeycomb Guide</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=12" title="Edit section: The User Experience Honeycomb Guide">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Peter Morville of <a href="/wiki/Google" title="Google">Google</a> designed this concept when leading operations in user interface design. The user experience honeycomb was created to guide the fundamentals user interface design. It would act as a guideline for many web development students for a decade to come.<sup id="cite_ref-:1_20-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-20">[20]</a></sup>
</p>
<ol><li><b>Usable</b> Is the design of the system easy and simple to use? The application should feel familiar, and it should be easy to use.<sup id="cite_ref-:1_20-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-20">[20]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Useful</b> Does the application fulfill a need? A business’s product or service needs to be useful.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Desirable</b> Is the design of the application sleek and to the point? The aesthetics of the system should be attractive, and easy to translate.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Findable</b> Are users able to quickly find the information they're looking for? Information needs to be findable and simple to navigate. A user should never have to hunt for your product or information.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Accessibility" title="Accessibility"><b>Accessible</b></a> Does the application support enlarged text without breaking the framework? An application should be accessible to those with disabilities.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Credible</b> Does the application exhibit trustworthy security and company details? An application should be transparent, secure, and honest.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Valuable</b> Does the end-user think it's valuable? If all 6 criteria are met, the end-user will find value and trust in the application.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_19-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-19">[19]</a></sup></li></ol>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Types">Types</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=13" title="Edit section: Types">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Touchscreen of the HP Series 100 HP-150" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg/220px-Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg/330px-Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg/440px-Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1200" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Hp150_touchscreen_20081129.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>HP Series 100 HP-150 Touchscreen</div></div></div>
<ul><li><b><a href="/wiki/Attentive_user_interface" title="Attentive user interface">Attentive user interfaces</a></b> manage the user <a href="/wiki/Attention" title="Attention">attention</a> deciding when to interrupt the user, the kind of warnings, and the level of detail of the messages presented to the user.</li>
<li><b>Batch interfaces</b> are non-interactive user interfaces, where the user specifies all the details of the <i>batch job</i> in advance to <a href="/wiki/Batch_processing" title="Batch processing">batch processing</a>, and receives the output when all the processing is done. The computer does not prompt for further input after the processing has started.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Command_line_interface" class="mw-redirect" title="Command line interface">Command line interfaces</a></b> (CLIs) prompt the user to provide input by typing a <a href="/wiki/Command_(computing)" title="Command (computing)">command string</a> with the computer keyboard and respond by outputting text to the computer monitor. Used by programmers and system administrators, in engineering and scientific environments, and by technically advanced personal computer users.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Conversational_interfaces" class="mw-redirect" title="Conversational interfaces">Conversational interfaces</a></b> enable users to command the computer with plain text English (e.g., via text messages, or chatbots) or voice commands, instead of graphic elements. These interfaces often emulate human-to-human conversations.<sup id="cite_ref-cbc_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cbc-21">[21]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Conversational interface agents</b> attempt to personify the computer interface in the form of an animated person, robot, or other character (such as Microsoft's Clippy the paperclip), and present interactions in a conversational form.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Crossing-based_interface" title="Crossing-based interface">Crossing-based interfaces</a></b> are graphical user interfaces in which the primary task consists in crossing boundaries instead of pointing.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Direct_manipulation_interface" title="Direct manipulation interface">Direct manipulation interface</a></b> is the name of a general class of user interfaces that allow users to manipulate objects presented to them, using actions that correspond at least loosely to the physical world.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Gesture_recognition" title="Gesture recognition">Gesture interfaces</a></b> are graphical user interfaces which accept input in a form of hand <a href="/wiki/Gesture" title="Gesture">gestures</a>, or <a href="/wiki/Mouse_gesture" class="mw-redirect" title="Mouse gesture">mouse gestures</a> sketched with a computer mouse or a <a href="/wiki/Stylus_(computing)" title="Stylus (computing)">stylus</a>.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">Graphical user interfaces</a></b> (GUI) accept input via devices such as a computer keyboard and mouse and provide articulated <a href="/wiki/Graphical" class="mw-redirect" title="Graphical">graphical</a> output on the <a href="/wiki/Computer_monitor" title="Computer monitor">computer monitor</a>. There are at least two different principles widely used in GUI design: <a href="/wiki/Object-oriented_user_interface" title="Object-oriented user interface">Object-oriented user interfaces</a> (OOUIs) and <a href="/wiki/Application_software" title="Application software">application</a>-oriented interfaces.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">[22]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Hardware interfaces</b> are the physical, spatial interfaces found on products in the real world from toasters, to car dashboards, to airplane cockpits. They are generally a mixture of knobs, buttons, sliders, switches, and touchscreens.</li>
<li><b>Holographic user interfaces </b> provide input to electronic or electro-mechanical devices by passing a finger through reproduced holographic images of what would otherwise be tactile controls of those devices, floating freely in the air, detected by a wave source and without tactile interaction.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Intelligent_user_interfaces" class="mw-redirect" title="Intelligent user interfaces">Intelligent user interfaces</a></b> are human-machine interfaces that aim to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and naturalness of human-machine interaction by representing, reasoning, and acting on models of the user, domain, task, discourse, and media (e.g., graphics, natural language, gesture).</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Motion_capture" title="Motion capture">Motion tracking</a> interfaces</b> monitor the user's body motions and translate them into commands, currently being developed by Apple.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">[23]</a></sup></li>
<li><b>Multi-screen interfaces</b>, employ multiple displays to provide a more flexible interaction. This is often employed in computer game interaction in both the commercial arcades and more recently the handheld markets.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Natural_language_user_interface" class="mw-redirect" title="Natural language user interface">Natural-language interfaces</a></b> – Used for search engines and on webpages. User types in a question and waits for a response.</li>
<li><b>Non-command user interfaces</b>, which observe the user to infer their needs and intentions, without requiring that they formulate explicit commands.<sup id="cite_ref-noncommand_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-noncommand-24">[24]</a></sup></li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Object-oriented_user_interface" title="Object-oriented user interface">Object-oriented user interfaces</a> (OOUI)</b> are based on <a href="/wiki/Object-oriented_programming" title="Object-oriented programming">object-oriented programming</a> metaphors, allowing users to <a href="/wiki/Direct_manipulation" class="mw-redirect" title="Direct manipulation">manipulate</a> simulated objects and their properties.</li>
<li><b>Permission-driven user interfaces</b> show or conceal menu options or functions depending on the user's level of permissions. The system is intended to improve the user experience by removing items that are unavailable to the user. A user who sees functions that are unavailable for use may become frustrated.  It also provides an enhancement to security by hiding functional items from unauthorized persons.</li>
<li><b>Reflexive user interfaces</b> where the users control and redefine the entire system via the user interface alone, for instance to change its <a href="/wiki/Command_verb" title="Command verb">command verbs</a>. Typically, this is only possible with very rich graphic user interfaces.</li>
<li><b>Search interface</b> is how the search box of a site is displayed, as well as the visual representation of the search results.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Tangible_user_interface" title="Tangible user interface">Tangible user interfaces</a></b>, which place a greater emphasis on touch and physical environment or its element.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Task-focused_interface" title="Task-focused interface">Task-focused interfaces</a></b> are user interfaces which address the <a href="/wiki/Information_overload" title="Information overload">information overload</a> problem of the <a href="/wiki/Desktop_metaphor" title="Desktop metaphor">desktop metaphor</a> by making tasks, not files, the primary unit of interaction.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Text-based_user_interface" title="Text-based user interface">Text-based user interfaces</a></b> (TUIs) are user interfaces which interact via text. TUIs include <a href="/wiki/Command-line_interface" title="Command-line interface">command-line interfaces</a> and text-based <a href="/wiki/WIMP_(computing)" title="WIMP (computing)">WIMP</a> environments.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Touchscreen" title="Touchscreen">Touchscreens</a></b> are displays that accept input by touch of fingers or a <a href="/wiki/Stylus" title="Stylus">stylus</a>. Used in a growing amount of <a href="/wiki/Mobile_device" title="Mobile device">mobile devices</a> and many types of <a href="/wiki/Point_of_sale" title="Point of sale">point of sale</a>, industrial processes and machines, self-service machines, etc.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Touch_user_interface" title="Touch user interface">Touch user interface</a></b> are graphical user interfaces using a <a href="/wiki/Touchpad" title="Touchpad">touchpad</a> or touchscreen display as a combined input and output device. They supplement or replace other forms of output with <a href="/wiki/Haptic_communication" title="Haptic communication">haptic</a> feedback methods. Used in computerized <a href="/wiki/Simulator#Physical_and_interactive_simulation" class="mw-redirect" title="Simulator">simulators</a>, etc.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Voice_user_interface" title="Voice user interface">Voice user interfaces</a></b>, which accept input and provide output by generating voice prompts. The user input is made by pressing keys or buttons, or responding verbally to the interface.</li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Web_application" title="Web application">Web-based user interfaces</a></b> or <b>web user interfaces</b> (WUI) that accept input and provide output by generating <a href="/wiki/Web_page" title="Web page">web pages</a> viewed by the user using a <a href="/wiki/Web_browser" title="Web browser">web browser</a> program. Newer implementations utilize <a href="/wiki/PHP" title="PHP">PHP</a>, <a href="/wiki/Java_(programming_language)" title="Java (programming language)">Java</a>, <a href="/wiki/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ajax_(programming)" title="Ajax (programming)">AJAX</a>, <a href="/wiki/Apache_Flex" title="Apache Flex">Apache Flex</a>, <a href="/wiki/.NET_Framework" title=".NET Framework">.NET Framework</a>, or similar technologies to provide real-time control in a separate program, eliminating the need to refresh a traditional HTML-based web browser. Administrative web interfaces for web-servers, servers and networked computers are often called <a href="/wiki/Web_hosting_control_panel" title="Web hosting control panel">control panels</a>.</li>
<li><b>Zero-input interfaces</b> get inputs from a set of sensors instead of querying the user with input dialogs.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">[25]</a></sup></li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Zooming_user_interface" title="Zooming user interface">Zooming user interfaces</a></b> are graphical user interfaces in which information objects are represented at different levels of scale and detail, and where the user can change the scale of the viewed area in order to show more detail.</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Gallery">Gallery</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=14" title="Edit section: Gallery">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional">
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg/74px-P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg" decoding="async" width="74" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg/112px-P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg/149px-P8-f%C3%BChrerstand2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="850" data-file-height="1366" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Historic HMI in the driver's cabin of a <a href="/wiki/Deutsche_Bahn" title="Deutsche Bahn">German</a> <a href="/wiki/Steam_locomotive" title="Steam locomotive">steam locomotive</a>
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:30px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Ice3_leitstand.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Ice3_leitstand.jpg/120px-Ice3_leitstand.jpg" decoding="async" width="120" height="90" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Ice3_leitstand.jpg/180px-Ice3_leitstand.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Ice3_leitstand.jpg/240px-Ice3_leitstand.jpg 2x" data-file-width="800" data-file-height="600" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Modern HMI in the driver's cabin of a <a href="/wiki/Deutsche_Bahn" title="Deutsche Bahn">German</a> <a href="/wiki/Intercity-Express" class="mw-redirect" title="Intercity-Express">Intercity-Express</a> High-Speed Train
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:18.5px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg/120px-Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg" decoding="async" width="120" height="113" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg/180px-Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg/240px-Wireless_toilet_control_panel_w._open_lid.jpg 2x" data-file-width="800" data-file-height="750" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>The HMI of a toilette (in Japan)
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:27px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Google_Glass_detail.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Google_Glass_detail.jpg/120px-Google_Glass_detail.jpg" decoding="async" width="120" height="96" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Google_Glass_detail.jpg/180px-Google_Glass_detail.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/Google_Glass_detail.jpg/240px-Google_Glass_detail.jpg 2x" data-file-width="872" data-file-height="699" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p><a href="/wiki/Voice_user_interface" title="Voice user interface">Voice user interface</a> of a <a href="/wiki/Wearable_computer" title="Wearable computer">wearable computer</a> (<i>here: <a href="/wiki/Google_Glass" title="Google Glass">Google Glass</a></i>)
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png/106px-Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png" decoding="async" width="106" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png/160px-Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png/213px-Engineer_at_audio_console_at_Danish_Broadcasting_Corporation.png 2x" data-file-width="500" data-file-height="564" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>HMI for audio mixing
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:30px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG/120px-Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG" decoding="async" width="120" height="90" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG/180px-Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG/240px-Mesa_de_v%C3%ADdeo_1.JPG 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1536" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>HMI for <a href="/wiki/Video_production" title="Video production">video production</a>
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG/120px-00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG" decoding="async" width="120" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG/180px-00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG/240px-00-bma-automation-operator-panel-with-pushbuttons.JPG 2x" data-file-width="2396" data-file-height="2396" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>HMI of a machine for the sugar industry with pushbuttons
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:30px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg/120px-CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg" decoding="async" width="120" height="90" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg/180px-CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg/240px-CNC_panel_Sinumerik.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="768" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>HMI for a <a href="/wiki/Computer_numerical_control" class="mw-redirect" title="Computer numerical control">Computer numerical control</a> (CNC)
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:15px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:CNC_panel.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/CNC_panel.jpg/90px-CNC_panel.jpg" decoding="async" width="90" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/CNC_panel.jpg/135px-CNC_panel.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/CNC_panel.jpg/180px-CNC_panel.jpg 2x" data-file-width="768" data-file-height="1024" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>slightly newer HMI for a CNC-machine
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px"><div style="width: 155px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 150px;"><div style="margin:30px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg/120px-Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg" decoding="async" width="120" height="90" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg/180px-Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg/240px-Not-Aus_Bet%C3%A4tiger.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2580" data-file-height="1932" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>emergency switch/panic switch
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=15" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Adaptive_user_interfaces" class="mw-redirect" title="Adaptive user interfaces">Adaptive user interfaces</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brain-computer_interface" class="mw-redirect" title="Brain-computer interface">Brain-computer interface</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computer_user_satisfaction" title="Computer user satisfaction">Computer user satisfaction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Direct_voice_input" title="Direct voice input">Direct voice input</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Distinguishable_interfaces" title="Distinguishable interfaces">Distinguishable interfaces</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ergonomics" class="mw-redirect" title="Ergonomics">Ergonomics</a> and <a href="/wiki/Human_factors" class="mw-redirect" title="Human factors">human factors</a> – the study of designing objects to be better adapted to the shape of the human body</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flat_design" title="Flat design">Flat design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Framebuffer" title="Framebuffer">Framebuffer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_GUI" class="mw-redirect" title="History of the GUI">History of the GUI</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Icon_design" title="Icon design">Icon design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Information_architecture" title="Information architecture">Information architecture</a> – organizing, naming, and labelling information structures</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Information_visualization" title="Information visualization">Information visualization</a> – the use of sensory representations of abstract data to reinforce cognition</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Interaction_design" title="Interaction design">Interaction design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Interaction_technique" title="Interaction technique">Interaction technique</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Interface_(computer_science)" class="mw-redirect" title="Interface (computer science)">Interface (computer science)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kinetic_user_interface" class="mw-redirect" title="Kinetic user interface">Kinetic user interface</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knowledge_visualization" class="mw-redirect" title="Knowledge visualization">Knowledge visualization</a> – the use of visual representations to transfer knowledge</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Natural_user_interface" title="Natural user interface">Natural user interfaces</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ncurses" title="Ncurses">Ncurses</a>, a semigraphical user interface.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Organic_user_interface" title="Organic user interface">Organic user interface</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Post-WIMP" title="Post-WIMP">Post-WIMP</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tangible_user_interface" title="Tangible user interface">Tangible user interface</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unified_Code_for_Units_of_Measure" title="Unified Code for Units of Measure">Unified Code for Units of Measure</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Usability#External_links" title="Usability">Usability links</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/User_assistance" title="User assistance">User assistance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/User_experience" title="User experience">User experience</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/User_experience_design" title="User experience design">User experience design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/User_interface_design" title="User interface design">User interface design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Useware" title="Useware">Useware</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_artifact" title="Virtual artifact">Virtual artifact</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_user_interface" class="mw-redirect" title="Virtual user interface">Virtual user interface</a></li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=16" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Griffin, Ben; Baston, Laurel. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://peace.saumag.edu/faculty/kardas/Courses/CS/Interfaces2007_files/Interfaces2007.ppt">"Interfaces"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(Presentation)</span>: 5. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140714160915/http://peace.saumag.edu/faculty/kardas/Courses/CS/Interfaces2007_files/Interfaces2007.ppt">Archived</a> from the original on 14 July 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2014</span>. <q>The user interface of a mechanical system, a vehicle or an industrial installation is sometimes referred to as the human-machine interface (HMI).</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Interfaces&rft.pages=5&rft.au=Griffin%2C+Ben&rft.au=Baston%2C+Laurel&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fpeace.saumag.edu%2Ffaculty%2Fkardas%2FCourses%2FCS%2FInterfaces2007_files%2FInterfaces2007.ppt&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r935243608">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Nigeria-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Nigeria_2-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Nigeria_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Nigeria_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Nigeria_2-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nou.edu.ng/NOUN_OCL/pdf/SST/CIT%20811.pdf">"User Interface Design and Ergonomics"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Course Cit 811</i>. NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA: SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: 19. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140714234100/http://www.nou.edu.ng/NOUN_OCL/pdf/SST/CIT%20811.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 14 July 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2014</span>. <q>In practice, the abbreviation MMI is still frequently used although some may claim that MMI stands for something different now.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Course+Cit+811&rft.atitle=User+Interface+Design+and+Ergonomics&rft.pages=19&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nou.edu.ng%2FNOUN_OCL%2Fpdf%2FSST%2FCIT%2520811.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">"Introduction Section". <i>Recent advances in business administration</i>. [S.l.]: Wseas. 2010. p. 190. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-960-474-161-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-960-474-161-8"><bdi>978-960-474-161-8</bdi></a>. <q>Other terms used are operator interface console (OIC) and operator interface terminal (OIT)</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Introduction+Section&rft.btitle=Recent+advances+in+business+administration&rft.place=%5BS.l.%5D&rft.pages=190&rft.pub=Wseas&rft.date=2010&rft.isbn=978-960-474-161-8&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Cipriani, Christian; Segil, Jacob; Birdwell, Jay; Weir, Richard (2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501393">"Dexterous control of a prosthetic hand using fine-wire intramuscular electrodes in targeted extrinsic muscles"</a>. <i>IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering</i>. <b>22</b> (4): 828–36. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1109%2FTNSRE.2014.2301234">10.1109/TNSRE.2014.2301234</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/1534-4320">1534-4320</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501393">4501393</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24760929">24760929</a>. <q>Neural co-activations are present that in turn generate significant EMG levels and hence unintended movements in the case of the present human machine interface (HMI).</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=IEEE+Transactions+on+Neural+Systems+and+Rehabilitation+Engineering&rft.atitle=Dexterous+control+of+a+prosthetic+hand+using+fine-wire+intramuscular+electrodes+in+targeted+extrinsic+muscles&rft.volume=22&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=828-36&rft.date=2014&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4501393&rft.issn=1534-4320&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F24760929&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1109%2FTNSRE.2014.2301234&rft.aulast=Cipriani&rft.aufirst=Christian&rft.au=Segil%2C+Jacob&rft.au=Birdwell%2C+Jay&rft.au=Weir%2C+Richard&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4501393&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Citi, Luca (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://7c4745ab-a-cdf32725-s-sites.googlegroups.com/a/neurostat.mit.edu/lciti/publications_files/LCitiPhD.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cpwRib4-7KUnST5NrulgpbLiT3r10hOeyap9QXEgv64E1VioXR7n1pQYsNBNMZggwnI2V4KbZLgxVeKLcOgxz4XfJFAkqvddyQUnGqn4Mm5iLq9vDR02cHmYi6ULrK8IxWK150SirIt9acjMFcDon0dbnRwgYicc-2GeKZZCqtflZc4ZhEBORg8AzWE31XDAgoFFAfNtUxTcNR8IcJlsM7NYCGxY4M3Vn8WY6bsO1MEuyYIjmU%3D&attredirects=0">"Development of a neural interface for the control of a robotic hand"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy: IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca: 5<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Development+of+a+neural+interface+for+the+control+of+a+robotic+hand&rft.pages=5&rft.date=2009&rft.aulast=Citi&rft.aufirst=Luca&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2F7c4745ab-a-cdf32725-s-sites.googlegroups.com%2Fa%2Fneurostat.mit.edu%2Flciti%2Fpublications_files%2FLCitiPhD.pdf%3Fattachauth%3DANoY7cpwRib4-7KUnST5NrulgpbLiT3r10hOeyap9QXEgv64E1VioXR7n1pQYsNBNMZggwnI2V4KbZLgxVeKLcOgxz4XfJFAkqvddyQUnGqn4Mm5iLq9vDR02cHmYi6ULrK8IxWK150SirIt9acjMFcDon0dbnRwgYicc-2GeKZZCqtflZc4ZhEBORg8AzWE31XDAgoFFAfNtUxTcNR8IcJlsM7NYCGxY4M3Vn8WY6bsO1MEuyYIjmU%253D%26attredirects%3D0&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Jordan, Joel. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/j.jordan/thesis-jj-2011.pdf">"Gaze Direction Analysis for the Investigation of Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy)</span>. University of London: Department of Computer Science: 5. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140714235740/http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/j.jordan/thesis-jj-2011.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 14 July 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2014</span>. <q>The aim of this thesis is to investigate the idea that the direction of gaze may be used as a device to detect a sense-of-presence in Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE) in some contexts.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Gaze+Direction+Analysis+for+the+Investigation+of+Presence+in+Immersive+Virtual+Environments&rft.pages=5&rft.aulast=Jordan&rft.aufirst=Joel&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww0.cs.ucl.ac.uk%2Fstaff%2Fj.jordan%2Fthesis-jj-2011.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Ravi (August 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://ravi-softwares.blogspot.com/2009/08/introduction-of-hmi.html">"Introduction of HMI"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140714233957/http://ravi-softwares.blogspot.com/2009/08/introduction-of-hmi.html">Archived</a> from the original on 14 July 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2014</span>. <q>In some circumstance computers might observe the user, and react according to their actions without specific commands. A means of tracking parts of the body is required, and sensors noting the position of the head, direction of gaze and so on have been used experimentally. This is particularly relevant to immersive interfaces.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Introduction+of+HMI&rft.date=2009-08&rft.au=Ravi&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fravi-softwares.blogspot.com%2F2009%2F08%2Fintroduction-of-hmi.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-anaheimguide-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-anaheimguide_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.anaheimautomation.com/manuals/forms/hmi-guide.php#sthash.2McqS5xo.dpbs">"HMI Guide"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140620001341/http://www.anaheimautomation.com/manuals/forms/hmi-guide.php#sthash.2McqS5xo.dpbs">Archived</a> from the original on 2014-06-20.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=HMI+Guide&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.anaheimautomation.com%2Fmanuals%2Fforms%2Fhmi-guide.php%23sthash.2McqS5xo.dpbs&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Richard, Stéphane. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.petesqbsite.com/sections/express/issue21/tuiseriespart1.htm">"Text User Interface Development Series Part One - T.U.I. Basics"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141116034613/http://www.petesqbsite.com/sections/express/issue21/tuiseriespart1.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 16 November 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 June</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Text+User+Interface+Development+Series+Part+One+-+T.U.I.+Basics&rft.aulast=Richard&rft.aufirst=St%C3%A9phane&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.petesqbsite.com%2Fsections%2Fexpress%2Fissue21%2Ftuiseriespart1.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-harding-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-harding_10-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-harding_10-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-harding_10-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">McCown, Frank. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.harding.edu/fmccown/gui/history-gui.pptx">"History of the Graphical User Interface (GUI)"</a>. Harding University. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141108121810/http://www.harding.edu/fmccown/gui/history-gui.pptx">Archived</a> from the original on 2014-11-08.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=History+of+the+Graphical+User+Interface+%28GUI%29&rft.aulast=McCown&rft.aufirst=Frank&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.harding.edu%2Ffmccown%2Fgui%2Fhistory-gui.pptx&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/sites/mac/parc.html">"The Xerox PARC Visit"</a>. <i>web.stanford.edu</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-02-08</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=web.stanford.edu&rft.atitle=The+Xerox+PARC+Visit&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fweb.stanford.edu%2Fdept%2FSUL%2Fsites%2Fmac%2Fparc.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://apple-history.com/gui">"apple-history.com / Graphical User Interface (GUI)"</a>. <i>apple-history.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-02-08</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=apple-history.com&rft.atitle=apple-history.com+%2F+Graphical+User+Interface+%28GUI%29&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fapple-history.com%2Fgui&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-artofunix-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-artofunix_13-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Raymond, Eric Steven (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/ch11s03.html">"11"</a>. <i>The Art of Unix Programming</i>. Thyrsus Enterprises. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141020023039/http://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/ch11s03.html">Archived</a> from the original on 20 October 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 June</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=11&rft.btitle=The+Art+of+Unix+Programming&rft.pub=Thyrsus+Enterprises&rft.date=2003&rft.aulast=Raymond&rft.aufirst=Eric+Steven&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhomepage.cs.uri.edu%2F~thenry%2Fresources%2Funix_art%2Fch11s03.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">C. A. D'H Gough; R. Green; M. Billinghurst. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220998465">"Accounting for User Familiarity in User Interfaces"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 June</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Accounting+for+User+Familiarity+in+User+Interfaces&rft.au=C.+A.+D%27H+Gough&rft.au=R.+Green&rft.au=M.+Billinghurst&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F220998465&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="99-067972" class="citation book">Sweet, David (October 2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://openbooks.sourceforge.net/books/kde20devel/ch09.html">"9 - Constructing A Responsive User Interface"</a>. <i>KDE 2.0 Development</i>. Sams Publishing. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130923224705/http://openbooks.sourceforge.net/books/kde20devel/ch09.html">Archived</a> from the original on 23 September 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 June</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=9+-+Constructing+A+Responsive+User+Interface&rft.btitle=KDE+2.0+Development&rft.pub=Sams+Publishing&rft.date=2001-10&rft.aulast=Sweet&rft.aufirst=David&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fopenbooks.sourceforge.net%2Fbooks%2Fkde20devel%2Fch09.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">John W. Satzinger; Lorne Olfman (March 1998). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1189510">"User interface consistency across end-user applications: the effects on mental models"</a>. <i>Journal of Management Information Systems</i>. Managing virtual workplaces and teleworking with information technology. Armonk, NY. <b>14</b> (4): 167–193. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1080%2F07421222.1998.11518190">10.1080/07421222.1998.11518190</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Management+Information+Systems&rft.atitle=User+interface+consistency+across+end-user+applications%3A+the+effects+on+mental+models&rft.volume=14&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=167-193&rft.date=1998-03&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F07421222.1998.11518190&rft.au=John+W.+Satzinger&rft.au=Lorne+Olfman&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdl.acm.org%2Fcitation.cfm%3Fid%3D1189510&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Raskin-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Raskin_17-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Raskin_17-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Raskin, Jef (2000). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/humaneinterfacen00rask"><i>The human interface : new directions for designing interactive systems</i></a></span> (1. printing. ed.). Reading, Mass. [u.a.]: Addison Wesley. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-201-37937-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-201-37937-6"><bdi>0-201-37937-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+human+interface+%3A+new+directions+for+designing+interactive+systems&rft.place=Reading%2C+Mass.+%5Bu.a.%5D&rft.edition=1.+printing.&rft.pub=Addison+Wesley&rft.date=2000&rft.isbn=0-201-37937-6&rft.aulast=Raskin&rft.aufirst=Jef&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fhumaneinterfacen00rask&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Udell, John (9 May 2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.infoworld.com/article/2681144/application-development/interfaces-are-habit-forming.amp.html">"Interfaces are habit-forming"</a>. <i>Infoworld</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170404131503/http://www.infoworld.com/article/2681144/application-development/interfaces-are-habit-forming.amp.html">Archived</a> from the original on 4 April 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 April</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Infoworld&rft.atitle=Interfaces+are+habit-forming&rft.date=2003-05-09&rft.aulast=Udell&rft.aufirst=John&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.infoworld.com%2Farticle%2F2681144%2Fapplication-development%2Finterfaces-are-habit-forming.amp.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-:0-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_19-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://oryzo.com/user-interface-design/">"User Interface & User Experience Design | Oryzo | Small Business UI/UX"</a>. <i>Oryzo</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-11-19</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Oryzo&rft.atitle=User+Interface+%26+User+Experience+Design+%7C+Oryzo+%7C+Small+Business+UI%2FUX&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Foryzo.com%2Fuser-interface-design%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-:1-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:1_20-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:1_20-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:1_20-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Wesolko, Dane (2016-10-27). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://medium.com/@danewesolko/peter-morvilles-user-experience-honeycomb-904c383b6886">"Peter Morville's User Experience Honeycomb"</a>. <i>Medium</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-11-19</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Medium&rft.atitle=Peter+Morville%27s+User+Experience+Honeycomb&rft.date=2016-10-27&rft.aulast=Wesolko&rft.aufirst=Dane&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmedium.com%2F%40danewesolko%2Fpeter-morvilles-user-experience-honeycomb-904c383b6886&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-cbc-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-cbc_21-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Errett, Joshua. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-chatbots-1.3581791">"As app fatigue sets in, Toronto engineers move on to chatbots"</a>. <i>CBC</i>. CBC/Radio-Canada. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160622075925/http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-chatbots-1.3581791">Archived</a> from the original on June 22, 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">July 4,</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=CBC&rft.atitle=As+app+fatigue+sets+in%2C+Toronto+engineers+move+on+to+chatbots&rft.aulast=Errett&rft.aufirst=Joshua&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cbc.ca%2Fnews%2Fcanada%2Ftoronto%2Ftoronto-chatbots-1.3581791&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">
Gordana Lamb.
<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa227601(v=vs.60).aspx">"Improve Your UI Design Process with Object-Oriented Techniques"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130814153652/http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa227601(v=vs.60).aspx">Archived</a> 2013-08-14 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>.
Visual Basic Developer magazine.
2001.
quote:
"Table 1. Differences between the traditional application-oriented and object-oriented approaches to UI design."</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/09/06/18/apple_exploring_motion_tracking_mac_os_x_user_interface.html">appleinsider.com</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090619212919/http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/09/06/18/apple_exploring_motion_tracking_mac_os_x_user_interface.html">Archived</a> 2009-06-19 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-noncommand-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-noncommand_24-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">
<cite class="citation journal"><a href="/wiki/Jakob_Nielsen_(usability_consultant)" title="Jakob Nielsen (usability consultant)">Jakob Nielsen</a> (April 1993). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.useit.com/papers/noncommand.html">"Noncommand User Interfaces"</a>. <i>Communications of the ACM</i>. ACM Press. <b>36</b> (4): 83–99. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1145%2F255950.153582">10.1145/255950.153582</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20061110102842/http://www.useit.com/papers/noncommand.html">Archived</a> from the original on 2006-11-10.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Communications+of+the+ACM&rft.atitle=Noncommand+User+Interfaces&rft.volume=36&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=83-99&rft.date=1993-04&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1145%2F255950.153582&rft.au=Jakob+Nielsen&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.useit.com%2Fpapers%2Fnoncommand.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AUser+interface" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Sharon, Taly, Henry Lieberman, and Ted Selker. "<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ted_Selker/publication/221607708_A_zero-input_interface_for_leveraging_group_experience_in_Web_browsing/links/0912f50876bda91a5b000000/A-zero-input-interface-for-leveraging-group-experience-in-Web-browsing.pdf">A zero-input interface for leveraging group experience in web browsing</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170908113001/https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ted_Selker/publication/221607708_A_zero-input_interface_for_leveraging_group_experience_in_Web_browsing/links/0912f50876bda91a5b000000/A-zero-input-interface-for-leveraging-group-experience-in-Web-browsing.pdf">Archived</a> 2017-09-08 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>." Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces. ACM, 2003.</span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit&section=17" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/40px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png" decoding="async" width="40" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/60px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg/80px-Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Look up <i><b><a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/user_interface" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:Special:Search/user interface">user interface</a></b></i> in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.</td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small plainlinks sistersitebox" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="30" height="40" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/45px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/59px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:User_interfaces" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:User interfaces"><span style="">User interfaces</span></a></b></i>.</td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141106081105/http://www.interaction-design.org/references/conferences">HCI and Interaction Design Conferences</a> covers a wide area of user interface publications</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/taouu/html/ch02.html">Chapter 2. History: A brief History of user interfaces</a></li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Operating_systems" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Operating_system" title="Template:Operating system"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Operating_system" title="Template talk:Operating system"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Operating_system&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Operating_systems" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Operating_system" title="Operating system">Operating systems</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">General</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Operating_system_advocacy" title="Operating system advocacy">Advocacy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_operating_systems" title="Comparison of operating systems">Comparison</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Forensic_software_engineering" title="Forensic software engineering">Forensic engineering</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_operating_systems" title="History of operating systems">History</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hobbyist_operating_system_development" title="Hobbyist operating system development">Hobbyist development</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_operating_systems" title="List of operating systems">List</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_operating_systems" title="Timeline of operating systems">Timeline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Usage_share_of_operating_systems" title="Usage share of operating systems">Usage share</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Kernel_(operating_system)" title="Kernel (operating system)">Kernel</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:9em"><a href="/wiki/Computer_architecture" title="Computer architecture">Architectures</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Exokernel" title="Exokernel">Exokernel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hybrid_kernel" title="Hybrid kernel">Hybrid</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Microkernel" title="Microkernel">Microkernel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monolithic_kernel" title="Monolithic kernel">Monolithic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vkernel" title="Vkernel">vkernel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rump_kernel" title="Rump kernel">Rump kernel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unikernel" title="Unikernel">Unikernel</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:9em">Components</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Device_driver" title="Device driver">Device driver</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Loadable_kernel_module" title="Loadable kernel module">Loadable kernel module</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Microkernel" title="Microkernel">Microkernel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/User_space" title="User space">User space</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Process_management_(computing)" title="Process management (computing)">Process management</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:9em">Concepts</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Context_switch" title="Context switch">Context switch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Interrupt" title="Interrupt">Interrupt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Inter-process_communication" title="Inter-process communication">IPC</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Process_(computing)" title="Process (computing)">Process</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Process_control_block" title="Process control block">Process control block</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Real-time_operating_system" title="Real-time operating system">Real-time</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Thread_(computing)" title="Thread (computing)">Thread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Time-sharing" title="Time-sharing">Time-sharing</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:9em"><a href="/wiki/Scheduling_(computing)" title="Scheduling (computing)">Scheduling<br />algorithms</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Computer_multitasking" title="Computer multitasking">Computer multitasking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fixed-priority_pre-emptive_scheduling" title="Fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling">Fixed-priority preemptive</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multilevel_feedback_queue" title="Multilevel feedback queue">Multilevel feedback queue</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Preemption_(computing)" title="Preemption (computing)">Preemptive</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Round-robin_scheduling" title="Round-robin scheduling">Round-robin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shortest_job_next" title="Shortest job next">Shortest job next</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Memory_management" title="Memory management">Memory management</a> and<br /><a href="/wiki/System_resource" title="System resource">resource</a> protection</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bus_error" title="Bus error">Bus error</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/General_protection_fault" title="General protection fault">General protection fault</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Memory_protection" title="Memory protection">Memory protection</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Paging" title="Paging">Paging</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Protection_ring" title="Protection ring">Protection ring</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Segmentation_fault" title="Segmentation fault">Segmentation fault</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_memory" title="Virtual memory">Virtual memory</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Non-volatile_memory" title="Non-volatile memory">Storage</a> access and<br /><a href="/wiki/File_system" title="File system">file systems</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Booting#BOOT-LOADER" title="Booting">Boot loader</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Defragmentation" title="Defragmentation">Defragmentation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Device_file" title="Device file">Device file</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/File_attribute" title="File attribute">File attribute</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Inode" title="Inode">Inode</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Journaling_file_system" title="Journaling file system">Journal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disk_partitioning" title="Disk partitioning">Partition</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_file_system" title="Virtual file system">Virtual file system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_tape_library" title="Virtual tape library">Virtual tape library</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_operating_systems" title="List of operating systems">List</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li>Acorn
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Arthur_(operating_system)" class="mw-redirect" title="Arthur (operating system)">Arthur</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ARX_(operating_system)" title="ARX (operating system)">ARX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Acorn_MOS" title="Acorn MOS">MOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/RISC_iX" title="RISC iX">RISC iX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/RISC_OS" title="RISC OS">RISC OS</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Amiga Inc.
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/AmigaOS" title="AmigaOS">AmigaOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/AmigaOS_versions" class="mw-redirect" title="AmigaOS versions">AmigaOS 1.0-3.9</a> (Motorola 68000)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/AmigaOS_4" title="AmigaOS 4">AmigaOS 4</a> (PowerPC)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Amiga_Unix" title="Amiga Unix">Amiga Unix, a.k.a. Amix</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Amstrad
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/AMSDOS" title="AMSDOS">AMSDOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Contiki" title="Contiki">Contiki</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SymbOS" title="SymbOS">SymbOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Android_(operating_system)" title="Android (operating system)">Android</a></li>
<li>Apple Inc.
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Apple_II" title="Apple II">Apple II</a> family</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_III" title="Apple III">Apple III</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_DOS" title="Apple DOS">Apple DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_Lisa" title="Apple Lisa">Apple Lisa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_SOS" title="Apple SOS">Apple SOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_Pascal" title="Apple Pascal">Apple Pascal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ProDOS" class="mw-redirect" title="ProDOS">ProDOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_GS/OS" title="Apple GS/OS">GS/OS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/GNO/ME" title="GNO/ME">GNO/ME</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Contiki" title="Contiki">Contiki</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Macintosh" title="Macintosh">Apple Macintosh</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Classic_Mac_OS" title="Classic Mac OS">Classic Mac OS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/A/UX" title="A/UX">A/UX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Copland_(operating_system)" title="Copland (operating system)">Copland</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MkLinux" title="MkLinux">MkLinux</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Taligent" title="Taligent">Pink</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rhapsody_(operating_system)" title="Rhapsody (operating system)">Rhapsody</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MacOS" title="MacOS">macOS</a> (formerly Mac OS X and OS X)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MacOS_Server" title="MacOS Server">macOS Server</a> (formerly Mac OS X Server and OS X Server)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_Network_Server" title="Apple Network Server">Apple Network Server</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_MessagePad" class="mw-redirect" title="Apple MessagePad">Apple MessagePad</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Newton_OS" title="Newton OS">Newton OS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IPhone" title="IPhone">iPhone</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ipod_touch" class="mw-redirect" title="Ipod touch">iPod Touch</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IOS" title="IOS">iOS</a> (formerly iPhone OS)</li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IPad" title="IPad">iPad</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IPadOS" title="IPadOS">iPadOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_Watch" title="Apple Watch">Apple Watch</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/WatchOS" title="WatchOS">watchOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apple_TV" title="Apple TV">Apple TV</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/TvOS" title="TvOS">tvOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Darwin_(operating_system)" title="Darwin (operating system)">Darwin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IPod" title="IPod">iPod</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IPod_software" class="mw-redirect" title="IPod software">iPod software</a> (unnamed embedded OS)</li></ul></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/A/ROSE" title="A/ROSE">A/ROSE</a></li>
<li>Apollo Computer
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Domain/OS" title="Domain/OS">Domain/OS</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Atari
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Atari_DOS" title="Atari DOS">Atari DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Atari_TOS" title="Atari TOS">Atari TOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MultiTOS" class="mw-redirect" title="MultiTOS">Atari MultiTOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li>BAE Systems <a href="/wiki/XTS-400" title="XTS-400">XTS-400</a></li>
<li>Be Inc.
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/BeOS" title="BeOS">BeOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/BeIA" title="BeIA">BeIA</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dano_(BeOS)" class="mw-redirect" title="Dano (BeOS)">BeOS r5.1d0</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Bell Labs Non-Unix
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/BESYS" title="BESYS">BESYS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Plan_9_from_Bell_Labs" title="Plan 9 from Bell Labs">Plan 9 from Bell Labs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Inferno_(operating_system)" title="Inferno (operating system)">Inferno</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>Burroughs Corporation
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Burroughs_MCP" title="Burroughs MCP">Burroughs MCP</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution" title="Berkeley Software Distribution">BSD</a></li>
<li>Control Data Corporation
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Chippewa_Operating_System" title="Chippewa Operating System">Chippewa Operating System</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CDC_Kronos" title="CDC Kronos">Kronos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/NOS_(software)" title="NOS (software)">NOS (Network Operating System)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CDC_SCOPE" title="CDC SCOPE">SCOPE</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Convergent_Technologies_Operating_System" title="Convergent Technologies Operating System">Convergent Technologies Operating System</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cosmos_(operating_system)" title="Cosmos (operating system)">Cosmos</a></li>
<li>Cromemco
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Cromemco_DOS" class="mw-redirect" title="Cromemco DOS">Cromemco DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cromix" class="mw-redirect" title="Cromix">Cromix</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Data General
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Data_General_AOS" title="Data General AOS">AOS (for 16-bit)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/DG/UX" title="DG/UX">DG/UX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Data_General_RDOS" title="Data General RDOS">RDOS (Real-time DOS)</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Datapoint (CTOS for Z-80)</li>
<li>DDC-I Inc.
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/HeartOS" class="mw-redirect" title="HeartOS">HeartOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Digital Research, Inc.
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/CP/M" title="CP/M">CP/M</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP/M_Plus" class="mw-redirect" title="CP/M Plus">CP/M Plus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP/M-68K" class="mw-redirect" title="CP/M-68K">CP/M-68K</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP/M-8000" class="mw-redirect" title="CP/M-8000">CP/M-8000</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP/M-86" title="CP/M-86">CP/M-86</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP/M-86_Plus" class="mw-redirect" title="CP/M-86 Plus">CP/M-86 Plus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_CP/M" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent CP/M">Concurrent CP/M</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_CP/M-86" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent CP/M-86">Concurrent CP/M-86</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_CP/M_8-16" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent CP/M 8-16">Concurrent CP/M 8-16</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_CP/M-68K" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent CP/M-68K">Concurrent CP/M-68K</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS">Concurrent DOS</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_PC_DOS" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent PC DOS">Concurrent PC DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS_8-16" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS 8-16">Concurrent DOS 8-16</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS_286" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS 286">Concurrent DOS 286</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS_XM" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS XM">Concurrent DOS XM</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS_386" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS 386">Concurrent DOS 386</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS_386/MGE" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS 386/MGE">Concurrent DOS 386/MGE</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_DOS_68K" class="mw-redirect" title="Concurrent DOS 68K">Concurrent DOS 68K</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/DR-DOS" title="DR-DOS">DR-DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/FlexOS" title="FlexOS">FlexOS</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/FlexOS_186" class="mw-redirect" title="FlexOS 186">FlexOS 186</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/FlexOS_286" class="mw-redirect" title="FlexOS 286">FlexOS 286</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/FlexOS_68K" class="mw-redirect" title="FlexOS 68K">FlexOS 68K</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multiuser_DOS" title="Multiuser DOS">Multiuser DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Datapac_Multiuser_DOS" class="mw-redirect" title="Datapac Multiuser DOS">Datapac Multiuser DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Datapac_System_Manager" class="mw-redirect" title="Datapac System Manager">Datapac System Manager</a>, a derivative of Datapac Multiuser DOS</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IMS_Multiuser_DOS" class="mw-redirect" title="IMS Multiuser DOS">IMS Multiuser DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MP/M" title="MP/M">MP/M</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/MP/M_II" class="mw-redirect" title="MP/M II">MP/M II</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MP/M-86" class="mw-redirect" title="MP/M-86">MP/M-86</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MP/M_8-16" class="mw-redirect" title="MP/M 8-16">MP/M 8-16</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/PalmDOS" class="mw-redirect" title="PalmDOS">PalmDOS</a> 1.0</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Personal_CP/M" class="mw-redirect" title="Personal CP/M">Personal CP/M</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Digital Equipment Corporation
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/DEC_BATCH-11/DOS-11" title="DEC BATCH-11/DOS-11">Batch-11/DOS-11</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OS/8" title="OS/8">OS/8</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/RSTS/E" title="RSTS/E">RSTS/E</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/RSX-11" title="RSX-11">RSX-11</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/RT-11" title="RT-11">RT-11</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TOPS-10" title="TOPS-10">TOPS-10</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TOPS-20" title="TOPS-20">TOPS-20</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TENEX_(operating_system)" title="TENEX (operating system)">TENEX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tru64_UNIX" title="Tru64 UNIX">Digital UNIX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ultrix" title="Ultrix">Ultrix</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OpenVMS" title="OpenVMS">VMS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/WAITS" title="WAITS">WAITS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/DOS" title="DOS">DOS</a></li>
<li>ENEA AB  <a href="/wiki/Operating_System_Embedded" title="Operating System Embedded">OSE</a></li>
<li>Fujitsu <a href="/wiki/Towns_OS" class="mw-redirect" title="Towns OS">Towns OS</a></li>
<li>General Electric, Honeywell, Bull
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Real-Time_Multiprogramming_Operating_System" title="Real-Time Multiprogramming Operating System">Real-Time Multiprogramming Operating System</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/General_Comprehensive_Operating_System" title="General Comprehensive Operating System">GCOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multics" title="Multics">Multics</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Genode" title="Genode">Genode</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/GNU" title="GNU">GNU</a></li>
<li>Google
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Android_(operating_system)" title="Android (operating system)">Android</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chromium_OS" title="Chromium OS">Chromium OS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chrome_OS" title="Chrome OS">Chrome OS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Goobuntu" title="Goobuntu">Goobuntu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Google_Fuchsia" title="Google Fuchsia">Fuchsia</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>Green Hills Software
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Integrity_(operating_system)" title="Integrity (operating system)">INTEGRITY</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/INTEGRITY-178B" class="mw-redirect" title="INTEGRITY-178B">INTEGRITY-178B</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Green_Hills_Software#Real-time_operating_systems" title="Green Hills Software">µ-velOSity</a></i></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Haiku_(operating_system)" title="Haiku (operating system)">Haiku</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Harmony_OS" title="Harmony OS">Harmony</a></li>
<li>Heathkit, Zenith Data Systems
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/HDOS" title="HDOS">HDOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heathkit_H11#Specifications" title="Heathkit H11">HT-11</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Hewlett-Packard
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/HP-UX" title="HP-UX">HP-UX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HP_Multi-Programming_Executive" title="HP Multi-Programming Executive">Multi-Programming Executive</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Honeywell_CP-6" title="Honeywell CP-6">Honeywell CP-6</a></li>
<li>Huawei <a href="/wiki/Harmony_OS" title="Harmony OS">Harmony OS</a></li>
<li>Intel Corporation
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ISIS_(operating_system)" title="ISIS (operating system)">ISIS</a></li></ul></li>
<li>IBM
<ul><li>Pre-360
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/BESYS" title="BESYS">BESYS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System" title="Compatible Time-Sharing System">CTSS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/GM-NAA_I/O" title="GM-NAA I/O">GM OS & GM-NAA I/O</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_7090/94_IBSYS" title="IBM 7090/94 IBSYS">IBSYS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SHARE_Operating_System" title="SHARE Operating System">SHARE Operating System</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/University_of_Michigan_Executive_System" title="University of Michigan Executive System">University of Michigan Executive System (UMES)</a></li></ul></li>
<li>OS/360 and successors
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/OS/360_and_successors" title="OS/360 and successors">OS/360 and successors</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MVS" title="MVS">MVS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OS/390" title="OS/390">OS/390</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Phoenix_(computer)" title="Phoenix (computer)">Phoenix/MVS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Z/OS" title="Z/OS">z/OS</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>DOS
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/DOS/360_and_successors" title="DOS/360 and successors">DOS/360 and successors</a> on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/BOS/360" title="BOS/360">BOS/360</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TOS/360" class="mw-redirect" title="TOS/360">TOS/360</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/DOS/VS" class="mw-redirect" title="DOS/VS">DOS/VS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/DOS/VSE" class="mw-redirect" title="DOS/VSE">DOS/VSE</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/VSE/SP" class="mw-redirect" title="VSE/SP">VSE/SP</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/VSE/ESA" class="mw-redirect" title="VSE/ESA">VSE/ESA</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Z/VSE" class="mw-redirect" title="Z/VSE">z/VSE</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>VM/CMS
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/CP/CMS" title="CP/CMS">CP/CMS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP-40" class="mw-redirect" title="CP-40">CP-40</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/CP-67" title="CP-67">CP-67</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/VM/370" class="mw-redirect" title="VM/370">VM/370</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/VM_(operating_system)" title="VM (operating system)">VM/XA</a></li>
<li>VM/ESA <a href="/wiki/Virtual_machine" title="Virtual machine">Virtual Machine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Z/VM" title="Z/VM">z/VM</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>TPF line
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Airline_Control_Program" class="mw-redirect" title="Airline Control Program">Airline Control Program <i>ACP</i></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Transaction_Processing_Facility" title="Transaction Processing Facility">Transaction Processing Facility</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>Unix-like
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IBM_AIX" title="IBM AIX">AIX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/UTS_(Mainframe_UNIX)" class="mw-redirect" title="UTS (Mainframe UNIX)">UTS (Mainframe UNIX)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Linux_on_IBM_Z" title="Linux on IBM Z">Linux on IBM Z</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Others on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/TSS/360" class="mw-redirect" title="TSS/360">TSS/360</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MUSIC/SP" title="MUSIC/SP">MUSIC/SP</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ORVYL_and_WYLBUR" title="ORVYL and WYLBUR">ORVYL and WYLBUR</a></li></ul></li>
<li>IBM PC
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/PC_DOS" class="mw-redirect" title="PC DOS">PC DOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OS/2" title="OS/2">OS/2</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OS/2_Warp" class="mw-redirect" title="OS/2 Warp">OS/2 Warp</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/EComStation" title="EComStation">eComStation</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li>Other hardware
<ul><li>IBM Series 1
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IBM_Series/1#Software_support" title="IBM Series/1">EDX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_Series/1#Software_support" title="IBM Series/1">RPS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_Series/1#Software_support" title="IBM Series/1">CPS</a></li></ul></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_1130" title="IBM 1130">IBM 1130 DM2</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_1800" class="mw-redirect" title="IBM 1800">IBM 1800 MPX & TSX</a></li>
<li>IBM 8100
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IBM_8100_DPCX" title="IBM 8100 DPCX">DPCX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_8100_DPPX" class="mw-redirect" title="IBM 8100 DPPX">DPPX</a>)</li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_System/3" title="IBM System/3">System 3 DMS</a></li>
<li>IBM System 34, 36, 38</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_i" title="IBM i">OS/400</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Illumos" title="Illumos">illumos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IncludeOS" title="IncludeOS">IncludeOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IOS" title="IOS">iOS</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/AudioOS" class="mw-redirect" title="AudioOS">audioOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IPadOS" title="IPadOS">iPadOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TvOS" title="TvOS">tvOS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Linux" title="Linux">Linux</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MINIX" title="MINIX">MINIX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MorphOS" title="MorphOS">MorphOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MUSIC/SP" title="MUSIC/SP">MUSIC/SP</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nemesis_(operating_system)" title="Nemesis (operating system)">Nemesis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/NeXTSTEP" title="NeXTSTEP">NeXTSTEP</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/NOS_(software)" title="NOS (software)">NOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ORVYL_and_WYLBUR" title="ORVYL and WYLBUR">ORVYL</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OS/2" title="OS/2">OS/2</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OS-9" title="OS-9">OS-9</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OSv" title="OSv">OSv</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pick_operating_system" title="Pick operating system">Pick</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/QNX" title="QNX">QNX</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ReactOS" title="ReactOS">ReactOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/RISC_OS" title="RISC OS">RISC OS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Solaris_(operating_system)" title="Solaris (operating system)">Solaris</a></li>
<li>Tandem
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/NonStop_(server_computers)" title="NonStop (server computers)">NonStop</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Transaction_Processing_Facility" title="Transaction Processing Facility">TPF</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TRIPOS" title="TRIPOS">TRIPOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unix" title="Unix">Unix</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Visi_On" title="Visi On">Visi On</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/VS/9" title="VS/9">VS/9</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/WebOS" title="WebOS">webOS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Microsoft_Windows" title="Microsoft Windows">Windows</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Xerox_500_series" title="Xerox 500 series">Xerox 500 series (530 RTB, 560)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Xinu" title="Xinu">Xinu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Z/OS" title="Z/OS">z/OS</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Miscellaneous concepts</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Application_programming_interface" title="Application programming interface">API</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computer_network" title="Computer network">Computer network</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hardware_abstraction" title="Hardware abstraction">HAL</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Live_CD" title="Live CD">Live CD</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Live_USB" title="Live USB">Live USB</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shell_(computing)" title="Shell (computing)">OS shell</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Command-line_interface" title="Command-line interface">CLI</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">GUI</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Natural_user_interface" title="Natural user interface">NUI</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Text-based_user_interface" title="Text-based user interface">TUI</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Voice_user_interface" title="Voice user interface">VUI</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zooming_user_interface" title="Zooming user interface">ZUI</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Preboot_Execution_Environment" title="Preboot Execution Environment">PXE</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Computer_science" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Computer_science" title="Template:Computer science"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Computer_science" title="Template talk:Computer science"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Computer_science&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Computer_science" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Computer_science" title="Computer science">Computer science</a></div></th></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div id="Note:_This_template_roughly_follows_the_2012_ACM_Computing_Classification_System.">Note: This template roughly follows the 2012 <a href="/wiki/ACM_Computing_Classification_System" title="ACM Computing Classification System">ACM Computing Classification System</a>.</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Computer_hardware" title="Computer hardware">Hardware</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Printed_circuit_board" title="Printed circuit board">Printed circuit board</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peripheral" title="Peripheral">Peripheral</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Integrated_circuit" title="Integrated circuit">Integrated circuit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Very_Large_Scale_Integration" title="Very Large Scale Integration">Very Large Scale Integration</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/System_on_a_chip" title="System on a chip">Systems on Chip (SoCs)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Green_computing" title="Green computing">Energy consumption (Green computing)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronic_design_automation" title="Electronic design automation">Electronic design automation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hardware_acceleration" title="Hardware acceleration">Hardware acceleration</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Computer systems<br />organization</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Computer_architecture" title="Computer architecture">Computer architecture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Embedded_system" title="Embedded system">Embedded system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Real-time_computing" title="Real-time computing">Real-time computing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dependability" title="Dependability">Dependability</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Computer_network" title="Computer network">Networks</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Network_architecture" title="Network architecture">Network architecture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Network_protocol" class="mw-redirect" title="Network protocol">Network protocol</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Networking_hardware" title="Networking hardware">Network components</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Network_scheduler" title="Network scheduler">Network scheduler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Network_performance" title="Network performance">Network performance evaluation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Network_service" title="Network service">Network service</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Software organization</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Interpreter_(computing)" title="Interpreter (computing)">Interpreter</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Middleware" title="Middleware">Middleware</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_machine" title="Virtual machine">Virtual machine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Operating_system" title="Operating system">Operating system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_quality" title="Software quality">Software quality</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Programming_language_theory" title="Programming language theory">Software notations</a><br />and <a href="/wiki/Programming_tool" title="Programming tool">tools</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Programming_paradigm" title="Programming paradigm">Programming paradigm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Programming_language" title="Programming language">Programming language</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Compiler_construction" class="mw-redirect" title="Compiler construction">Compiler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Domain-specific_language" title="Domain-specific language">Domain-specific language</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Modeling_language" title="Modeling language">Modeling language</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_framework" title="Software framework">Software framework</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Integrated_development_environment" title="Integrated development environment">Integrated development environment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_configuration_management" title="Software configuration management">Software configuration management</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Library_(computing)" title="Library (computing)">Software library</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_repository" title="Software repository">Software repository</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Software_development" title="Software development">Software development</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Software_development_process" title="Software development process">Software development process</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Requirements_analysis" title="Requirements analysis">Requirements analysis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_design" title="Software design">Software design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_construction" title="Software construction">Software construction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_deployment" title="Software deployment">Software deployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Software_maintenance" title="Software maintenance">Software maintenance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Programming_team" title="Programming team">Programming team</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Open-source_software" title="Open-source software">Open-source model</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Theory_of_computation" title="Theory of computation">Theory of computation</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Model_of_computation" title="Model of computation">Model of computation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_language" title="Formal language">Formal language</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Automata_theory" title="Automata theory">Automata theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computability_theory" title="Computability theory">Computability theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_complexity_theory" title="Computational complexity theory">Computational complexity theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Logic_in_computer_science" title="Logic in computer science">Logic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Semantics_(computer_science)" title="Semantics (computer science)">Semantics</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Algorithm" title="Algorithm">Algorithms</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Algorithm_design" class="mw-redirect" title="Algorithm design">Algorithm design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Analysis_of_algorithms" title="Analysis of algorithms">Analysis of algorithms</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Algorithmic_efficiency" title="Algorithmic efficiency">Algorithmic efficiency</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Randomized_algorithm" title="Randomized algorithm">Randomized algorithm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_geometry" title="Computational geometry">Computational geometry</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Mathematics<br />of computing</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Discrete_mathematics" title="Discrete mathematics">Discrete mathematics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Probability" title="Probability">Probability</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Statistics" title="Statistics">Statistics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mathematical_software" title="Mathematical software">Mathematical software</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Information_theory" title="Information theory">Information theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mathematical_analysis" title="Mathematical analysis">Mathematical analysis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Numerical_analysis" title="Numerical analysis">Numerical analysis</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Information_system" title="Information system">Information<br />systems</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Database" title="Database">Database management system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computer_data_storage" title="Computer data storage">Information storage systems</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Enterprise_information_system" title="Enterprise information system">Enterprise information system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_software" title="Social software">Social information systems</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Geographic_information_system" title="Geographic information system">Geographic information system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Decision_support_system" title="Decision support system">Decision support system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Process_control" title="Process control">Process control system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multimedia_database" title="Multimedia database">Multimedia information system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Data_mining" title="Data mining">Data mining</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Digital_library" title="Digital library">Digital library</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computing_platform" title="Computing platform">Computing platform</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Digital_marketing" title="Digital marketing">Digital marketing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web" title="World Wide Web">World Wide Web</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Information_retrieval" title="Information retrieval">Information retrieval</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Computer_security" title="Computer security">Security</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Cryptography" title="Cryptography">Cryptography</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_methods" title="Formal methods">Formal methods</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Security_service_(telecommunication)" title="Security service (telecommunication)">Security services</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Intrusion_detection_system" title="Intrusion detection system">Intrusion detection system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computer_security_compromised_by_hardware_failure" title="Computer security compromised by hardware failure">Hardware security</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Network_security" title="Network security">Network security</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Information_security" title="Information security">Information security</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Application_security" title="Application security">Application security</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Human%E2%80%93computer_interaction" title="Human–computer interaction">Human–computer<br />interaction</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Interaction_design" title="Interaction design">Interaction design</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_computing" title="Social computing">Social computing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ubiquitous_computing" title="Ubiquitous computing">Ubiquitous computing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Visualization_(graphics)" title="Visualization (graphics)">Visualization</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computer_accessibility" title="Computer accessibility">Accessibility</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Concurrency_(computer_science)" title="Concurrency (computer science)">Concurrency</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Concurrent_computing" title="Concurrent computing">Concurrent computing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Parallel_computing" title="Parallel computing">Parallel computing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Distributed_computing" title="Distributed computing">Distributed computing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multithreading_(computer_architecture)" title="Multithreading (computer architecture)">Multithreading</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multiprocessing" title="Multiprocessing">Multiprocessing</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Artificial_intelligence" title="Artificial intelligence">Artificial<br />intelligence</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Natural_language_processing" title="Natural language processing">Natural language processing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knowledge_representation_and_reasoning" title="Knowledge representation and reasoning">Knowledge representation and reasoning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computer_vision" title="Computer vision">Computer vision</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Automated_planning_and_scheduling" title="Automated planning and scheduling">Automated planning and scheduling</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mathematical_optimization" title="Mathematical optimization">Search methodology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Control_theory" title="Control theory">Control method</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philosophy_of_artificial_intelligence" title="Philosophy of artificial intelligence">Philosophy of artificial intelligence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Distributed_artificial_intelligence" title="Distributed artificial intelligence">Distributed artificial intelligence</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Machine_learning" title="Machine learning">Machine learning</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Supervised_learning" title="Supervised learning">Supervised learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unsupervised_learning" title="Unsupervised learning">Unsupervised learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reinforcement_learning" title="Reinforcement learning">Reinforcement learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multi-task_learning" title="Multi-task learning">Multi-task learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cross-validation_(statistics)" title="Cross-validation (statistics)">Cross-validation</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Computer_graphics" title="Computer graphics">Graphics</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Computer_animation" title="Computer animation">Animation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rendering_(computer_graphics)" title="Rendering (computer graphics)">Rendering</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Photo_manipulation" title="Photo manipulation">Image manipulation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Graphics_processing_unit" title="Graphics processing unit">Graphics processing unit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mixed_reality" title="Mixed reality">Mixed reality</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_reality" title="Virtual reality">Virtual reality</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Image_compression" title="Image compression">Image compression</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Solid_modeling" title="Solid modeling">Solid modeling</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Applied<br />computing</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/E-commerce" title="E-commerce">E-commerce</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Enterprise_software" title="Enterprise software">Enterprise software</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_mathematics" title="Computational mathematics">Computational mathematics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_physics" title="Computational physics">Computational physics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_chemistry" title="Computational chemistry">Computational chemistry</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_biology" title="Computational biology">Computational biology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_social_science" title="Computational social science">Computational social science</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computational_engineering" title="Computational engineering">Computational engineering</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Health_informatics" title="Health informatics">Computational healthcare</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Digital_art" title="Digital art">Digital art</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronic_publishing" title="Electronic publishing">Electronic publishing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cyberwarfare" title="Cyberwarfare">Cyberwarfare</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronic_voting" title="Electronic voting">Electronic voting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Video_game" title="Video game">Video games</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Word_processor" title="Word processor">Word processing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Operations_research" title="Operations research">Operations research</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Educational_technology" title="Educational technology">Educational technology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Document_management_system" title="Document management system">Document management</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div>
<ul><li><img alt="Wikipedia book" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/16px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Wikipedia book" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/23px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/31px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="180" data-file-height="185" /> <b><a href="/wiki/Book:Computer_science" class="mw-redirect" title="Book:Computer science">Book</a></b></li>
<li><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" /> <b><a href="/wiki/Category:Computer_science" title="Category:Computer science">Category</a></b></li>
<li><img alt="Outline" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Global_thinking.svg/10px-Global_thinking.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Outline" width="10" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Global_thinking.svg/15px-Global_thinking.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Global_thinking.svg/21px-Global_thinking.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="130" data-file-height="200" /> <b><a href="/wiki/Outline_of_computer_science" title="Outline of computer science">Outline</a></b></li>
<li><img alt="WikiProject" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/People_icon.svg/16px-People_icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="WikiProject" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/People_icon.svg/24px-People_icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/People_icon.svg/32px-People_icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="100" data-file-height="100" /><b><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Computer_science" title="Wikipedia:WikiProject Computer science">WikiProject</a></b></li>
<li><img alt="Commons page" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/12px-Commons-logo.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Commons page" width="12" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/18px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/24px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /> <b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Computer_science" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Computer science">Commons</a></b></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Social_networking_services" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Online_social_networking" title="Template:Online social networking"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Online_social_networking" title="Template talk:Online social networking"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Online_social_networking&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Social_networking_services" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Social_networking_service" title="Social networking service">Social networking services</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites" title="List of social networking websites">Personal</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/23snaps" title="23snaps">23snaps</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Amikumu" title="Amikumu">Amikumu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ANobii" title="ANobii">aNobii</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/AsianAve" title="AsianAve">AsianAve</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ask.fm" title="Ask.fm">Ask.fm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Badoo" title="Badoo">Badoo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cloob" title="Cloob">Cloob</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cyworld" title="Cyworld">Cyworld</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Diaspora_(social_network)" title="Diaspora (social network)">Diaspora</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Douban" title="Douban">Douban</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Draugiem.lv" title="Draugiem.lv">Draugiem.lv</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ello_(social_network)" title="Ello (social network)">Ello</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Facebook" title="Facebook">Facebook</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Foursquare_City_Guide" title="Foursquare City Guide">Foursquare</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gab_(social_network)" title="Gab (social network)">Gab</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hello_(social_network)" title="Hello (social network)">Hello</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hi5" title="Hi5">Hi5</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Highlight_(application)" title="Highlight (application)">Highlight</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Houseparty_(app)" title="Houseparty (app)">Houseparty</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Idka" title="Idka">Idka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Instagram" title="Instagram">Instagram</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/IGTV" title="IGTV">IGTV</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IRC-Galleria" title="IRC-Galleria">IRC-Galleria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Keek" title="Keek">Keek</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/LiveJournal" title="LiveJournal">LiveJournal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lifeknot" title="Lifeknot">Lifeknot</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Likee" title="Likee">Likee</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Marco_Polo_(app)" title="Marco Polo (app)">Marco Polo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mastodon_(software)" title="Mastodon (software)">Mastodon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MeetMe" class="mw-redirect" title="MeetMe">MeetMe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meetup" title="Meetup">Meetup</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Miaopai" title="Miaopai">Miaopai</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Micro.blog" title="Micro.blog">micro.blog</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minds" title="Minds">Minds</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MixBit" title="MixBit">MixBit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mixi" title="Mixi">Mixi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Myspace" title="Myspace">Myspace</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/My_World@Mail.Ru" title="My World@Mail.Ru">My World</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/NK.pl" title="NK.pl">NK.pl</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nextdoor" title="Nextdoor">Nextdoor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Odnoklassniki" title="Odnoklassniki">OK.ru</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Parler" title="Parler">Parler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Path_(social_network)" title="Path (social network)">Path</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peach_(social_network)" title="Peach (social network)">Peach</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Periscope_(app)" title="Periscope (app)">Periscope</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pinterest" title="Pinterest">Pinterest</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pixnet" title="Pixnet">Pixnet</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Plurk" title="Plurk">Plurk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Qzone" title="Qzone">Qzone</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Readgeek" title="Readgeek">Readgeek</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Renren" title="Renren">Renren</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sina_Weibo" title="Sina Weibo">Sina Weibo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slidely" class="mw-redirect" title="Slidely">Slidely</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Snapchat" title="Snapchat">Snapchat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Snow_(app)" title="Snow (app)">SNOW</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spaces_(social_network)" title="Spaces (social network)">Spaces</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Streetlife_(website)" title="Streetlife (website)">Streetlife</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/StudiVZ" title="StudiVZ">StudiVZ</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Swarm_(app)" class="mw-redirect" title="Swarm (app)">Swarm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tagged" title="Tagged">Tagged</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Taringa!" title="Taringa!">Taringa!</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tea_Party_Community" title="Tea Party Community">Tea Party Community</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TikTok" title="TikTok">TikTok</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tinder_(app)" title="Tinder (app)">Tinder</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tout_(company)" title="Tout (company)">Tout</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tuenti" title="Tuenti">Tuenti</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/TV_Time" title="TV Time">TV Time</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tumblr" title="Tumblr">Tumblr</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Twitter" title="Twitter">Twitter</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Untappd" title="Untappd">Untappd</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vero_(app)" title="Vero (app)">Vero</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/VK_(service)" title="VK (service)">VK</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Whisper_(app)" title="Whisper (app)">Whisper</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Xanga" title="Xanga">Xanga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yo_(app)" title="Yo (app)">Yo</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Professional_network_service" title="Professional network service">Professional</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Academia.edu" title="Academia.edu">Academia.edu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brainly" title="Brainly">Brainly</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/BranchOut" title="BranchOut">BranchOut</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Edmodo" title="Edmodo">Edmodo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IBM_Connections" title="IBM Connections">IBM Connections</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/LinkedIn" title="LinkedIn">LinkedIn</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Moodle" title="Moodle">Moodle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ResearchGate" title="ResearchGate">ResearchGate</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sciencescape" class="mw-redirect" title="Sciencescape">Sciencescape</a> (Meta<sup>α</sup>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Solaborate" title="Solaborate">Solaborate</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Viadeo" title="Viadeo">Viadeo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/XING" title="XING">XING</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IdeaPlane" title="IdeaPlane">IdeaPlane</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yammer" title="Yammer">Yammer</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/List_of_defunct_social_networking_websites" title="List of defunct social networking websites">Defunct</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/App.net" title="App.net">App.net</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Avatars_United" title="Avatars United">Avatars United</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bebo" title="Bebo">Bebo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bolt_(website)" title="Bolt (website)">Bolt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Capazoo" title="Capazoo">Capazoo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/EConozco" title="EConozco">eConozco</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Emojli" title="Emojli">Emojli</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/EWorld" title="EWorld">eWorld</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eyegroove" title="Eyegroove">Eyegroove</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/FitFinder" title="FitFinder">FitFinder</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formspring" class="mw-redirect" title="Formspring">Formspring</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/FriendFeed" title="FriendFeed">FriendFeed</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friends_Reunited" title="Friends Reunited">Friends Reunited</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friendster" title="Friendster">Friendster</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Grono.net" title="Grono.net">Grono.net</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Google%2B" title="Google+">Google+</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Google_Buzz" title="Google Buzz">Google Buzz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heello" title="Heello">Heello</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hyves" title="Hyves">Hyves</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/ITunes_Ping" title="ITunes Ping">iTunes Ping</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/IWiW" title="IWiW">iWiW</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jaiku" title="Jaiku">Jaiku</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/LunarStorm" title="LunarStorm">LunarStorm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Me2day" title="Me2day">Me2day</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Meerkat_(app)" title="Meerkat (app)">Meerkat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mobli" title="Mobli">Mobli</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mugshot_(website)" title="Mugshot (website)">Mugshot</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multiply_(website)" title="Multiply (website)">Multiply</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Musical.ly" title="Musical.ly">Musical.ly</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Natter_Social_Network" title="Natter Social Network">Natter Social Network</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Netlog" title="Netlog">Netlog</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Orkut" title="Orkut">Orkut</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pheed" title="Pheed">Pheed</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Piczo" title="Piczo">Piczo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/PlanetAll" title="PlanetAll">PlanetAll</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Posterous" title="Posterous">Posterous</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pownce" title="Pownce">Pownce</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Qaiku" title="Qaiku">Qaiku</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SixDegrees.com" title="SixDegrees.com">SixDegrees.com</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/So.cl" title="So.cl">So.cl</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spring.me" title="Spring.me">Spring.me</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Surfbook" title="Surfbook">Surfbook</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tbh_(app)" title="Tbh (app)">tbh</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tribe.net" title="Tribe.net">Tribe.net</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ts%C5%AB_(social_network)" title="Tsū (social network)">Tsū</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tvtag" title="Tvtag">tvtag</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vine_(service)" title="Vine (service)">Vine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Windows_Live_Spaces" title="Windows Live Spaces">Windows Live Spaces</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wretch_(website)" title="Wretch (website)">Wretch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yahoo!_360%C2%B0" title="Yahoo! 360°">Yahoo! 360°</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yahoo!_Kickstart" title="Yahoo! Kickstart">Yahoo! Kickstart</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yahoo!_Mash" title="Yahoo! Mash">Yahoo! Mash</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yahoo!_Meme" title="Yahoo! Meme">Yahoo! Meme</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yik_Yak" title="Yik Yak">Yik Yak</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Services</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_social_networking_software" title="Comparison of social networking software">Software comparison</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/White-label_product" title="White-label product">White-label</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ning_(website)" title="Ning (website)">Ning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wall.fm" title="Wall.fm">Wall.fm</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Tools</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software" title="Social network analysis software">Social network analysis software</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Diaspora_(software)" class="mw-redirect" title="Diaspora (software)">Diaspora (software)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Web_2.0_Suicide_Machine" title="Web 2.0 Suicide Machine">Web 2.0 Suicide Machine</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Concepts</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Online_identity" title="Online identity">Online identity</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/User_profile" title="User profile">User profile</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Virtual_community" title="Virtual community">Virtual community</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_virtual_communities_with_more_than_1_million_users" title="List of virtual communities with more than 1 million users">1+ million users</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Small-world_experiment" title="Small-world experiment">Small-world experiment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Small-world_network" title="Small-world network">Small-world network</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_network" title="Social network">Social network</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cybersectarianism" title="Cybersectarianism">Cybersectarianism</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Applications</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Social_network_advertising" title="Social network advertising">Social network advertising</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_network_hosting_service" title="Social network hosting service">Social network hosting service</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Online_dating_service" title="Online dating service">Online dating service</a> (<a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_online_dating_websites" class="mw-redirect" title="Comparison of online dating websites">comparison</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mobile_social_network" title="Mobile social network">Mobile</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">User interface</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Activity_stream" title="Activity stream">Activity stream</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brand_page" title="Brand page">Brand page</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Like_button" title="Like button">Like button</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hashtag" title="Hashtag">Hashtag</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Group_(online_social_networking)" title="Group (online social networking)">Groups</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reblogging" title="Reblogging">Reblogging</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Open_access_poll" class="mw-redirect" title="Open access poll">Polling</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Online_petition" title="Online petition">Online petitions</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Implications</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Privacy_issues_of_social_networking_sites" class="mw-redirect" title="Privacy issues of social networking sites">Privacy issues</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gender_differences_in_social_network_service_use" title="Gender differences in social network service use">User gender difference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Use_of_social_network_websites_in_investigations" title="Use of social network websites in investigations">Use in investigations</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Protocols</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/ActivityPub" title="ActivityPub">ActivityPub</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Distributed_Social_Networking_Protocol" title="Distributed Social Networking Protocol">Distributed Social Networking Protocol</a> (defunct)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Micropub_(protocol)" title="Micropub (protocol)">Micropub</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OpenSocial" title="OpenSocial">OpenSocial</a> (defunct)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/OStatus" title="OStatus">OStatus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pump.io" title="Pump.io">Pump.io</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/XMPP" title="XMPP">XMPP</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<!-- 
NewPP limit report
Parsed by mw1360
Cached time: 20200302135607
Cache expiry: 2592000
Dynamic content: false
Complications: [vary‐revision‐sha1]
CPU time usage: 0.664 seconds
Real time usage: 0.876 seconds
Preprocessor visited node count: 2552/1000000
Post‐expand include size: 155076/2097152 bytes
Template argument size: 2052/2097152 bytes
Highest expansion depth: 12/40
Expensive parser function count: 5/500
Unstrip recursion depth: 1/20
Unstrip post‐expand size: 87351/5000000 bytes
Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 4/400
Lua time usage: 0.268/10.000 seconds
Lua memory usage: 6.1 MB/50 MB
-->
<!--
Transclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)
100.00%  653.921      1 -total
 41.57%  271.816      1 Template:Reflist
 26.12%  170.803      9 Template:Cite_journal
 11.97%   78.248      2 Template:Clarify
 10.40%   68.040      2 Template:Fix-span
 10.03%   65.558      1 Template:About
  7.86%   51.392      1 Template:Commons_category
  6.67%   43.601      5 Template:Navbox
  5.77%   37.723      6 Template:Category_handler
  4.69%   30.698      3 Template:Replace
-->

<!-- Saved in parser cache with key enwiki:pcache:idhash:45249-0!canonical and timestamp 20200302135606 and revision id 943547719
 -->
</div><noscript><img src="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1x1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;" /></noscript></div>
		<div class="printfooter">Retrieved from "<a dir="ltr" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_interface&oldid=943547719">https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_interface&oldid=943547719</a>"</div>
		<div id="catlinks" class="catlinks" data-mw="interface"><div id="mw-normal-catlinks" class="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/wiki/Help:Category" title="Help:Category">Categories</a>: <ul><li><a href="/wiki/Category:User_interfaces" title="Category:User interfaces">User interfaces</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:User_interface_techniques" title="Category:User interface techniques">User interface techniques</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Virtual_reality" title="Category:Virtual reality">Virtual reality</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Human_communication" title="Category:Human communication">Human communication</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Human%E2%80%93machine_interaction" title="Category:Human–machine interaction">Human–machine interaction</a></li></ul></div><div id="mw-hidden-catlinks" class="mw-hidden-catlinks mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <ul><li><a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_errors:_missing_periodical" title="Category:CS1 errors: missing periodical">CS1 errors: missing periodical</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Webarchive_template_wayback_links" title="Category:Webarchive template wayback links">Webarchive template wayback links</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Wikipedia_articles_needing_clarification_from_January_2010" title="Category:Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2010">Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2010</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_with_unsourced_statements" title="Category:All articles with unsourced statements">All articles with unsourced statements</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_March_2019" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019">Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Commons_category_link_is_on_Wikidata" title="Category:Commons category link is on Wikidata">Commons category link is on Wikidata</a></li></ul></div></div>
		<div class="visualClear"></div>
		
	</div>
</div>
<div id='mw-data-after-content'>
	<div class="read-more-container"></div>
</div>

<div id="mw-navigation">
    <h2>Navigation menu</h2>
    <div id="mw-head">
        
<div id="p-personal" role="navigation" class="" aria-labelledby="p-personal-label">
	<h3 id="p-personal-label">Personal tools</h3>
	<ul >
		
		<li id="pt-anonuserpage">Not logged in</li>
		<li id="pt-anontalk"><a href="/wiki/Special:MyTalk" title="Discussion about edits from this IP address [n]" accesskey="n">Talk</a></li><li id="pt-anoncontribs"><a href="/wiki/Special:MyContributions" title="A list of edits made from this IP address [y]" accesskey="y">Contributions</a></li><li id="pt-createaccount"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&returnto=User+interface" title="You are encouraged to create an account and log in; however, it is not mandatory">Create account</a></li><li id="pt-login"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&returnto=User+interface" title="You're encouraged to log in; however, it's not mandatory. [o]" accesskey="o">Log in</a></li>
	</ul>
</div>

        <div id="left-navigation">
            <div id="p-namespaces" role="navigation" class="vectorTabs " aria-labelledby="p-namespaces-label">
	<h3 id="p-namespaces-label">Namespaces</h3>
	<ul >
		<li id="ca-nstab-main" class="selected"><a href="/wiki/User_interface" title="View the content page [c]" accesskey="c">Article</a></li><li id="ca-talk"><a href="/wiki/Talk:User_interface" rel="discussion" title="Discussion about the content page [t]" accesskey="t">Talk</a></li>
	</ul>
</div>
<div id="p-variants" role="navigation" class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet" aria-labelledby="p-variants-label">
	<input type="checkbox" class="vectorMenuCheckbox" aria-labelledby="p-variants-label" />
	<h3 id="p-variants-label">
		<span>Variants</span>
	</h3>
	<ul class="menu" >
		
	</ul>
</div>

        </div>
        <div id="right-navigation">
            <div id="p-views" role="navigation" class="vectorTabs " aria-labelledby="p-views-label">
	<h3 id="p-views-label">Views</h3>
	<ul >
		<li id="ca-view" class="collapsible selected"><a href="/wiki/User_interface">Read</a></li><li id="ca-edit" class="collapsible"><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=edit" title="Edit this page [e]" accesskey="e">Edit</a></li><li id="ca-history" class="collapsible"><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=history" title="Past revisions of this page [h]" accesskey="h">View history</a></li>
	</ul>
</div>
<div id="p-cactions" role="navigation" class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet" aria-labelledby="p-cactions-label">
	<input type="checkbox" class="vectorMenuCheckbox" aria-labelledby="p-cactions-label" />
	<h3 id="p-cactions-label">
		<span>More</span>
	</h3>
	<ul class="menu" >
		
	</ul>
</div>
<div id="p-search" role="search">
	<h3 >
		<label for="searchInput">Search</label>
	</h3>
	<form action="/w/index.php" id="searchform">
		<div id="simpleSearch">
			<input type="search" name="search" placeholder="Search Wikipedia" title="Search Wikipedia [f]" accesskey="f" id="searchInput"/>
			<input type="hidden" value="Special:Search" name="title"/>
			<input type="submit" name="fulltext" value="Search" title="Search Wikipedia for this text" id="mw-searchButton" class="searchButton mw-fallbackSearchButton"/>
			<input type="submit" name="go" value="Go" title="Go to a page with this exact name if it exists" id="searchButton" class="searchButton"/>
		</div>
	</form>
</div>

        </div>
    </div>
    <div id="mw-panel">
        <div id="p-logo" role="banner">
            <a  title="Visit the main page" class="mw-wiki-logo" href="/wiki/Main_Page"></a>
        </div>
        
<div class="portal" role="navigation" id="p-navigation"  aria-labelledby="p-navigation-label">
	<h3  id="p-navigation-label">
		Navigation
	</h3>
	<div class="body">
		<ul><li id="n-mainpage-description"><a href="/wiki/Main_Page" title="Visit the main page [z]" accesskey="z">Main page</a></li><li id="n-contents"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Contents" title="Guides to browsing Wikipedia">Contents</a></li><li id="n-featuredcontent"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_content" title="Featured content – the best of Wikipedia">Featured content</a></li><li id="n-currentevents"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Current_events" title="Find background information on current events">Current events</a></li><li id="n-randompage"><a href="/wiki/Special:Random" title="Load a random article [x]" accesskey="x">Random article</a></li><li id="n-sitesupport"><a href="https://donate.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FundraiserRedirector?utm_source=donate&utm_medium=sidebar&utm_campaign=C13_en.wikipedia.org&uselang=en" title="Support us">Donate to Wikipedia</a></li><li id="n-shoplink"><a href="//shop.wikimedia.org" title="Visit the Wikipedia store">Wikipedia store</a></li></ul>
		
	</div>
</div>

<div class="portal" role="navigation" id="p-interaction"  aria-labelledby="p-interaction-label">
	<h3  id="p-interaction-label">
		Interaction
	</h3>
	<div class="body">
		<ul><li id="n-help"><a href="/wiki/Help:Contents" title="Guidance on how to use and edit Wikipedia">Help</a></li><li id="n-aboutsite"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Find out about Wikipedia">About Wikipedia</a></li><li id="n-portal"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal" title="About the project, what you can do, where to find things">Community portal</a></li><li id="n-recentchanges"><a href="/wiki/Special:RecentChanges" title="A list of recent changes in the wiki [r]" accesskey="r">Recent changes</a></li><li id="n-contactpage"><a href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us" title="How to contact Wikipedia">Contact page</a></li></ul>
		
	</div>
</div>

<div class="portal" role="navigation" id="p-tb"  aria-labelledby="p-tb-label">
	<h3  id="p-tb-label">
		Tools
	</h3>
	<div class="body">
		<ul><li id="t-whatlinkshere"><a href="/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/User_interface" title="List of all English Wikipedia pages containing links to this page [j]" accesskey="j">What links here</a></li><li id="t-recentchangeslinked"><a href="/wiki/Special:RecentChangesLinked/User_interface" rel="nofollow" title="Recent changes in pages linked from this page [k]" accesskey="k">Related changes</a></li><li id="t-upload"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:File_Upload_Wizard" title="Upload files [u]" accesskey="u">Upload file</a></li><li id="t-specialpages"><a href="/wiki/Special:SpecialPages" title="A list of all special pages [q]" accesskey="q">Special pages</a></li><li id="t-permalink"><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&oldid=943547719" title="Permanent link to this revision of the page">Permanent link</a></li><li id="t-info"><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&action=info" title="More information about this page">Page information</a></li><li id="t-wikibase"><a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityPage/Q47146" title="Link to connected data repository item [g]" accesskey="g">Wikidata item</a></li><li id="t-cite"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:CiteThisPage&page=User_interface&id=943547719" title="Information on how to cite this page">Cite this page</a></li></ul>
		
	</div>
</div>

<div class="portal" role="navigation" id="p-wikibase-otherprojects"  aria-labelledby="p-wikibase-otherprojects-label">
	<h3  id="p-wikibase-otherprojects-label">
		In other projects
	</h3>
	<div class="body">
		<ul><li class="wb-otherproject-link wb-otherproject-commons"><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:User_interfaces" hreflang="en">Wikimedia Commons</a></li></ul>
		
	</div>
</div>

<div class="portal" role="navigation" id="p-coll-print_export"  aria-labelledby="p-coll-print_export-label">
	<h3  id="p-coll-print_export-label">
		Print/export
	</h3>
	<div class="body">
		<ul><li id="coll-create_a_book"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&bookcmd=book_creator&referer=User+interface">Create a book</a></li><li id="coll-download-as-rl"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:ElectronPdf&page=User+interface&action=show-download-screen">Download as PDF</a></li><li id="t-print"><a href="/w/index.php?title=User_interface&printable=yes" title="Printable version of this page [p]" accesskey="p">Printable version</a></li></ul>
		
	</div>
</div>

<div class="portal" role="navigation" id="p-lang"  aria-labelledby="p-lang-label">
	<h3  id="p-lang-label">
		Languages
	</h3>
	<div class="body">
		<ul><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ar"><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AC%D9%87%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%AF%D9%85" title="واجهة المستخدم – Arabic" lang="ar" hreflang="ar" class="interlanguage-link-target">العربية</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ast"><a href="https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interfaz_d%27usuariu" title="Interfaz d'usuariu – Asturian" lang="ast" hreflang="ast" class="interlanguage-link-target">Asturianu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-az"><a href="https://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%B0stifad%C9%99%C3%A7i_interfeysi" title="İstifadəçi interfeysi – Azerbaijani" lang="az" hreflang="az" class="interlanguage-link-target">Azərbaycanca</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bn"><a href="https://bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%AC%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%AF%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%B9%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%95%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%80_%E0%A6%87%E0%A6%A8%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%9F%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%AB%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B8" title="ব্যবহারকারী ইন্টারফেস – Bangla" lang="bn" hreflang="bn" class="interlanguage-link-target">বাংলা</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh-min-nan"><a href="https://zh-min-nan.wikipedia.org/wiki/I%C5%8Dng-chi%C3%A1_k%C3%A0i-b%C4%ABn" title="Iōng-chiá kài-bīn – Chinese (Min Nan)" lang="nan" hreflang="nan" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bân-lâm-gú</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-be"><a href="https://be.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%86%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%8D%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81_%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8B%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%96%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Інтэрфейс карыстальніка – Belarusian" lang="be" hreflang="be" class="interlanguage-link-target">Беларуская</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-be-x-old"><a href="https://be-x-old.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%86%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%8D%D1%80%D1%84%D1%8D%D0%B9%D1%81_%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8B%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%96%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Інтэрфэйс карыстальніка – Belarusian (Taraškievica orthography)" lang="be-tarask" hreflang="be-tarask" class="interlanguage-link-target">Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bg"><a href="https://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81" title="Потребителски интерфейс – Bulgarian" lang="bg" hreflang="bg" class="interlanguage-link-target">Български</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bs"><a href="https://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interakcija_%C4%8Dovjek-ra%C4%8Dunar" title="Interakcija čovjek-računar – Bosnian" lang="bs" hreflang="bs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bosanski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-br"><a href="https://br.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketal_arveriad" title="Ketal arveriad – Breton" lang="br" hreflang="br" class="interlanguage-link-target">Brezhoneg</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ca"><a href="https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interf%C3%ADcie_d%27usuari" title="Interfície d'usuari – Catalan" lang="ca" hreflang="ca" class="interlanguage-link-target">Català</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cs"><a href="https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/U%C5%BEivatelsk%C3%A9_rozhran%C3%AD" title="Uživatelské rozhraní – Czech" lang="cs" hreflang="cs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Čeština</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-da"><a href="https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brugergr%C3%A6nseflade" title="Brugergrænseflade – Danish" lang="da" hreflang="da" class="interlanguage-link-target">Dansk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzerschnittstelle" title="Benutzerschnittstelle – German" lang="de" hreflang="de" class="interlanguage-link-target">Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasutajaliides" title="Kasutajaliides – Estonian" lang="et" hreflang="et" class="interlanguage-link-target">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interfaz_de_usuario" title="Interfaz de usuario – Spanish" lang="es" hreflang="es" class="interlanguage-link-target">Español</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eu"><a href="https://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erabiltzailearen_interfaze" title="Erabiltzailearen interfaze – Basque" lang="eu" hreflang="eu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Euskara</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fa"><a href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%B7_%DA%A9%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%B1" title="واسط کاربر – Persian" lang="fa" hreflang="fa" class="interlanguage-link-target">فارسی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a href="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interface_utilisateur" title="Interface utilisateur – French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Français</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ko"><a href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%82%AC%EC%9A%A9%EC%9E%90_%EC%9D%B8%ED%84%B0%ED%8E%98%EC%9D%B4%EC%8A%A4" title="사용자 인터페이스 – Korean" lang="ko" hreflang="ko" class="interlanguage-link-target">한국어</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hy"><a href="https://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D5%95%D5%A3%D5%BF%D5%A1%D5%A3%D5%B8%D6%80%D5%AE%D5%B8%D5%B2%D5%AB_%D5%AB%D5%B6%D5%BF%D5%A5%D6%80%D6%86%D5%A5%D5%B5%D5%BD" title="Օգտագործողի ինտերֆեյս – Armenian" lang="hy" hreflang="hy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Հայերեն</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hi"><a href="https://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%BC%E0%A4%B0_%E0%A4%87%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%9F%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%BC%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%B8" title="यूज़र इंटरफ़ेस – Hindi" lang="hi" hreflang="hi" class="interlanguage-link-target">हिन्दी</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hr"><a href="https://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korisni%C4%8Dko_su%C4%8Delje" title="Korisničko sučelje – Croatian" lang="hr" hreflang="hr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Hrvatski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-id"><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarmuka_pengguna" title="Antarmuka pengguna – Indonesian" lang="id" hreflang="id" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-is"><a href="https://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notendavi%C3%B0m%C3%B3t" title="Notendaviðmót – Icelandic" lang="is" hreflang="is" class="interlanguage-link-target">Íslenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a href="https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interfaccia_utente" title="Interfaccia utente – Italian" lang="it" hreflang="it" class="interlanguage-link-target">Italiano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-he"><a href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%A9%D7%A7_%D7%9E%D7%A9%D7%AA%D7%9E%D7%A9" title="ממשק משתמש – Hebrew" lang="he" hreflang="he" class="interlanguage-link-target">עברית</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-kn"><a href="https://kn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B2%AC%E0%B2%B3%E0%B2%95%E0%B3%86%E0%B2%A6%E0%B2%BE%E0%B2%B0%E0%B2%B0_%E0%B2%85%E0%B2%82%E0%B2%A4%E0%B2%B0%E0%B2%B8%E0%B2%82%E0%B2%AA%E0%B2%B0%E0%B3%8D%E0%B2%95_(%E0%B2%AF%E0%B3%82%E0%B2%B8%E0%B2%B0%E0%B3%8D_%E0%B2%87%E0%B2%82%E0%B2%9F%E0%B2%B0%E0%B3%8D_%E0%B2%AB%E0%B3%87%E0%B2%B8%E0%B3%8D)" title="ಬಳಕೆದಾರರ ಅಂತರಸಂಪರ್ಕ (ಯೂಸರ್ ಇಂಟರ್ ಫೇಸ್) – Kannada" lang="kn" hreflang="kn" class="interlanguage-link-target">ಕನ್ನಡ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lv"><a href="https://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lietot%C4%81ja_saskarne" title="Lietotāja saskarne – Latvian" lang="lv" hreflang="lv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latviešu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naudotojo_s%C4%85saja" title="Naudotojo sąsaja – Lithuanian" lang="lt" hreflang="lt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lietuvių</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felhaszn%C3%A1l%C3%B3i_fel%C3%BClet" title="Felhasználói felület – Hungarian" lang="hu" hreflang="hu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Magyar</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mk"><a href="https://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA" title="Кориснички посредник – Macedonian" lang="mk" hreflang="mk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Македонски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ms"><a href="https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antara_muka_pengguna" title="Antara muka pengguna – Malay" lang="ms" hreflang="ms" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Melayu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mn"><a href="https://mn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D1%8D%D1%80%D1%8D%D0%B3%D0%BB%D1%8D%D0%B3%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%B9%D0%BD_%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%84%D1%8D%D0%B9%D1%81" title="Хэрэглэгчийн интерфэйс – Mongolian" lang="mn" hreflang="mn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Монгол</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nl"><a href="https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebruikersomgeving" title="Gebruikersomgeving – Dutch" lang="nl" hreflang="nl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nederlands</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-new"><a href="https://new.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%9B%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8D%E2%80%8C%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BF_%E0%A4%87%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9F%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%B8" title="छ्य्‌लामि इन्टरफेस – Newari" lang="new" hreflang="new" class="interlanguage-link-target">नेपाल भाषा</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ja"><a href="https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%A6%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B6%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BF%E3%83%95%E3%82%A7%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9" title="ユーザインタフェース – Japanese" lang="ja" hreflang="ja" class="interlanguage-link-target">日本語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-no"><a href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brukergrensesnitt" title="Brukergrensesnitt – Norwegian Bokmål" lang="nb" hreflang="nb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk bokmål</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nn"><a href="https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brukargrensesnitt" title="Brukargrensesnitt – Norwegian Nynorsk" lang="nn" hreflang="nn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk nynorsk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pl"><a href="https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interfejs_u%C5%BCytkownika" title="Interfejs użytkownika – Polish" lang="pl" hreflang="pl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a href="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interface_do_utilizador" title="Interface do utilizador – Portuguese" lang="pt" hreflang="pt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Português</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ru"><a href="https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8F" title="Интерфейс пользователя – Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" class="interlanguage-link-target">Русский</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sah"><a href="https://sah.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D1%83%D1%82%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B0%D1%87%D1%87%D1%8B_%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%B0" title="Туттааччы интерфейса – Sakha" lang="sah" hreflang="sah" class="interlanguage-link-target">Саха тыла</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sco"><a href="https://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uiser_interface" title="Uiser interface – Scots" lang="sco" hreflang="sco" class="interlanguage-link-target">Scots</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-simple"><a href="https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interface" title="User interface – Simple English" lang="en-simple" hreflang="en-simple" class="interlanguage-link-target">Simple English</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a href="https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pou%C5%BE%C3%ADvate%C4%BEsk%C3%A9_rozhranie" title="Používateľské rozhranie – Slovak" lang="sk" hreflang="sk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenčina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sl"><a href="https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uporabni%C5%A1ki_vmesnik" title="Uporabniški vmesnik – Slovenian" lang="sl" hreflang="sl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenščina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ckb"><a href="https://ckb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%DB%8E%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%95%DA%95%D9%88%D9%88%DB%8C_%D8%A8%DB%95%DA%A9%D8%A7%D8%B1%DA%BE%DB%8E%D9%86%DB%95%D8%B1" title="نێوانەڕووی بەکارھێنەر – Central Kurdish" lang="ckb" hreflang="ckb" class="interlanguage-link-target">کوردی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"><a href="https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B5%D1%98%D1%81" title="Кориснички интерфејс – Serbian" lang="sr" hreflang="sr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Српски / srpski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fi"><a href="https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%A4ytt%C3%B6liittym%C3%A4" title="Käyttöliittymä – Finnish" lang="fi" hreflang="fi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Suomi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sv"><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anv%C3%A4ndargr%C3%A4nssnitt" title="Användargränssnitt – Swedish" lang="sv" hreflang="sv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Svenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tl"><a href="https://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interface" title="User interface – Tagalog" lang="tl" hreflang="tl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Tagalog</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ta"><a href="https://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%AA%E0%AE%AF%E0%AE%A9%E0%AE%B0%E0%AF%8D_%E0%AE%87%E0%AE%9F%E0%AF%88%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D" title="பயனர் இடைமுகம் – Tamil" lang="ta" hreflang="ta" class="interlanguage-link-target">தமிழ்</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-te"><a href="https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B0%B5%E0%B0%BF%E0%B0%A8%E0%B0%BF%E0%B0%AF%E0%B1%8B%E0%B0%97%E0%B0%A6%E0%B0%BE%E0%B0%B0%E0%B1%81_%E0%B0%87%E0%B0%82%E0%B0%9F%E0%B0%B0%E0%B1%8D%E2%80%8C%E0%B0%AB%E0%B1%87%E0%B0%B8%E0%B1%8D" title="వినియోగదారు ఇంటర్‌ఫేస్ – Telugu" lang="te" hreflang="te" class="interlanguage-link-target">తెలుగు</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-th"><a href="https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%AA%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%95%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B0%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%9C%E0%B8%B9%E0%B9%89%E0%B9%83%E0%B8%8A%E0%B9%89" title="ส่วนต่อประสานกับผู้ใช้ – Thai" lang="th" hreflang="th" class="interlanguage-link-target">ไทย</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tr"><a href="https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kullan%C4%B1c%C4%B1_aray%C3%BCz%C3%BC" title="Kullanıcı arayüzü – Turkish" lang="tr" hreflang="tr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Türkçe</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a href="https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%86%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81_%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D1%83%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%87%D0%B0" title="Інтерфейс користувача – Ukrainian" lang="uk" hreflang="uk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Українська</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ur"><a href="https://ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DB%8C%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%B1_%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%B9%D8%B1%D9%81%DB%8C%D8%B3" title="یوزر انٹرفیس – Urdu" lang="ur" hreflang="ur" class="interlanguage-link-target">اردو</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vi"><a href="https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giao_di%E1%BB%87n_ng%C6%B0%E1%BB%9Di_d%C3%B9ng" title="Giao diện người dùng – Vietnamese" lang="vi" hreflang="vi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Tiếng Việt</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh-yue"><a href="https://zh-yue.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%BD%BF%E7%94%A8%E8%80%85%E7%95%8C%E9%9D%A2" title="使用者界面 – Cantonese" lang="yue" hreflang="yue" class="interlanguage-link-target">粵語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh"><a href="https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%94%A8%E6%88%B7%E7%95%8C%E9%9D%A2" title="用户界面 – Chinese" lang="zh" hreflang="zh" class="interlanguage-link-target">中文</a></li></ul>
		<div class="after-portlet after-portlet-lang"><span class="wb-langlinks-edit wb-langlinks-link"><a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityPage/Q47146#sitelinks-wikipedia" title="Edit interlanguage links" class="wbc-editpage">Edit links</a></span></div>
	</div>
</div>

    </div>
</div>


<div id="footer" role="contentinfo" >
	<ul id="footer-info" class="">
		<li id="footer-info-lastmod"> This page was last edited on 2 March 2020, at 13:56<span class="anonymous-show"> (UTC)</span>.</li>
		<li id="footer-info-copyright">Text is available under the <a rel="license" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License</a><a rel="license" href="//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" style="display:none;"></a>;
additional terms may apply.  By using this site, you agree to the <a href="//foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use">Terms of Use</a> and <a href="//foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Privacy_policy">Privacy Policy</a>. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the <a href="//www.wikimediafoundation.org/">Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.</a>, a non-profit organization.</li>
	</ul>
	<ul id="footer-places" class="">
		<li id="footer-places-privacy"><a href="https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Privacy_policy" class="extiw" title="wmf:Privacy policy">Privacy policy</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-about"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Wikipedia:About">About Wikipedia</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-disclaimer"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:General_disclaimer" title="Wikipedia:General disclaimer">Disclaimers</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-contact"><a href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us">Contact Wikipedia</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-developers"><a href="https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Special:MyLanguage/How_to_contribute">Developers</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-statslink"><a href="https://stats.wikimedia.org/#/en.wikipedia.org">Statistics</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-cookiestatement"><a href="https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cookie_statement">Cookie statement</a></li>
		<li id="footer-places-mobileview"><a href="//en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_interface&mobileaction=toggle_view_mobile" class="noprint stopMobileRedirectToggle">Mobile view</a></li>
	</ul>
	<ul id="footer-icons" class="noprint">
		<li id="footer-copyrightico"><a href="https://wikimediafoundation.org/"><img src="/static/images/wikimedia-button.png" srcset="/static/images/wikimedia-button-1.5x.png 1.5x, /static/images/wikimedia-button-2x.png 2x" width="88" height="31" alt="Wikimedia Foundation"/></a></li>
		<li id="footer-poweredbyico"><a href="https://www.mediawiki.org/"><img src="/static/images/poweredby_mediawiki_88x31.png" alt="Powered by MediaWiki" srcset="/static/images/poweredby_mediawiki_132x47.png 1.5x, /static/images/poweredby_mediawiki_176x62.png 2x" width="88" height="31"/></a></li>
	</ul>
	<div style="clear: both;"></div>
</div>


<script>(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.664","walltime":"0.876","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2552,"limit":1000000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":155076,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":2052,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":5,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":1,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":87351,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":4,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00%  653.921      1 -total"," 41.57%  271.816      1 Template:Reflist"," 26.12%  170.803      9 Template:Cite_journal"," 11.97%   78.248      2 Template:Clarify"," 10.40%   68.040      2 Template:Fix-span"," 10.03%   65.558      1 Template:About","  7.86%   51.392      1 Template:Commons_category","  6.67%   43.601      5 Template:Navbox","  5.77%   37.723      6 Template:Category_handler","  4.69%   30.698      3 Template:Replace"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.268","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6400483,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1360","timestamp":"20200302135607","ttl":2592000,"transientcontent":false}}});});</script>
<script type="application/ld+json">{"@context":"https:\/\/schema.org","@type":"Article","name":"User interface","url":"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/User_interface","sameAs":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/entity\/Q47146","mainEntity":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/entity\/Q47146","author":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Contributors to Wikimedia projects"},"publisher":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.","logo":{"@type":"ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/www.wikimedia.org\/static\/images\/wmf-hor-googpub.png"}},"datePublished":"2002-03-21T08:51:25Z","dateModified":"2020-03-02T13:56:01Z","image":"https:\/\/upload.wikimedia.org\/wikipedia\/commons\/e\/e3\/Reactable_Multitouch.jpg","headline":"means by which a user interacts with and controls a machine"}</script>
<script>(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":101,"wgHostname":"mw1248"});});</script></body></html>

HEADER-CODE:


HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Date: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 04:08:08 GMT
Server: mw1320.eqiad.wmnet
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
P3p: CP="See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/P3P for more info."
Content-Language: en
Vary: Accept-Encoding,Cookie,Authorization
Last-Modified: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 04:03:32 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Age: 41898
X-Cache: cp3058 miss, cp3062 hit/33
X-Cache-Status: hit-front
Server-Timing: cache;desc="hit-front"

IP 91.198.174.192 en.wikipedia.org

Website:en.wikipedia.org
IP:91.198.174.192
County:NL Netherlands
Region:NH North Holland
City:1012 Amsterdam
Timezone:Europe/Amsterdam
html
html5
CSS
CSS3
CSS GRID
Java
Berliner Luft- und Badeparadies – Wikipedia | AGB - Tyork | PHP DOM - counting child nodes? - Stack Overflow | https://www.facebook.com/MISKEEN-ORIGINALS-CLOTHING-99675687923/ | Kaynaklar, Sport climbing | theCrag | SASFAA - Home | SMARTSTUFF FURNITURE - Bellini Baby and Teen Furniture | https://openei.org/wiki/Emission_Factors_%28EMFAC%29 | Feitosa Karte - Ponte de Lima, Portugal - Mapcarta | Herrig - Stadt Erftstadt | Uniconta | Unipedia – help and guidance with Uniconta | Uniconta | https://www.elypso.de/ | Isensee / Kirchhof (Hrsg.) | Handbuch des Staatsrechts der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Band VIII: Grundrechte: Wirtschaft, Verfahren, Gleichheit | 3., völlig neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage 2010 | 2010 | Vesnina E. Mertens E. Live Ticker und Live Stream - SofaScore | Gruul - Hearthstone Wiki | Jones Soda Co.