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Accountants and Auditors : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Source 2020: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/business-and-financial/accountants-and-auditors.htm | 2020-02-16
Accountants and auditors prepare and examine financial records.

        	



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                <h1>    Accountants and Auditors</h1>
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        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t1" href="#tab-1">    Summary</a></li>        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t2" href="#tab-2">    What They Do</a></li>
        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t3" href="#tab-3">    Work Environment</a></li>
        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t4" href="#tab-4">    How to Become One</a></li>
        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t5" href="#tab-5">    Pay</a></li>
        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t6" href="#tab-6">    Job Outlook</a></li>
		<li><a class="tab_link" id="t7" href="#tab-7">    State & Area Data</a></li>        <li><a class="tab_link" id="t8" href="#tab-8">    Similar Occupations</a></li>
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            <h2 id="Summary"><span>    Summary</span></h2>

                        
            
                                                        
                                                                
                        
            
            
            
                            
                                                
                                                
                                                
                                                
                                                                        
                                            



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							<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9pgua9hT6k" target="_blank" style="height:0px; width:0px; display:block; overflow:hidden;">Video transcript available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9pgua9hT6k.</a>
                        						
                        <table class="regular-text tooltips" id="quickfacts">
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                                                                        <th colspan="2">    Quick Facts:     Accountants and Auditors</th>
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                                    <th><a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-wage" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-wage" class="thickbox about-qf-section noprint">2018     Median Pay</a></th>
                                    <td>
                                        $70,500     per year
                                        <br />$33.89     per hour
                                    </td>
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                                    <th><a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-education" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-education" class="thickbox about-qf-section noprint">    Typical Entry-Level Education</a></th>
                                    <td>    Bachelor's degree</td>
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                                    <th><a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-experience" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-experience" class="thickbox about-qf-section noprint">    Work Experience in a Related Occupation</a></th>
                                    <td>    None</td>
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                                    <th><a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-training" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-training" class="thickbox about-qf-section noprint">    On-the-job Training</a></th>
                                    <td>    None</td>
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                                    <th><a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-number-jobs" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=qf-number-jobs" class="thickbox about-qf-section noprint">    Number of Jobs, 2018</a></th>
                                    <td>    1,424,000</td>
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                                    <td>6% (As fast as average)</td>
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                                    <td>    90,700</td>
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                                                <h4><a class="tab_link" href="#tab-2">What Accountants and Auditors Do</a> </h4>
                        
                        
                        
<p>Accountants and auditors prepare and examine financial records.</p>
            
                        <h4><a class="tab_link" href="#tab-3">    Work Environment</a></h4>
                        
<p>Most accountants and auditors work full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Overtime hours are typical at certain times of the year, such as at the end of the budget year or during tax season.</p>
            
                                                <h4> <a class="tab_link" href="#tab-4">How to Become an Accountant or Auditor</a></h4>
                                                
                        
<p>Most employers require a candidate to have a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Certification within a specific field of accounting improves job prospects. For example, many accountants become Certified Public Accountants (CPAs).</p>
            
                        <h4><a class="tab_link" href="#tab-5">    Pay</a></h4>
                        
																		
																			
																		
					    														<p>The median annual wage for accountants and auditors was $70,500 in May 2018.</p>							                        					
						
            
                        <h4> <a class="tab_link" href="#tab-6">    Job Outlook</a> </h4>
                        
<p>Employment of accountants and auditors is projected to grow 6 percent from 2018 to 2028, about as fast as the average for all occupations. In general, employment growth of accountants and auditors is expected to be closely tied to the health of the overall economy. As the economy grows, more workers should be needed to prepare and examine financial records.</p>
						
						<h4> <a class="tab_link" href="#tab-7">    State & Area Data</a> </h4>
                       <p>    Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for accountants and auditors.</p>
            
            
						
            
                        <h4> <a class="tab_link" href="#tab-8">    Similar Occupations</a></h4>
                        
                                                    <p>    Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of accountants and auditors with similar occupations.</p>
            
            
                        <h4><a class="tab_link" href="#tab-9">    More Information, Including Links to O*NET</a></h4>
                        
                                               
                        <p>    Learn more about accountants and auditors by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.</p>
                        

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            <h2 id="what-they-do"><span> What Accountants and Auditors Do</span> 
            
            <a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=about-what-they-do" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=about-what-they-do" class="thickbox about-this-section noprint" aria-label="About What They Do section">    About this section</a></h2>

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	<img src="/ooh/images/1740.jpg" width="336" height="240" alt="Accountants and auditors" />
	<div class="image-caption" style="width: 326px;">Accountants and auditors examine financial statements for accuracy and conformance with laws.</div>  
  </div>            
<p>Accountants and auditors prepare and examine financial records. They ensure that financial records are accurate and that taxes are paid properly and on time. Accountants and auditors assess financial operations and work to help ensure that organizations run efficiently.</p>
<h3>Duties</h3>
<p>Accountants and auditors typically do the following:</p>
<ul>
<li>Examine financial statements to ensure that they are accurate and comply with laws and regulations</li>
<li>Compute taxes owed, prepare tax returns, and ensure that taxes are paid properly and on time</li>
<li>Inspect account books and accounting systems for efficiency and use of accepted accounting procedures</li>
<li>Organize and maintain financial records</li>
<li>Assess financial operations and make best-practices recommendations to management</li>
<li>Suggest ways to reduce costs, enhance revenues, and improve profits</li>
</ul>
<p>In addition to examining and preparing financial documentation, accountants and auditors must explain their findings. This includes preparing written reports and meeting face-to-face with organization managers and individual clients.</p>
<p>Many accountants and auditors specialize, depending on the particular organization that they work for. Some work for organizations that specialize in assurance services (improving the quality or context of information for decisionmakers) or risk management (determining the probability of a misstatement on financial documentation). Other organizations specialize in specific industries, such as healthcare.</p>
<p>The following are examples of types of accountants and auditors:</p>
<p><strong><em>Public accountants</em></strong> perform a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting tasks. Their clients include corporations, governments, and individuals.</p>
<p>Public accountants work with financial documents that clients are required by law to disclose. These include tax forms and balance sheet statements that corporations must provide to potential investors. For example, some public accountants concentrate on tax matters, advising corporations about the tax advantages of certain business decisions or preparing individual income tax returns.</p>
<p>Public accountants, many of whom are Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), generally have their own businesses or work for public accounting firms. Publicly traded companies are required to have CPAs sign documents they submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including annual and quarterly reports.</p>
<p>Some public accountants specialize in forensic accounting, investigating financial crimes such as securities fraud and embezzlement, bankruptcies and contract disputes, and other complex and potentially criminal financial transactions. Forensic accountants combine their knowledge of accounting and finance with law and investigative techniques to determine if an activity is illegal. Many forensic accountants work closely with law enforcement personnel and lawyers during investigations and often appear as expert witnesses during trials.</p>
<p><strong><em>Management accountants</em></strong>, also called <em>cost</em>,<strong><em> </em></strong><em>managerial</em>,<strong><em> </em></strong><em>industrial</em>, <em>corporate</em>, or <em>private accountants</em>, record and analyze the financial information of the organizations for which they work. The information that management accountants prepare is intended for internal use by business managers, not by the general public.</p>
<p>Management accountants often work on budgeting and performance evaluation. They also may help organizations plan the cost of doing business. Some may work with financial managers on asset management, which involves planning and selecting financial investments such as stocks, bonds, and real estate.</p>
<p><strong><em>Government accountants</em></strong> maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or taxation. Accountants employed by federal, state, and local governments ensure that revenues are received and spent in accordance with laws and regulations.</p>
<p><strong><em>Internal auditors</em></strong> check for mismanagement of an organization’s funds. They identify ways to improve the processes for finding and eliminating waste and fraud. The practice of internal auditing is not regulated, but The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) provides generally accepted standards.</p>
<p><strong><em>External auditors</em></strong><em> </em>perform similar duties to internal auditors, but are employed by an outside organization, rather than the one they are auditing. They review clients’ financial statements and inform investors and authorities that the statements have been correctly prepared and reported.</p>
<p><strong><em>Information technology auditors</em></strong> are internal auditors who review controls for their organization’s computer systems to ensure that the financial data comes from a reliable source.</p>
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            <div class="ooh_right_img">
			
			
	<img src="/ooh/images/1741.jpg" width="336" height="240" alt="Accountants and auditors" />
	<div class="image-caption" style="width: 326px;">Most accountants and auditors work full time.</div>  
  </div>			
		
		
		
	
	
	    
				
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
    					 <p>Accountants and auditors held about 1.4 million jobs in 2018. The largest employers of accountants and auditors were as follows:</p>
        <table class="ooh-tab-table">
        	<tbody>
								<tr>
        		<td>Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">24%</td>
        </tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Finance and insurance</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">8</td>
        </tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Government</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">8</td>
        </tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Management of companies and enterprises</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">7</td>
        </tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Self-employed workers</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">7</td>
        </tr>	
                	</tbody>
        </table>
        	
			
			
            
<p>Most accountants and auditors work in offices, but some work from home. Although they complete much of their work alone, they sometimes work in teams with other accountants and auditors. Accountants and auditors may travel to their clients’ places of business.</p>
<h3>Work Schedules</h3>
<p>Most accountants and auditors work full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Longer periods of work are typical at certain times of the year, such as at the end of the budget year or during tax season.</p>
            
            
            
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            <h2 id="become-one"><span>How to Become an Accountant or Auditor</span> <a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=about-become-one" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=about-become-one" class="thickbox about-this-section noprint" aria-label="About How to Become One section">    About this section</a></h2>

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	<div class="image-caption" style="width: 326px;">Most accountants and auditors need at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field.</div>  
  </div>            
<p>Most accountants and auditors need at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Certification, including the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) credential, can improve job prospects.  </p>
<h3>Education</h3>
<p>Most accountant and auditor positions require at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Some employers prefer to hire applicants who have a master’s degree, either in accounting or in business administration with a concentration in accounting.</p>
<p>A few universities and colleges offer specialized programs, such as a bachelor’s degree in internal auditing. In some cases, those with associate’s degrees, as well as bookkeepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, get junior accounting positions and advance to accountant positions by showing their accounting skills on the job.</p>
<p>Many colleges help students gain practical experience through summer or part-time internships with public accounting or business firms.</p>
<h3>Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations</h3>
<p>Every accountant filing a report with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is required by law to be a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Many other accountants choose to become a CPA to enhance their job prospects or to gain clients. Many employers will pay the costs associated with the CPA exam.</p>
<p>CPAs are licensed by their state’s Board of Accountancy. Becoming a CPA requires passing a national exam and meeting other state requirements. Almost all states require CPA candidates to complete 150 semester hours of college coursework to be licensed, which is 30 hours more than the usual 4-year bachelor’s degree. Many schools offer a 5-year combined bachelor’s and master’s degree to meet the 150-hour requirement, but a master’s degree is not required.</p>
<p>A few states allow a number of years of public accounting experience to substitute for a college degree.</p>
<p>All states use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination from the <a class="external" href="http://www.aicpa.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)</a>. Candidates do not have to pass all four parts at once, but most states require that candidates pass all four parts within 18 months of passing their first part.</p>
<p>Almost all states require CPAs to take continuing education to keep their license.</p>
<p>Certification provides an advantage in the job market because it shows professional competence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. Accountants and auditors seek certifications from a variety of professional societies. Some of the most common certifications are listed below:</p>
<p>The <a class="external" href="https://www.imanet.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Institute of Management Accountants</a> offers the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) to applicants who complete a bachelor’s degree. Applicants must have worked at least 2 years in management accounting, pass a two-part exam, agree to meet continuing education requirements, and comply with standards of professional conduct. The exam covers areas such as financial statement analysis, working-capital policy, capital structure, valuation issues, and risk management.</p>
<p><a class="external" href="https://na.theiia.org/Pages/IIAHome.aspx" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA)</a> offers the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) to graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have worked for 2 years as internal auditors and have passed a four-part exam. The IIA also offers the Certified in Control Self-Assessment (CCSA), Certified Government Auditing Professional (CGAP), Certified Financial Services Auditor (CFSA), and Certification in Risk Management Assurance (CRMA) to those who pass the exams and meet educational and experience requirements.</p>
<p><a class="external" href="https://www.isaca.org/pages/default.aspx" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">ISACA</a> offers the Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) to candidates who pass an exam and have 5 years of experience auditing information systems. Information systems experience, financial or operational auditing experience, or related college credit hours can be substituted for up to 3 years of experience in information systems auditing, control, or security.</p>
<p>For accountants with a CPA, the AICPA offers the option to receive any or all of the Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV), Certified Information Technology Professional (CITP), or Personal Financial Specialist (PFS) certifications. The ABV requires passing a written exam, completion of at least six business valuation projects, and 75 hours of continuing education. The CITP requires 1,000 hours of business technology experience and 75 hours of continuing education. Candidates for the PFS also must complete a certain amount of work experience and continuing education, and pass a written exam.</p>
<h3>Advancement</h3>
<p>Some <a href="/ooh/management/top-executives.htm"><u>top executives</u></a> and <a href="/ooh/management/financial-managers.htm"><u>financial managers</u></a> have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance.</p>
<p>Entry-level public accountants can advance to senior positions with more responsibility. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, or partners; open their own public accounting firm; or transfer to executive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms.</p>
<p>Management accountants often start as cost accountants, junior internal auditors, or trainees for other accounting positions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents.</p>
<p>Public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors can move from one aspect of accounting and auditing to another. Public accountants often move into management accounting or internal auditing. Management accountants may become internal auditors, and internal auditors may become management accountants. However, it is less common for management accountants or internal auditors to move into public accounting.</p>
<h3>Important Qualities</h3>
<p><strong><em>Analytical skills.</em></strong> Accountants and auditors must be able to identify issues in documentation and suggest solutions. For example, public accountants use analytical skills in their work to minimize tax liability, and internal auditors use these skills to detect fraudulent use of funds.</p>
<p><strong><em>Communication skills.</em></strong> Accountants and auditors must be able to listen carefully to facts and concerns from clients, managers, and others. They must also be able to discuss the results of their work in both meetings and written reports.</p>
<p><strong><em>Detail oriented.</em></strong> Accountants and auditors must pay attention to detail when compiling and examining documentation.</p>
<p><strong><em>Math skills.</em></strong> Accountants and auditors must be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures, although complex math skills are not necessary.</p>
<p><strong><em>Organizational skills.</em></strong> Strong organizational skills are important for accountants and auditors, who often work with a range of financial documents for a variety of clients.</p>
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                <!-- CMS Bar Graph --><div class='ooh-chart' ><div style="min-height:270.89px;"><h4>    Accountants and Auditors</h4><p>        Median annual wages, May 2018</p><dl>     <dt style="top: -5px;"><span>    Financial specialists </span></dt><dd style="height: 5em;"><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em; border-right:0px solid transparent;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="value"><div style="height: 5em; width:263.99253942237044px; padding-left:;"><p style="height: 5em; margin: -0.7999999999999994em 0em; width:263.99253942237044px;" class="positive cms-bar-color-blue"><span style="top:22px;"><span style="left:1px;"> $70,770 </span></span></p></div></div></dd>     <dt style="top: -5px;"><span>    Accountants and auditors </span></dt><dd style="height: 5em;"><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em; border-right:0px solid transparent;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="value"><div style="height: 5em; width:262.98536144237835px; padding-left:;"><p style="height: 5em; margin: -0.7999999999999994em 0em; width:262.98536144237835px;" class="positive cms-bar-color-light-blue"><span style="top:22px;"><span style="left:1px;"> $70,500 </span></span></p></div></div></dd>     <dt style="top: -5px;"><span>    Total, all occupations </span></dt><dd style="height: 5em;"><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em; border-right:0px solid transparent;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="value"><div style="height: 5em; width:144.13835980331203px; padding-left:;"><p style="height: 5em; margin: -0.7999999999999994em 0em; width:144.13835980331203px;" class="positive cms-bar-color-red"><span style="top:22px;"><span style="left:58.0px;"> $38,640 </span></span></p></div></div></dd> <dt style="height:1.5em;"> </dt><dd class="legend"><div><p><span></span></p></div><div><p><span></span></p></div><div><p><span></span></p></div><div><p><span></span></p></div><div style="display:none;"><p><span></span></p></div></dd></dl><div class="clearfloat"></div><p class="footer">        Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy.<br>Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics</p></div></div><!-- CMS Bar Graph -->
    

    







		
	

		

<p>

The median annual wage for accountants and auditors was $70,500 in May 2018. 


The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $43,650, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $122,840.
</p><p>
</p>






		

	
	    					 <p>In May 2018, the median annual wages for accountants and auditors in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:</p>	
        <table class="ooh-tab-table">
        	<tbody>
								<tr>
        		<td>Finance and insurance</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">
					                		$74,690
                					</td>
			</tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Management of companies and enterprises</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">
					                		73,180
                					</td>
			</tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">
					                		70,640
                					</td>
			</tr>	
        								<tr>
        		<td>Government</td>
                <td style="text-align:right;">
					                		68,420
                					</td>
			</tr>	
                	</tbody>
        </table>
        	























            
<p>Most accountants and auditors work full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Longer hours are typical at certain times of the year, such as at the end of the budget year or during tax season.</p>


            
            
            
            

            
            
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               <!-- CMS Bar Graph --><div class='ooh-chart' ><div style="min-height:270.89px;"><h4>    Accountants and Auditors</h4><p>        Percent change in employment, projected 2018-28</p><dl>     <dt style="top: -5px;"><span>    Accountants and auditors </span></dt><dd style="height: 5em;"><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em; border-right:0px solid transparent;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="value"><div style="height: 5em; width:198.0px; padding-left:;"><p style="height: 5em; margin: -0.7999999999999994em 0em; width:198.0px;" class="positive cms-bar-color-light-blue"><span style="top:22px;"><span style="left:28.0px;"> 6% </span></span></p></div></div></dd>     <dt style="top: -5px;"><span>    Financial specialists </span></dt><dd style="height: 5em;"><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em; border-right:0px solid transparent;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="value"><div style="height: 5em; width:198.0px; padding-left:;"><p style="height: 5em; margin: -0.7999999999999994em 0em; width:198.0px;" class="positive cms-bar-color-blue"><span style="top:22px;"><span style="left:28.0px;"> 6% </span></span></p></div></div></dd>     <dt style="top: -5px;"><span>    Total, all occupations </span></dt><dd style="height: 5em;"><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;"></div><div style="height: 5em; border-right:0px solid transparent;" class="odd"></div><div style="height: 5em;" class="value"><div style="height: 5em; width:165.0px; padding-left:;"><p style="height: 5em; margin: -0.7999999999999994em 0em; width:165.0px;" class="positive cms-bar-color-red"><span style="top:22px;"><span style="left:28.0px;"> 5% </span></span></p></div></div></dd> <dt style="height:1.5em;"> </dt><dd class="legend"><div><p><span></span></p></div><div><p><span></span></p></div><div><p><span></span></p></div><div><p><span></span></p></div><div style="display:none;"><p><span></span></p></div></dd></dl><div class="clearfloat"></div><p class="footer">        Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy.<br>Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program</p></div></div><!-- CMS Bar Graph -->
            
            
    
    
    
            
<p>Employment of accountants and auditors is projected to grow 6 percent from 2018 to 2028, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Globalization, a growing economy, and a complex tax and regulatory environment are expected to continue to lead to strong demand for accountants and auditors.</p>
<p>In general, employment growth of accountants and auditors is expected to be closely tied to the health of the overall economy. As the economy grows, these workers will continue to be needed to prepare and examine financial records. In addition, as more companies go public, there will be greater need for public accountants to handle the legally required financial documentation.</p>
<p>The continued globalization of business may lead to increased demand for accounting expertise and services related to international trade and international mergers and acquisitions.</p>
<p>Technological change is expected to affect the role of accountants over the next 10 years. As platforms such as cloud computing become more widespread, some routine accounting tasks may become automated. Although this will allow accountants to become more efficient, this change is not expected to reduce the overall demand for accountants. Instead, with the automation of routine tasks, such as data entry, the advisory and analytical duties of accountants will become more prominent.</p>
<h3>Job Prospects</h3>
<p>Demand for accountants may lead to good prospects for entry-level positions. However, competition will be stronger for jobs with the most prestigious accounting and business firms.</p>
<p>Accountants and auditors who have earned professional recognition, especially as Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), should have the best prospects. Job applicants who have a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) with a concentration in accounting also may have an advantage.</p>
            

                        <table class="regular">
								<caption><span class="tableTitle">    Employment projections data for     accountants and auditors, 2018-28</span></caption>
                <thead>
                    <tr>
                        <th rowspan="2">    Occupational Title</th>
                        <th rowspan="2" style="align: center;">    SOC Code</th>
                        <th rowspan="2" style="align: center;">    Employment, 2018</th>
                        <th rowspan="2" style="align: center;">    Projected Employment, 2028</th>
                        <th colspan="2" style="align: center; white-space:nowrap;">    Change, 2018-28</th>
                        <th rowspan="2" colspan="2" style="align: center;">    Employment by Industry</th>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                        <th style="align: center;">    Percent</th>
                        <th style="align: center;">    Numeric</th>
                    </tr>
                </thead>
                <tfoot>
                    <tr>
                        <td colspan="8"><p class="footnotes">    SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program</p></td>
                    </tr>
                </tfoot>
                <tbody>
                    
                    
				
        				
        			        	                
				
                                        		
		
					
		
			
			
			
		<tr>
			<th><p ><strong>    Accountants and auditors</strong></p></th>
			<td style="align: right">13-2011</td>
			<td style="align: right">1,424,000</td>
			<td style="align: right">1,514,700</td>
			<td style="align: right">6</td>
			<td style="align: right">90,700</td>
			<td style="align: right"><a href="https://data.bls.gov/projections/nationalMatrix?queryParams=13-2011&ioType=o">Get data</a></td>
		</tr>
		                    
                </tbody>
            </table>
                               
            
            
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				<h3><strong>Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)</strong></h3>
<p>The <a href="https://www.bls.gov/oes/">Occupational Employment Statistics</a> (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area.</p>


		<ul>
            <li><a href="https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes132011.htm#st">Accountants and auditors</a></li>
			</ul>

<h3><strong>Projections Central</strong></h3>
<p>Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at <a href="http://www.projectionscentral.com/" class="external" target="_blank">www.projectionscentral.com</a>. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.</p>

<h3><strong>CareerOneStop</strong></h3>
<p>CareerOneStop includes hundreds of <a href="http://www.careerinfonet.org/Occupations/select_occupation.aspx?next=occ_rep&level=&optstatus=111111111&id=1&nodeid=2&soccode=&stfips=&jobfam=&menuMode" class="external" target="_blank">occupational profiles</a> with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a <a href="http://www.careeronestop.org/SalariesBenefits/Sal_default.aspx" class="external" target="_blank">salary info tool</a> to search for wages by zip code.</p>

			
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<p>    This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of accountants and auditors.</p> 

    <table class="display" id="similar-occupations">
        <thead>
            <tr>
                <th> </th>
                <th>    Occupation</th>
                <th>    Job Duties</th>
                <th style="width: 180px">    ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION <a style="vertical-align: middle;" class="thickbox" href="/#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=inlinehelp-education"><img height="16" width="16" alt="Help on Entry-Level Education" src="/images/icons/icon_small_help.gif"></a></th>
                <th style="width: 140px">2018     MEDIAN PAY <a style="vertical-align: middle;" class="thickbox" href="/#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=inlinehelp-pay"><img height="16" width="16" alt="Help on Median Pay" src="/images/icons/icon_small_help.gif"></a></th>
            </tr>
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        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/office-and-administrative-support/bookkeeping-accounting-and-auditing-clerks.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/2812.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/office-and-administrative-support/bookkeeping-accounting-and-auditing-clerks.htm">    Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations and check financial records for accuracy.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="3.     Some college, no degree">    Some college, no degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="40240">$40,240</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/budget-analysts.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1755.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Budget analysts" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/budget-analysts.htm">    Budget Analysts</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Budget analysts help public and private institutions organize their finances.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="76220">$76,220</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/cost-estimators.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1715.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Cost estimators" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/cost-estimators.htm">    Cost Estimators</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Cost estimators collect and analyze data in order to estimate the time, money, materials, and labor required to make a product or provide a service.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="64040">$64,040</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/financial-analysts.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1757.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Financial analysts" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/financial-analysts.htm">    Financial Analysts</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Financial analysts provide guidance to businesses and individuals making investment decisions.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="85660">$85,660</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/management/financial-managers.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1603.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Financial managers" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/management/financial-managers.htm">    Financial Managers</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Financial managers produce financial reports, direct investment activities, and develop strategies and plans for the long-term financial goals of their organization.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="127990">$127,990</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/management-analysts.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1730.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Management analysts" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/management-analysts.htm">    Management Analysts</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Management analysts propose ways to improve an organization’s efficiency.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="83610">$83,610</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/personal-financial-advisors.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1766.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Personal financial advisors" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/personal-financial-advisors.htm">    Personal Financial Advisors</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Personal financial advisors provide advice to help individuals manage their finances and plan for their financial future.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="88890">$88,890</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/2162.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Postsecondary teachers" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm">    Postsecondary Teachers</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a wide variety of academic and technical subjects beyond the high school level.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="9.     See How to Become One"><a href="/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm#tab-4">    See How to Become One</a></span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="78470">$78,470</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/tax-examiners-and-collectors-and-revenue-agents.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1783.jpg" width="70" height="50" alt="Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/business-and-financial/tax-examiners-and-collectors-and-revenue-agents.htm">    Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents determine how much is owed in taxes and collect tax from individuals and businesses on behalf of the government.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="54440">$54,440</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
  
        <tr>
            <td>
                <a href="/ooh/management/top-executives.htm">

	<img src="/ooh/images/1699.jpg" width="71" height="50" alt="Top executives" />

  </a>
            </td>
            <td>
                <h4><a href="/ooh/management/top-executives.htm">    Top Executives</a></h4>
            </td>
            <td>
                
<p>Top executives devise strategies and policies to ensure that an organization meets its goals.</p>

            </td>
            <td style="width: 180px">
                                <span title="6.     Bachelor's degree">    Bachelor's degree</span>
            </td>
            <td style="width: 140px">
                <span title="104980">$104,980</span>
            </td>
        </tr>
          </tbody>
    </table>
    

            
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            <article aria-labelledby="more-information">
                <h2 id="more-information"><span>    Contacts for More Information</span> <a id="TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=about-more-information" href="#TB_inline?height=325&width=325&inlineId=about-more-information" class="thickbox about-this-section noprint" aria-label="About More Info section">    About this section</a></h2>
                                
<p>For more information about accredited accounting programs, visit</p>
<p><a class="external" href="http://www.aacsb.edu/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">AACSB International—The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business</a></p>
<p>For more information about the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) designation, visit</p>
<p><a class="external" href="http://www.aicpa.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)</a></p>
<p>For more information about management accounting and the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designation, visit</p>
<p><a class="external" href="https://www.imanet.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Institute of Management Accountants</a></p>
<p>For more information about internal auditing and the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) designation, visit</p>
<p><a class="external" href="https://na.theiia.org/Pages/IIAHome.aspx" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Institute of Internal Auditors</a></p>
<p>For more information about information systems auditing and the Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) designation, visit</p>
<p><a class="external" href="https://www.isaca.org/pages/default.aspx" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">ISACA</a></p>
<p>For more information about certifications in accounting, visit</p>
<p><a class="external" href="http://www.gafm.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Global Academy of Finance and Management</a></p>
<p></p>
                
                

                                                
                                                        
                                                                                                    <h3>O*NET</h3>
                                        <p><a class="external" target="_blank" href="http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-2011.01" class="onet">Accountants</a></p><p><a class="external" target="_blank" href="http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-2011.00" class="onet">Accountants and Auditors</a></p><p><a class="external" target="_blank" href="http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-2011.02" class="onet">Auditors</a></p>
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		<!-- BLS CITATION -->
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        	<h5>    Suggested citation:</h5>
						        	<p>Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.  Department of Labor, <cite>Occupational Outlook Handbook</cite>, Accountants and Auditors, <br />
        	on the Internet at <a href="https://www.bls.gov/ooh/business-and-financial/accountants-and-auditors.htm" target="_new">https://www.bls.gov/ooh/business-and-financial/accountants-and-auditors.htm</a> (visited <em>February 20, 2020</em>).</p>
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<p class="update"><strong>    Last Modified Date:</strong>
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<div style="display:none;">
	
<div id="about-what-they-do">
<h2>What They Do</h2>
<p>The <em>What They Do</em> tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-working-environment">
<h2>Work Environment</h2>
<p>The <em>Work Environment</em> tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-become-one">
<h2>How to Become One</h2>
<p>The <em>How to Become One</em> tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-pay">
<h2>Pay</h2>
<p>The <em>Pay</em> tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-state-area">
<h2>State & Area Data</h2>
<p>The <em>State and Area Data</em> tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-job-outlook">
<h2>Job Outlook</h2>
<p>The <em>Job Outlook</em> tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-similar-jobs">
<h2>Similar Occupations</h2>
<p>The <em>Similar Occupations</em> tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.</p>
</div>
<div id="about-more-information">
<h2>Contacts for More Information</h2>
<p>The <em>More Information</em> tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-wage">
<h2>2018 Median Pay</h2>
<p>The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2018, the median annual wage for all workers was $38,640.</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-training">
<h2>On-the-job Training</h2>
<p>Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-education">
<h2>Entry-level Education</h2>
<p>Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-experience">
<h2>Work experience in a related occupation</h2>
<p>Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-number-jobs">
<h2>Number of Jobs, 2018</h2>
<p>The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2018, which is the base year of the 2018-28 employment projections.</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-outlook">
<h2>Job Outlook, 2018-28</h2>
<p>The projected percent change in employment from 2018 to 2028. The average growth rate for all occupations is 5 percent.</p>
</div>
<div id="qf-emp-change">
<h2>Employment Change, 2018-28</h2>
<p>The projected numeric change in employment from 2018 to 2028.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-education">
<h2>Entry-level Education</h2>
<p>Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-training">
<h2>On-the-job Training</h2>
<p>Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-new-jobs">
<h2>Employment Change, projected 2018-28</h2>
<p>The projected numeric change in employment from 2018 to 2028.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-growth-rate">
<h2>Growth Rate (Projected)</h2>
<p>The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2018 to 2028.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-new-jobs-2">
<h2>Projected Number of New Jobs</h2>
<p>The projected numeric change in employment from 2018 to 2028.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-growth-rate-2">
<h2>Projected Growth Rate</h2>
<p>The projected percent change in employment from 2018 to 2028.</p>
</div>
<div id="inlinehelp-pay">
<h2>2018 Median Pay</h2>
<p>The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2018, the median annual wage for all workers was $38,640.</p>
</div>

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