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	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Minimum wage</h1>
	
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		<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">lowest wage which can be paid legally in a state for working</div>
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<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:262px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Fight_for_$15_on_4-15_(17161520871).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Fight_for_%2415_on_4-15_%2817161520871%29.jpg/260px-Fight_for_%2415_on_4-15_%2817161520871%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="260" height="173" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Fight_for_%2415_on_4-15_%2817161520871%29.jpg/390px-Fight_for_%2415_on_4-15_%2817161520871%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Fight_for_%2415_on_4-15_%2817161520871%29.jpg/520px-Fight_for_%2415_on_4-15_%2817161520871%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="5458" data-file-height="3634" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Fight_for_$15_on_4-15_(17161520871).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Protesters call for an increased minimum wage as part of the "Fight for $15" effort to require a $15 per hour minimum wage in 2015.</div></div></div>
<p>A <b>minimum wage</b> is the lowest <a href="/wiki/Remuneration" title="Remuneration">remuneration</a> that employers can legally pay their workers—the <a href="/wiki/Price_floor" title="Price floor">price floor</a> below which workers may not sell their labor. Most <a href="/wiki/List_of_minimum_wages_by_country" title="List of minimum wages by country">countries had introduced minimum wage legislation</a> by the end of the 20th century.<sup id="cite_ref-ILO_2006_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ILO_2006-1">[1]</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Supply_and_demand" title="Supply and demand">Supply and demand models</a> suggest that there may be welfare and employment losses from minimum wages. However, if the labor market is in a state of <a href="/wiki/Monopsony" title="Monopsony">monopsony</a> (with only one employer available who is hiring), minimum wages can increase the efficiency of the market. There is debate about the full effects of minimum wages.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gwartney_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gwartney-4">[4]</a></sup>
</p><p>The movement for minimum wages was first motivated as a way to stop the exploitation of workers in <a href="/wiki/Sweatshop" title="Sweatshop">sweatshops</a>, by employers who were thought to have unfair bargaining power over them. Over time, minimum wages came to be seen as a way to help lower-income families. Modern national laws enforcing compulsory union membership which prescribed minimum wages for their members were first passed in New Zealand and Australia in the 1890s.
</p><p>Although <a href="/wiki/Minimum_wage_law" title="Minimum wage law">minimum wage laws</a> are in effect in many jurisdictions, differences of opinion exist about the benefits and drawbacks of a minimum wage. Supporters of the minimum wage say it increases the <a href="/wiki/Standard_of_living" title="Standard of living">standard of living</a> of workers, <a href="/wiki/Poverty_reduction" title="Poverty reduction">reduces poverty</a>, reduces inequality, and boosts morale.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup> In contrast, opponents of the minimum wage say it increases poverty, increases unemployment because some low-wage workers "will be unable to find work...[and] will be pushed into the ranks of the unemployed"<sup id="cite_ref-WSJ100309_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WSJ100309-6">[6]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Oxford_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Oxford-7">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Card&Krueger_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Card&Krueger-8">[8]</a></sup> and is damaging to businesses, because excessively high minimum wages require businesses to raise the prices of their product or service to accommodate the extra expense of paying a higher wage.<sup id="cite_ref-Burkhauser_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Burkhauser-9">[9]</a></sup>
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Minimum_wage_laws"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Minimum wage laws</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Informal_minimum_wages"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Informal minimum wages</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Setting_minimum_wage"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Setting minimum wage</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Economic_models"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Economic models</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Supply_and_demand_model"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Supply and demand model</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Monopsony"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Monopsony</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Criticisms_of_the_supply_and_demand_model"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Criticisms of the supply and demand model</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Mathematical_models_of_the_minimum_wage_and_frictional_labor_markets"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Mathematical models of the minimum wage and frictional labor markets</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-10"><a href="#Welfare_and_labor_market_participation"><span class="tocnumber">3.4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Welfare and labor market participation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-11"><a href="#Job_search_effort"><span class="tocnumber">3.4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Job search effort</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Empirical_studies"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Empirical studies</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Card_and_Krueger"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Card and Krueger</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Research_subsequent_to_Card_and_Krueger's_work"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Research subsequent to Card and Krueger's work</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Statistical_meta-analyses"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Statistical meta-analyses</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#Debate_over_consequences"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Debate over consequences</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#Surveys_of_economists"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Surveys of economists</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Alternatives"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Alternatives</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Basic_income"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Basic income</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Guaranteed_minimum_income"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Guaranteed minimum income</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Refundable_tax_credit"><span class="tocnumber">7.3</span> <span class="toctext">Refundable tax credit</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Collective_bargaining"><span class="tocnumber">7.4</span> <span class="toctext">Collective bargaining</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#Wage_subsidies"><span class="tocnumber">7.5</span> <span class="toctext">Wage subsidies</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Education_and_training"><span class="tocnumber">7.6</span> <span class="toctext">Education and training</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#US_movement"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">US movement</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#Countries_by_minimum_wage_to_average_wage_ratio"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Countries by minimum wage to average wage ratio</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: History">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="quotebox pullquote floatright" style="width:22em; ; background-color: #c6dbf7;"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r887775652">.mw-parser-output .quotebox{background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%;max-width:100%}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft{margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright{margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered{margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto}.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-title{background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after{font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .quotebox cite{display:block;font-style:normal}@media screen and (max-width:360px){.mw-parser-output .quotebox{min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important}}</style>
<div class="quotebox-quote left-aligned" style="">"It is a serious national evil that any class of his Majesty's subjects should receive less than a living wage in return for their utmost exertions. It was formerly supposed that the working of the laws of supply and demand would naturally regulate or eliminate that evil [...and...] ultimately produce a fair price. Where... you have a powerful organisation on both sides... there you have a healthy bargaining.... But where you have what we call sweated trades, you have no organisation, no parity of bargaining, the good employer is undercut by the bad, and the bad employer is undercut by the worst... where those conditions prevail you have not a condition of progress, but a condition of progressive degeneration."</div>
<p><cite class="right-aligned" style=""><a href="/wiki/Winston_Churchill" title="Winston Churchill">Winston Churchill</a> <a href="/wiki/Member_of_Parliament" class="mw-redirect" title="Member of Parliament">MP</a>, <a href="/wiki/Trade_Boards_Bill" class="mw-redirect" title="Trade Boards Bill">Trade Boards Bill</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hansard" title="Hansard">Hansard</a> <a href="/wiki/House_of_Commons_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="House of Commons of the United Kingdom">House of Commons</a> (28 April 1909) vol 4, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1909/apr/28/trade-boards-bill#column_388">col 388</a></cite>
</p>
</div>
<p>Modern minimum wage laws trace their origin to the <a href="/wiki/Ordinance_of_Labourers_1349" title="Ordinance of Labourers 1349">Ordinance of Labourers</a> (1349), which was a decree by <a href="/wiki/Edward_III_of_England" title="Edward III of England">King Edward III</a> that set a<i> <a href="/wiki/Maximum_wage" title="Maximum wage">maximum wage</a></i> for laborers in <a href="/wiki/Medieval_England" class="mw-redirect" title="Medieval England">medieval England</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Mihm_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mihm-10">[10]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">[11]</a></sup>  King Edward III, who was a wealthy landowner, was dependent, like his lords, on <a href="/wiki/Serfs" class="mw-redirect" title="Serfs">serfs</a> to work the land. In the autumn of 1348, the <a href="/wiki/Black_Plague" class="mw-redirect" title="Black Plague">Black Plague</a> reached England and decimated the population.<sup id="cite_ref-guardian_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-guardian-12">[12]</a></sup> The severe shortage of labor caused wages to soar and encouraged King Edward III to set a wage ceiling. Subsequent amendments to the ordinance, such as the <a href="/wiki/Statute_of_Labourers_1351" title="Statute of Labourers 1351">Statute of Labourers</a> (1351), increased the penalties for paying a wage above the set rates.<sup id="cite_ref-Mihm_10-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mihm-10">[10]</a></sup>
</p><p>While the laws governing wages initially set a ceiling on compensation, they were eventually used to set a <a href="/wiki/Living_wage" title="Living wage">living wage</a>. An amendment to the Statute of Labourers in 1389 effectively fixed wages to the price of food. As time passed, the <a href="/wiki/Justice_of_the_Peace" class="mw-redirect" title="Justice of the Peace">Justice of the Peace</a>, who was charged with setting the maximum wage, also began to set formal minimum wages. The practice was eventually formalized with the passage of the Act Fixing a Minimum Wage in 1604 by <a href="/wiki/King_James_I" class="mw-redirect" title="King James I">King James I</a> for workers in the textile industry.<sup id="cite_ref-Mihm_10-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mihm-10">[10]</a></sup>
</p><p>By the early 19th century, the Statutes of Labourers was repealed as increasingly <a href="/wiki/History_of_capitalism" title="History of capitalism">capitalistic England</a> embraced <i><a href="/wiki/Laissez-faire" title="Laissez-faire">laissez-faire</a></i> policies which disfavored regulations of wages (whether upper or lower limits).<sup id="cite_ref-Mihm_10-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mihm-10">[10]</a></sup> The subsequent 19th century saw significant <a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_labor_issues_and_events" class="mw-redirect" title="Timeline of labor issues and events">labor unrest</a> affect many industrial nations. As <a href="/wiki/Trade_unions" class="mw-redirect" title="Trade unions">trade unions</a> were decriminalized during the century, attempts to control wages through <a href="/wiki/Collective_agreement" title="Collective agreement">collective agreement</a> were made. However, this meant that a uniform minimum wage was not possible. In <i><a href="/wiki/Principles_of_Political_Economy" title="Principles of Political Economy">Principles of Political Economy</a></i> in 1848, <a href="/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill" title="John Stuart Mill">John Stuart Mill</a> argued that because of the <a href="/wiki/Collective_action_problems" class="mw-redirect" title="Collective action problems">collective action problems</a> that workers faced in organisation, it was a justified departure from <i>laissez-faire</i> policies (or <a href="/wiki/Freedom_of_contract" title="Freedom of contract">freedom of contract</a>) to regulate people's wages and hours by the law.
</p><p>It was not until the 1890s that the first modern legislative attempts to regulate minimum wages were seen in New Zealand and Australia.<sup id="cite_ref-Starr_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Starr-13">[13]</a></sup> The movement for a minimum wage was initially focused on stopping <a href="/wiki/Sweatshop" title="Sweatshop">sweatshop</a> labor and controlling the proliferation of sweatshops in manufacturing industries.<sup id="cite_ref-Nordlund_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nordlund-14">[14]</a></sup> The sweatshops employed large numbers of women and young workers, paying them what were considered to be substandard wages. The sweatshop owners were thought to have unfair bargaining power over their employees, and a minimum wage was proposed as a means to make them pay fairly. Over time, the focus changed to helping people, especially families, become more self-sufficient.<sup id="cite_ref-Neumark_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Neumark-15">[15]</a></sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Minimum_wage_laws">Minimum wage laws</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Minimum wage laws">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies,_2013.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies%2C_2013.png/220px-Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies%2C_2013.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="357" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies%2C_2013.png/330px-Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies%2C_2013.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies%2C_2013.png/440px-Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies%2C_2013.png 2x" data-file-width="482" data-file-height="782" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Hourly_Minimum_Wages_in_Developed_Economies,_2013.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Hourly minimum wages in select developed economies in 2013. For a complete list of global wages see: <a href="/wiki/List_of_minimum_wages_by_country" title="List of minimum wages by country">List of minimum wages by country</a>. Wages are given in US$ exchange rates.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">[16]</a></sup></div></div></div><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Minimum_wage_law" title="Minimum wage law">Minimum wage law</a> and <a href="/wiki/List_of_minimum_wages_by_country" title="List of minimum wages by country">List of minimum wages by country</a></div>
<p>The first modern national minimum wages were enacted by the government recognition of unions which in turn established minimum wage policy among their members, as in <a href="/wiki/Industrial_Conciliation_and_Arbitration_Act_1894" title="Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894">New Zealand in 1894</a>, followed by <a href="/wiki/Australian_labour_movement" title="Australian labour movement">Australia in 1896</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Trade_Boards_Act_1909" title="Trade Boards Act 1909">United Kingdom in 1909</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Starr_13-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Starr-13">[13]</a></sup> In the United States, statutory minimum wages were first introduced <a href="/wiki/Fair_Labor_Standards_Act_of_1938" title="Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938">nationally in 1938</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-DOL_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-DOL-17">[17]</a></sup> and they were reintroduced and expanded in the <a href="/wiki/National_Minimum_Wage_Act_1998" title="National Minimum Wage Act 1998">United Kingdom in 1998</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Stone_18-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Stone-18">[18]</a></sup> There is now legislation or binding <a href="/wiki/Collective_bargaining" title="Collective bargaining">collective bargaining</a> regarding minimum wage in more than 90 percent of all countries.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">[19]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ILO_2006_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ILO_2006-1">[1]</a></sup> In the European Union, 22 member states out of 28 currently have national minimum wages.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-20">[20]</a></sup> Other countries, such as Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy, have no minimum wage laws, but rely on employer groups and trade unions to set minimum earnings through collective bargaining.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">[21]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-NYT-20141027-LA_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NYT-20141027-LA-22">[22]</a></sup>
</p><p>Minimum wage rates vary greatly across many different jurisdictions, not only in setting a particular amount of money—for example $7.25 per hour ($14,500 per year) under certain US state laws (or $2.13 for employees who receive tips, which is known as the <a href="/wiki/Tipped_wage_in_the_United_States" class="mw-redirect" title="Tipped wage in the United States">tipped minimum wage</a>), $11.00 in the US state of <a href="/wiki/Washington_(state)" title="Washington (state)">Washington</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">[23]</a></sup> or £7.83 (for those aged 25+) in the United Kingdom<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">[24]</a></sup>—but also in terms of which pay period (for example Russia and China set monthly minimum wages) or the scope of coverage. Currently the United States federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. However, some states do not recognize the minimum wage law, such as Louisiana and Tennessee.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">[25]</a></sup> Other states operate below the federal minimum wage such as Georgia and Wyoming. Some jurisdictions allow employers to count tips given to their workers as credit towards the minimum wage levels. <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a> was one of the first developing countries to introduce <a href="/wiki/Minimum_Wages_Act_1948" title="Minimum Wages Act 1948">minimum wage policy</a> in its law in 1948. However, it is rarely implemented, even by contractors of government agencies. In <a href="/wiki/Mumbai" title="Mumbai">Mumbai</a>, as of 2017, the minimum wage was Rs. 348/day.<sup id="cite_ref-tiss2017_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-tiss2017-26">[26]</a></sup>
India also has one of the most complicated systems with more than 1,200 minimum wage rates depending on the geographical region.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">[27]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Informal_minimum_wages">Informal minimum wages</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Informal minimum wages">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Customs and extra-legal pressures from governments or labor unions can produce a <i>de facto</i> minimum wage. So can international public opinion, by pressuring <a href="/wiki/Multinational_companies" class="mw-redirect" title="Multinational companies">multinational companies</a> to pay <a href="/wiki/Third_World" title="Third World">Third World</a> workers wages usually found in more industrialized countries. The latter situation in Southeast Asia and Latin America was publicized in the 2000s, but it existed with companies in West Africa in the middle of the 20th century.<sup id="cite_ref-SowellBasic_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SowellBasic-28">[28]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Setting_minimum_wage">Setting minimum wage</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: Setting minimum wage">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Among the indicators that might be used to establish an initial minimum wage rate are ones that minimize the loss of jobs while preserving international competitiveness.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29">[29]</a></sup> Among these are general economic conditions as measured by real and nominal gross domestic product; inflation; labor supply and demand; wage levels, distribution and differentials; employment terms; productivity growth; labor costs; business operating costs; the number and trend of bankruptcies; <a href="/wiki/Index_of_Economic_Freedom" title="Index of Economic Freedom">economic freedom</a> rankings; standards of living and the prevailing average wage rate.
</p><p>In the business sector, concerns include the expected increased cost of doing business, threats to profitability, rising levels of unemployment (and subsequent higher government expenditure on welfare benefits raising tax rates), and the possible <a href="/wiki/Knock-on_effect" class="mw-redirect" title="Knock-on effect">knock-on effects</a> to the wages of more experienced workers who might already be earning the new statutory minimum wage, or slightly more.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">[30]</a></sup> Among workers and their representatives, political considerations weigh in as labor leaders seek to win support by demanding the highest possible rate.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">[31]</a></sup>  Other concerns include <a href="/wiki/Purchasing_power" title="Purchasing power">purchasing power</a>, inflation indexing and standardized working hours.
</p><p>In the United States, the minimum wage have been set under the <a href="/wiki/Fair_Labor_Standards_Act_of_1938" title="Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938">Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938</a>. According to the <a href="/wiki/Economic_Policy_Institute" title="Economic Policy Institute">Economic Policy Institute</a>, the minimum wage in the United States would have been $18.28 in 2013 if the minimum wage had kept pace with <a href="/wiki/Labor_productivity" class="mw-redirect" title="Labor productivity">labor productivity</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT-20140209_32-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NYT-20140209-32">[32]</a></sup> To adjust for increased rates of <a href="/wiki/Productivity" title="Productivity">worker productivity</a> in the United States, raising the <a href="/wiki/Minimum_wage_in_the_United_States" title="Minimum wage in the United States">minimum wage</a> to $22 (or more) an hour has been presented.<sup id="cite_ref-WT-20130318_33-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WT-20130318-33">[33]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-HP-20130318_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HP-20130318-34">[34]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-TSP-20131219_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-TSP-20131219-35">[35]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-POL-20131203_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-POL-20131203-36">[36]</a></sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_models">Economic models</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: Economic models">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Labour_economics" title="Labour economics">Labour economics</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Supply_and_demand_model">Supply and demand model</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=6" title="Edit section: Supply and demand model">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Wage_labour_2.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Wage_labour_2.svg/220px-Wage_labour_2.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="182" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Wage_labour_2.svg/330px-Wage_labour_2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Wage_labour_2.svg/440px-Wage_labour_2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="434" data-file-height="359" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Wage_labour_2.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Graph showing the basic <a href="/wiki/Supply_and_demand" title="Supply and demand">supply and demand</a> model of the minimum wage in the labor market.</div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Supply_and_demand" title="Supply and demand">Supply and demand</a></div>
<p>According to the supply and demand model of the labor market shown in many economics textbooks, increasing the minimum wage decreases the employment of minimum-wage workers.<sup id="cite_ref-Card&Krueger_8-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Card&Krueger-8">[8]</a></sup> One such textbook states:<sup id="cite_ref-Gwartney_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gwartney-4">[4]</a></sup>
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<p>If a higher minimum wage increases the wage rates of unskilled workers above the level that would be established by market forces, the quantity of unskilled workers employed will fall. The minimum wage will price the services of the least productive (and therefore lowest-wage) workers out of the market. … the direct results of minimum wage legislation are clearly mixed. Some workers, most likely those whose previous wages were closest to the minimum, will enjoy higher wages. Others, particularly those with the lowest prelegislation wage rates, will be unable to find work. They will be pushed into the ranks of the unemployed.
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<p>A firm's cost is an increasing function of the wage rate. The higher the wage rate, the fewer hours an employer will demand of employees. This is because, as the wage rate rises, it becomes more expensive for firms to hire workers and so firms hire fewer workers (or hire them for fewer hours). The <a href="/wiki/Labour_demand" class="mw-redirect" title="Labour demand">demand of labor</a> curve is therefore shown as a line moving down and to the right.<sup id="cite_ref-Ehren_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ehren-37">[37]</a></sup> Since higher wages increase the quantity supplied, the <a href="/wiki/Labour_supply" title="Labour supply">supply of labor</a> curve is upward sloping, and is shown as a line moving up and to the right.<sup id="cite_ref-Ehren_37-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ehren-37">[37]</a></sup>  If no minimum wage is in place, wages will adjust until quantity of labor demanded is equal to quantity supplied, reaching <a href="/wiki/Economic_equilibrium" title="Economic equilibrium">equilibrium</a>, where the supply and demand curves intersect. Minimum wage behaves as a classical <a href="/wiki/Price_floor" title="Price floor">price floor</a> on labor. Standard theory says that, if set above the equilibrium price, more labor will be willing to be provided by workers than will be demanded by employers, creating a <a href="/wiki/Economic_surplus" title="Economic surplus">surplus</a> of labor, i.e. unemployment.<sup id="cite_ref-Ehren_37-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ehren-37">[37]</a></sup> The economic model of markets predicts the same of other commodities (like milk and wheat, for example): Artificially raising the price of the commodity tends to cause an increase in quantity supplied and a decrease in quantity demanded. The result is a surplus of the commodity. When there is a wheat surplus, the government buys it. Since the government does not hire surplus labor, the labor surplus takes the form of unemployment, which tends to be higher with minimum wage laws than without them.<sup id="cite_ref-SowellBasic_28-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SowellBasic-28">[28]</a></sup>
</p><p>The supply and demand model implies that by mandating a price floor above the equilibrium wage, minimum wage laws will cause unemployment.<sup id="cite_ref-MB_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MB-38">[38]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-GSSM_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GSSM-39">[39]</a></sup> This is because a greater number of people are willing to work at the higher wage while a smaller number of jobs will be available at the higher wage. Companies can be more selective in those whom they employ thus the least skilled and least experienced will typically be excluded. An imposition or increase of a minimum wage will generally only affect employment in the low-skill labor market, as the equilibrium wage is already at or below the minimum wage, whereas in higher skill labor markets the equilibrium wage is too high for a change in minimum wage to affect employment.<sup id="cite_ref-M_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-M-40">[40]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Monopsony">Monopsony</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: Monopsony">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Monopsony3.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Monopsony3.png/220px-Monopsony3.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Monopsony3.png/330px-Monopsony3.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Monopsony3.png/440px-Monopsony3.png 2x" data-file-width="720" data-file-height="540" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Monopsony3.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Modern economics suggests that a moderate minimum wage may increase employment as labor markets are <a href="/wiki/Monopsony" title="Monopsony">monopsonistic</a> and workers <a href="/wiki/Inequality_of_bargaining_power" title="Inequality of bargaining power">lack bargaining power</a>.</div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Monopsony" title="Monopsony">Monopsony</a></div>
<p>The supply and demand model predicts that raising the minimum wage helps workers whose wages are raised, and hurts people who are not hired (or lose their jobs) when companies cut back on employment. But proponents of the minimum wage hold that the situation is much more complicated than the model can account for. One complicating factor is possible <a href="/wiki/Monopsony" title="Monopsony">monopsony</a> in the labor market, whereby the individual employer has some market power in determining wages paid. Thus it is at least theoretically possible that the minimum wage may boost employment. Though single employer market power is unlikely to exist in most labor markets in the sense of the traditional '<a href="/wiki/Company_town" title="Company town">company town</a>,' asymmetric information, imperfect mobility, and the personal element of the labor transaction give some degree of wage-setting power to most firms.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">[41]</a></sup>
</p><p>Modern economic theory predicts that although an excessive minimum wage may raise unemployment as it fixes a price above most demand for labor, a minimum wage at a more reasonable level can increase employment, and enhance growth and efficiency. This is because labor markets are <a href="/wiki/Monopsony" title="Monopsony">monopsonistic</a> and workers persistently <a href="/wiki/Inequality_of_bargaining_power" title="Inequality of bargaining power">lack bargaining power</a>.  When poorer workers have more to spend it stimulates <a href="/wiki/Effective_aggregate_demand" class="mw-redirect" title="Effective aggregate demand">effective aggregate demand</a> for goods and services.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">[42]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Rittenberg_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rittenberg-43">[43]</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Criticisms_of_the_supply_and_demand_model">Criticisms of the supply and demand model</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=8" title="Edit section: Criticisms of the supply and demand model">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3><p>
The argument that a minimum wage decreases employment is based on a simple supply and demand model of the labor market. A number of economists (for example <a href="/wiki/Pierangelo_Garegnani" title="Pierangelo Garegnani">Pierangelo Garegnani</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">[44]</a></sup> Robert L. Vienneau,<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">[45]</a></sup> and Arrigo Opocher & <a href="/wiki/Ian_Steedman" title="Ian Steedman">Ian Steedman</a><sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">[46]</a></sup>), building on the work of <a href="/wiki/Piero_Sraffa" title="Piero Sraffa">Piero Sraffa</a>, argue that that model, even given all its assumptions, is logically incoherent. Michael Anyadike-Danes and <a href="/wiki/Wynne_Godley" title="Wynne Godley">Wynne Godley</a><sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">[47]</a></sup> argue, based on simulation results, that little of the empirical work done with the textbook model constitutes a potentially <a href="/wiki/Falsifiability" title="Falsifiability">falsifiable theory</a>, and consequently empirical evidence hardly exists for that model. Graham White<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">[48]</a></sup> argues, partially on the basis of Sraffianism, that the policy of increased <a href="/wiki/Labor_market_flexibility" class="mw-redirect" title="Labor market flexibility">labor market flexibility</a>, including the reduction of minimum wages, does not have an "intellectually coherent" argument in economic theory.</p><div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png/220px-Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="413" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png/330px-Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png/440px-Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png 2x" data-file-width="474" data-file-height="890" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Minimum_to_Average_Wage_for_OECD_Countries.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Minimum wage levels in <a href="/wiki/OECD" title="OECD">OECD</a> countries as a share of average full-time wage, 2013.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">[49]</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>Gary Fields, Professor of Labor Economics and Economics at <a href="/wiki/Cornell_University" title="Cornell University">Cornell University</a>, argues that the standard textbook model for the minimum wage is ambiguous, and that the standard theoretical arguments incorrectly measure only a one-sector market. Fields says a two-sector market, where "the self-employed, service workers, and farm workers are typically excluded from minimum-wage coverage... [and with] one sector with minimum-wage coverage and the other without it [and possible mobility between the two]," is the basis for better analysis. Through this model, Fields shows the typical theoretical argument to be ambiguous and says "the predictions derived from the textbook model definitely do not carry over to the two-sector case. Therefore, since a non-covered sector exists nearly everywhere, the predictions of the textbook model simply cannot be relied on."<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">[50]</a></sup>
</p><p>An alternate view of the labor market has low-wage labor markets characterized as <a href="/wiki/Monopsonistic_competition" class="mw-redirect" title="Monopsonistic competition">monopsonistic competition</a> wherein buyers (employers) have significantly more <a href="/wiki/Market_power" title="Market power">market power</a> than do sellers (workers). This monopsony could be a result of intentional <a href="/wiki/Collusion" title="Collusion">collusion</a> between employers, or naturalistic factors such as <a href="/wiki/Labor_market_segmentation" title="Labor market segmentation">segmented markets</a>, <a href="/wiki/Search_cost" title="Search cost">search costs</a>, <a href="/wiki/Information_asymmetry" title="Information asymmetry">information costs</a>, <a href="/wiki/Geographic_mobility" title="Geographic mobility">imperfect mobility</a> and the personal element of labor markets.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2016)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> In such a case a simple supply and demand graph would not yield the <a href="/wiki/Market_clearing" title="Market clearing">quantity of labor clearing</a> and the wage rate. This is because while the upward sloping aggregate labor supply would remain unchanged, instead of using the upward labor supply curve shown in a supply and demand diagram, monopsonistic employers would use a steeper upward sloping curve corresponding to <a href="/wiki/Marginal_cost" title="Marginal cost">marginal expenditures</a> to yield the intersection with the supply curve resulting in a wage rate lower than would be the case under competition. Also, the amount of labor sold would also be lower than the competitive optimal allocation.
</p><p>Such a case is a type of <a href="/wiki/Market_failure" title="Market failure">market failure</a> and results in workers being paid less than their marginal value. Under the monopsonistic assumption, an appropriately set minimum wage could increase both <a href="/wiki/Wages" class="mw-redirect" title="Wages">wages</a> and employment, with the optimal level being equal to the <a href="/wiki/Marginal_product_of_labour" class="mw-redirect" title="Marginal product of labour">marginal product of labor</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Manning2003_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Manning2003-51">[51]</a></sup> This view emphasizes the role of minimum wages as a <a href="/wiki/Regulated_market" title="Regulated market">market regulation</a> policy akin to <a href="/wiki/Antitrust" class="mw-redirect" title="Antitrust">antitrust</a> policies, as opposed to an illusory "<a href="/wiki/Free_lunch" title="Free lunch">free lunch</a>" for low-wage workers.
</p><p>Another reason minimum wage may not affect employment in certain industries is that the demand for the product the employees produce is highly <a href="/wiki/Price_elasticity_of_demand" title="Price elasticity of demand">inelastic</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">[52]</a></sup> For example, if management is forced to increase wages, management can pass on the increase in wage to consumers in the form of higher prices. Since demand for the product is highly inelastic, consumers continue to buy the product at the higher price and so the manager is not forced to lay off workers. Economist <a href="/wiki/Paul_Krugman" title="Paul Krugman">Paul Krugman</a> argues this explanation neglects to explain why the firm was not charging this higher price absent the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53">[53]</a></sup>
</p><p>Three other possible reasons minimum wages do not affect employment were suggested by <a href="/wiki/Alan_Blinder" title="Alan Blinder">Alan Blinder</a>: higher wages may reduce <a href="/wiki/Turnover_(employment)" title="Turnover (employment)">turnover</a>, and hence training costs; raising the minimum wage may "render moot" the potential problem of recruiting workers at a higher wage than current workers; and minimum wage workers might represent such a small proportion of a business's cost that the increase is too small to matter. He admits that he does not know if these are correct, but argues that "the list demonstrates that one can accept the new empirical findings and still be a card-carrying economist."<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">[54]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Mathematical_models_of_the_minimum_wage_and_frictional_labor_markets">Mathematical models of the minimum wage and frictional labor markets</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=9" title="Edit section: Mathematical models of the minimum wage and frictional labor markets">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The following mathematical models are more quantitative in orientation, and highlight some of the difficulties in determining the impact of the minimum wage on labor market outcomes.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">[55]</a></sup> Specifically, these models focus on labor markets with frictions.
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Welfare_and_labor_market_participation">Welfare and labor market participation</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=10" title="Edit section: Welfare and labor market participation">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>Assume that the decision to participate in the labor market results from a trade-off between being an unemployed job seeker and not participating at all. All individuals whose expected utility outside the labor market is less than the expected utility of an unemployed person <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle V_{u}}">
  <semantics>
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle V_{u}}</annotation>
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</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/3055d8f764af06948f7c47e49e2c76ebf0c3c215" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.528ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle V_{u}}"/></span> decide to participate in the labor market. In the basic search and <a href="/wiki/Matching_theory_(economics)" title="Matching theory (economics)">matching model</a>, the expected utility of unemployed persons <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle V_{u}}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle V_{u}}</annotation>
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</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/3055d8f764af06948f7c47e49e2c76ebf0c3c215" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.528ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle V_{u}}"/></span> and that of employed persons <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle V_{e}}">
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</p><p><div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}rV_{e}&=w+q(V_{u}-V_{e})\\rV_{u}&=z+\theta m(\theta )(V_{e}-V_{u})\end{aligned}}}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}rV_{e}&=w+q(V_{u}-V_{e})\\rV_{u}&=z+\theta m(\theta )(V_{e}-V_{u})\end{aligned}}}</annotation>
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</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/304eca597650021aee8b255c12ac27c54f59c377" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.505ex; width:26.916ex; height:6.176ex;" alt="{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}rV_{e}&=w+q(V_{u}-V_{e})\\rV_{u}&=z+\theta m(\theta )(V_{e}-V_{u})\end{aligned}}}"/></div>Let <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r\Pi _{e}=y-w+q(\Pi _{v}-\Pi _{e}),\quad r\Pi _{v}=-h+m(\theta )(\Pi _{e}-\Pi _{v})}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e4e773bc0fb714fc2a2dad484f5de77d3e0b3717" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:57.99ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle r\Pi _{e}=y-w+q(\Pi _{v}-\Pi _{e}),\quad r\Pi _{v}=-h+m(\theta )(\Pi _{e}-\Pi _{v})}"/></div>where <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle h}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>h</mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle h}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b26be3e694314bc90c3215047e4a2010c6ee184a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.339ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="h"/></span> is the cost of a vacant job and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle y}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>y</mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle y}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b8a6208ec717213d4317e666f1ae872e00620a0d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:1.155ex; height:2.009ex;" alt="y"/></span> is the productivity. When the <i>free entry condition</i> <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \Pi _{v}=0}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <msub>
          <mi mathvariant="normal">Π<!-- Π --></mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mi>v</mi>
          </mrow>
        </msub>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mn>0</mn>
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    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Pi _{v}=0}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/be7282cb3f9a21846190a5cc9500fd795b541021" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:7.034ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \Pi _{v}=0}"/></span> is satisfied, these two equalities yield the following relationship between the wage <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>w</mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/88b1e0c8e1be5ebe69d18a8010676fa42d7961e6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.664ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="w"/></span> and labor market tightness <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \theta }">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \theta }</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6e5ab2664b422d53eb0c7df3b87e1360d75ad9af" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="\theta "/></span>:
</p>
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;order-spacing:0.2em 0;"><tbody><tr><td style="padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em;background:#CD5C5C;color:white;">Part of <a href="/wiki/Category:Labor" title="Category:Labor"><span style="color:white">a series</span></a> on</td></tr><tr><th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;padding-top:0;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em;background:#CD5C5C;color:white;padding-bottom:0.3em;"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Organized_Labour" title="Portal:Organized Labour"><span style="color:white">Organized labor</span></a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0.2em 0 0.4em"><a href="/wiki/File:Co-op_activism5.svg" class="image"><img alt="Co-op activism5.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Co-op_activism5.svg/80px-Co-op_activism5.svg.png" decoding="async" width="80" height="80" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Co-op_activism5.svg/120px-Co-op_activism5.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f4/Co-op_activism5.svg/160px-Co-op_activism5.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="500" data-file-height="500" /></a></td></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
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<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_labor_issues_and_events" class="mw-redirect" title="Timeline of labor issues and events">Timeline</a></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/New_Unionism" class="mw-redirect" title="New Unionism">New Unionism</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Proletariat" title="Proletariat">Proletariat</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_movement_unionism" title="Social movement unionism">Social movement unionism</a></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Social_democracy" title="Social democracy">Social democracy</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">Socialism</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Syndicalism" title="Syndicalism">Syndicalism</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anarcho-syndicalism" title="Anarcho-syndicalism">Anarcho-syndicalism</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-bottom:0;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Labor_rights" title="Labor rights">Labor rights</a></div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center">
<ul><li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Freedom_of_association" title="Freedom of association">Freedom of association</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Collective_bargaining" title="Collective bargaining">Collective bargaining</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Child_labor" class="mw-redirect" title="Child labor">Child labor</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Unfree_labour" title="Unfree labour">Unfree labour</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Equal_pay_for_equal_work" title="Equal pay for equal work">Equal pay</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Employment_discrimination" title="Employment discrimination">Employment discrimination</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Legal_working_age" title="Legal working age">Legal working age</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Eight-hour_day" title="Eight-hour day">Eight-hour day</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Annual_leave" title="Annual leave">Annual leave</a></li><li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Minimum wage</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health" title="Occupational safety and health">Occupational safety and health</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Employment_protection_legislation" title="Employment protection legislation">Employment protection</a></li></ul></div></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-bottom:0;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Trade_union" title="Trade union">Trade unions</a></div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_trade_unions" title="List of trade unions">Trade unions by country</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_federations_of_trade_unions" title="List of federations of trade unions">Trade union federations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_comparisons_of_trade_unions" title="International comparisons of trade unions">International comparisons</a></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/International_Trade_Union_Confederation" title="International Trade Union Confederation">ITUC</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/International_Workers%27_Association" title="International Workers' Association">IWA</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/World_Federation_of_Trade_Unions" title="World Federation of Trade Unions">WFTU</a></li></ul></div></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-bottom:0;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Strike_action" title="Strike action">Strike action</a></div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_strikes" title="List of strikes">Chronological list of strikes</a></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/General_strike" title="General strike">General strike</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Secondary_action" class="mw-redirect" title="Secondary action">Secondary action</a></li></ul></div></li>
<li><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sitdown_strike" title="Sitdown strike">Sitdown strike</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Work-to-rule" title="Work-to-rule">Work-to-rule</a></li></ul></div></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-bottom:0;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Labour_parties" title="List of Labour parties">Labor parties</a></div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center"><div class="hlist">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Australian_Labor_Party" title="Australian Labor Party">Australia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_Party_(UK)" title="Labour Party (UK)">Britain</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_Party_(Ireland)" title="Labour Party (Ireland)">Ireland</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Israeli_Labor_Party" title="Israeli Labor Party">Israel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_Party_(Malta)" title="Labour Party (Malta)">Malta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_Zealand_Labour_Party" title="New Zealand Labour Party">New Zealand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_Party_(Netherlands)" title="Labour Party (Netherlands)">Netherlands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_Party_(Norway)" title="Labour Party (Norway)">Norway</a></li></ul>
</div>
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/List_of_Labour_parties" title="List of Labour parties">List of Labor parties</a></i></li></ul></div></div></td>
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<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-bottom:0;text-align:center;">Academic disciplines</div><div class="NavContent plainlist" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_relations" title="Industrial relations">Industrial relations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_economics" title="Labour economics">Labor economics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labor_history_(discipline)" title="Labor history (discipline)">Labor history</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_law" title="Labour law">Labor law</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Labor" title="Template:Labor"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Labor" title="Template talk:Labor"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Labor&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p><div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle {h \over {m(\theta )}}={y-w \over {r+q}}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mi>h</mi>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mrow>
              <mi>y</mi>
              <mo>−<!-- − --></mo>
              <mi>w</mi>
            </mrow>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {h \over {m(\theta )}}={y-w \over {r+q}}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/421d203f59bcaa19940bb173ecf40b546864b968" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:15.371ex; height:6.176ex;" alt="{\displaystyle {h \over {m(\theta )}}={y-w \over {r+q}}}"/></div>If <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>w</mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/88b1e0c8e1be5ebe69d18a8010676fa42d7961e6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.664ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="w"/></span> represents a minimum wage that applies to all workers, this equation completely determines the equilibrium value of the labor market tightness <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \theta }">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \theta }</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6e5ab2664b422d53eb0c7df3b87e1360d75ad9af" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="\theta "/></span>. There are two conditions associated with the matching function:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle m'(\theta )<0,\quad [\theta m(\theta )]'>0}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <msup>
          <mi>m</mi>
          <mo>′</mo>
        </msup>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
        <mo><</mo>
        <mn>0</mn>
        <mo>,</mo>
        <mspace width="1em" />
        <mo stretchy="false">[</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mi>m</mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
        <msup>
          <mo stretchy="false">]</mo>
          <mo>′</mo>
        </msup>
        <mo>></mo>
        <mn>0</mn>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle m'(\theta )<0,\quad [\theta m(\theta )]'>0}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ce4bfe2b6381a9d0dbf3d0dba14bc3aabdce5b8e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:25.512ex; height:3.009ex;" alt="{\displaystyle m'(\theta )<0,\quad [\theta m(\theta )]'>0}"/></div>This implies that <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \theta }">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \theta }</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6e5ab2664b422d53eb0c7df3b87e1360d75ad9af" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="\theta "/></span> is a decreasing function of the minimum wage <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>w</mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/88b1e0c8e1be5ebe69d18a8010676fa42d7961e6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.664ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="w"/></span>, and so is the job finding rate <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \alpha =\theta m(\theta )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>α<!-- α --></mi>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mi>m</mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \alpha =\theta m(\theta )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f756aef7ecf1468cb1aa0e20072f51bdc4dc9f96" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.617ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \alpha =\theta m(\theta )}"/></span>. A hike in the minimum wage degrades the profitability of a job, so firms post fewer vacancies and the job finding rate falls off. Now let's rewrite <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle rV_{u}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>r</mi>
        <msub>
          <mi>V</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mi>u</mi>
          </mrow>
        </msub>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle rV_{u}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/998ecb90103651f5192fd4eeb47704eb8e56b14f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:3.576ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle rV_{u}}"/></span> to be:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle rV_{u}={(r+q)z+\theta m(\theta )w \over {r+q+\theta m(\theta )}}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>r</mi>
        <msub>
          <mi>V</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mi>u</mi>
          </mrow>
        </msub>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mrow>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mi>z</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mi>w</mi>
            </mrow>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle rV_{u}={(r+q)z+\theta m(\theta )w \over {r+q+\theta m(\theta )}}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/4436bd4115c713df14b1db2e7b7e1a6092dd3648" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:25.902ex; height:6.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle rV_{u}={(r+q)z+\theta m(\theta )w \over {r+q+\theta m(\theta )}}}"/></div>Using the relationship between the wage and labor market tightness to eliminate the wage from the last equation gives us:
<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle rV_{u}={\theta m(\theta )y+(r+q)z-\theta (r+q)h \over {r+q+\theta m(\theta )}}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>r</mi>
        <msub>
          <mi>V</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mi>u</mi>
          </mrow>
        </msub>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mrow>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mi>y</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mi>z</mi>
              <mo>−<!-- − --></mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mi>h</mi>
            </mrow>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle rV_{u}={\theta m(\theta )y+(r+q)z-\theta (r+q)h \over {r+q+\theta m(\theta )}}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c45cfa02dbe7be5a5378bba83a2ad73f0212fa99" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:37.431ex; height:6.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle rV_{u}={\theta m(\theta )y+(r+q)z-\theta (r+q)h \over {r+q+\theta m(\theta )}}}"/></div> If we maximize <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle rV_{u}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>r</mi>
        <msub>
          <mi>V</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mi>u</mi>
          </mrow>
        </msub>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle rV_{u}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/998ecb90103651f5192fd4eeb47704eb8e56b14f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:3.576ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle rV_{u}}"/></span> in this equation, with respect to the labor market tightness, we find that:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle {[1-\eta (\theta )](y-z) \over {r+q+\eta (\theta )\theta m(\theta )}}={h \over {m(\theta )}}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mrow>
              <mo stretchy="false">[</mo>
              <mn>1</mn>
              <mo>−<!-- − --></mo>
              <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mo stretchy="false">]</mo>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>y</mi>
              <mo>−<!-- − --></mo>
              <mi>z</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>r</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>q</mi>
              <mo>+</mo>
              <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mi>h</mi>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {[1-\eta (\theta )](y-z) \over {r+q+\eta (\theta )\theta m(\theta )}}={h \over {m(\theta )}}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/1bc0d875dc6075324047937604ca34a7c31bdf10" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:27.61ex; height:6.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle {[1-\eta (\theta )](y-z) \over {r+q+\eta (\theta )\theta m(\theta )}}={h \over {m(\theta )}}}"/></div>where <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dcad114ae7505fc7266498f0d988dfd24d83c454" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.069ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}"/></span> is the <a href="/wiki/Elasticity_(economics)" title="Elasticity (economics)">elasticity</a> of the matching function:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )=-\theta {m'(\theta ) \over {m(\theta )}}\equiv -\theta {d \over {d\theta }}\log m(\theta )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mo>−<!-- − --></mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mrow>
              <msup>
                <mi>m</mi>
                <mo>′</mo>
              </msup>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>m</mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
              <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
        <mo>≡<!-- ≡ --></mo>
        <mo>−<!-- − --></mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
          <mfrac>
            <mi>d</mi>
            <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
              <mi>d</mi>
              <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
            </mrow>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
        <mi>log</mi>
        <mo>⁡<!-- ⁡ --></mo>
        <mi>m</mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )=-\theta {m'(\theta ) \over {m(\theta )}}\equiv -\theta {d \over {d\theta }}\log m(\theta )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6d6122ec185f0501de49f272939ae58dedc7cf5e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:34.353ex; height:6.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )=-\theta {m'(\theta ) \over {m(\theta )}}\equiv -\theta {d \over {d\theta }}\log m(\theta )}"/></div>This result shows that the expected utility of unemployed workers is maximized when the minimum wage is set at a level that corresponds to the wage level of the decentralized economy in which the bargaining power parameter is equal to the elasticity <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dcad114ae7505fc7266498f0d988dfd24d83c454" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.069ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}"/></span>.  The level of the negotiated wage is <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w^{*}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <msup>
          <mi>w</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mo>∗<!-- ∗ --></mo>
          </mrow>
        </msup>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w^{*}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c7bc063c8274a00f2a842388cdbc44394c6cec9c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:2.718ex; height:2.343ex;" alt="{\displaystyle w^{*}}"/></span>.
</p><p>If <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w<w^{*}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>w</mi>
        <mo><</mo>
        <msup>
          <mi>w</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mo>∗<!-- ∗ --></mo>
          </mrow>
        </msup>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w<w^{*}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/49b60590e1dccdc7a843fc1901a37621e8734b36" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:7.481ex; height:2.343ex;" alt="{\displaystyle w<w^{*}}"/></span>, then an increase in the minimum wage increases participation <i>and</i> the unemployment rate, with an ambiguous impact on employment. When the bargaining power of workers is less than <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dcad114ae7505fc7266498f0d988dfd24d83c454" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.069ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}"/></span>, an increases in the minimum wage improves the welfare of the unemployed - this suggests that minimum wage hikes can improve labor market efficiency, at least up to the point when bargaining power equals <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>η<!-- η --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>θ<!-- θ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dcad114ae7505fc7266498f0d988dfd24d83c454" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.069ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \eta (\theta )}"/></span>. On the other hand, if <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w\geq w^{*}}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>w</mi>
        <mo>≥<!-- ≥ --></mo>
        <msup>
          <mi>w</mi>
          <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
            <mo>∗<!-- ∗ --></mo>
          </mrow>
        </msup>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w\geq w^{*}}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/bd65eecb32f37ba7052b26f55fd2f6f26472c991" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.505ex; width:7.481ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="{\displaystyle w\geq w^{*}}"/></span>, any increases in the minimum wage entails a decline in labor market participation and an increase in unemployment.
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Job_search_effort">Job search effort</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=11" title="Edit section: Job search effort">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>In the model just presented, we found that the minimum wage always increases unemployment. This result does not necessarily hold when the search effort of workers in <a href="/wiki/Endogeneity_(econometrics)" title="Endogeneity (econometrics)">endogenous</a>.
</p><p>Consider a model where the intensity of the job search is designated by the scalar <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \epsilon }">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>ϵ<!-- ϵ --></mi>
      </mstyle>
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \epsilon }</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c3837cad72483d97bcdde49c85d3b7b859fb3fd2" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.944ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="\epsilon "/></span>, which can be interpreted as the amount of time and/or intensity of the effort devoted to search. Assume that the arrival rate of job offers is <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \alpha \epsilon }">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>α<!-- α --></mi>
        <mi>ϵ<!-- ϵ --></mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \alpha \epsilon }</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ef2d0ecfa4190d3fddea10dd352f87cdef5af626" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:2.432ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \alpha \epsilon }"/></span> and that the wage distribution is degenerated to a single wage <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>w</mi>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle w}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/88b1e0c8e1be5ebe69d18a8010676fa42d7961e6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.664ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="w"/></span>. Denote <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \varphi (\epsilon )}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <mi>φ<!-- φ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
        <mi>ϵ<!-- ϵ --></mi>
        <mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
      </mstyle>
    </mrow>
    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \varphi (\epsilon )}</annotation>
  </semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c71b8272aa5becf87c9ab610b98aec87eaf1fcb3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.274ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \varphi (\epsilon )}"/></span> to be the cost arising from the search effort, with <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \varphi '>0,\;\varphi ''>0}">
  <semantics>
    <mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
      <mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
        <msup>
          <mi>φ<!-- φ --></mi>
          <mo>′</mo>
        </msup>
        <mo>></mo>
        <mn>0</mn>
        <mo>,</mo>
        <mspace width="thickmathspace" />
        <msup>
          <mi>φ<!-- φ --></mi>
          <mo>″</mo>
        </msup>
        <mo>></mo>
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \varphi '>0,\;\varphi ''>0}</annotation>
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</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e6d2f6c332dbf11feaf8ab67a345cbddaec34349" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:15.063ex; height:3.009ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \varphi '>0,\;\varphi ''>0}"/></span>. Then the discounted utilities are given by:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}rV_{e}&=w+q(V_{u}-V_{e})\\rV_{u}&=\max _{\epsilon }\;z-\varphi (\epsilon )+\alpha \epsilon (V_{e}-V_{u})\end{aligned}}}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}rV_{e}&=w+q(V_{u}-V_{e})\\rV_{u}&=\max _{\epsilon }\;z-\varphi (\epsilon )+\alpha \epsilon (V_{e}-V_{u})\end{aligned}}}</annotation>
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</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dae7e9530c0175b3c0ef5e3c4e3415edde0bc593" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -3.005ex; width:35.79ex; height:7.176ex;" alt="{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}rV_{e}&=w+q(V_{u}-V_{e})\\rV_{u}&=\max _{\epsilon }\;z-\varphi (\epsilon )+\alpha \epsilon (V_{e}-V_{u})\end{aligned}}}"/></div>Therefore, the optimal search effort is such that the marginal cost of performing the search is equation to the marginal return:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \varphi '(\epsilon )=\alpha (V_{e}-V_{u})}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \varphi '(\epsilon )=\alpha (V_{e}-V_{u})}</annotation>
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</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b75662a05353279aa811e84e76d7a344d18ac9e3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.075ex; height:3.009ex;" alt="{\displaystyle \varphi '(\epsilon )=\alpha (V_{e}-V_{u})}"/></div>This implies that the optimal search effort increases as the difference between the expected utility of the job holder and the expected utility of the job seeker grows. In fact, this difference actually grows with the wage. To see this, take the difference of the two discounted utilities to find:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle (r+q)(V_{e}-V_{u})=w-\max _{\epsilon }\left[z-\varphi (\epsilon )+\alpha \epsilon (V_{e}-V_{u})\right]}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (r+q)(V_{e}-V_{u})=w-\max _{\epsilon }\left[z-\varphi (\epsilon )+\alpha \epsilon (V_{e}-V_{u})\right]}</annotation>
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</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a514456676c75076891a4ff1c8492d92190a517d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.005ex; width:52.914ex; height:4.009ex;" alt="{\displaystyle (r+q)(V_{e}-V_{u})=w-\max _{\epsilon }\left[z-\varphi (\epsilon )+\alpha \epsilon (V_{e}-V_{u})\right]}"/></div>Then differentiating with respect to <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle w}">
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</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/88b1e0c8e1be5ebe69d18a8010676fa42d7961e6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.664ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="w"/></span> and rearranging gives us:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle {d \over {dw}}(V_{e}-V_{u})={1 \over {r+q+\alpha \epsilon ^{*}}}>0}">
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    <annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {d \over {dw}}(V_{e}-V_{u})={1 \over {r+q+\alpha \epsilon ^{*}}}>0}</annotation>
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</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/3d5b44026821ef246f267cd0b70b66e751a44b5e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.338ex; width:32.728ex; height:5.843ex;" alt="{\displaystyle {d \over {dw}}(V_{e}-V_{u})={1 \over {r+q+\alpha \epsilon ^{*}}}>0}"/></div>where <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle \epsilon ^{*}}">
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</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c3e6bb763d22c20916ed4f0bb6bd49d7470cffd8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.33ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="u"/></span> at equilibrium is given by:<div class="mwe-math-element"><div class="mwe-math-mathml-display mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math display="block" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"  alttext="{\displaystyle u={q \over {q+\alpha \epsilon }}}">
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</math></div><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b8042fc0e1bf81986f45f6c862f672fd48724437" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-display" aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -2.338ex; width:11.606ex; height:5.343ex;" alt="{\displaystyle u={q \over {q+\alpha \epsilon }}}"/></div>A hike in the wage, which increases the search effort and the job finding rate, decreases the unemployment rate. So it is possible that a hike in the minimum wage <i>may</i>, by boosting the search effort of job seekers, boost employment. Taken in sum with the previous section, the minimum wage in labor markets with frictions can improve employment and decrease the unemployment rate when it is sufficiently low. However, a high minimum wage is detrimental to employment and increases the unemployment rate.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Empirical_studies">Empirical studies</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=12" title="Edit section: Empirical studies">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg/220px-Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="163" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg/330px-Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg/440px-Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg 2x" data-file-width="650" data-file-height="481" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Funnel_Graph_of_Estimated_Minimum_Wage_Effects.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Estimated minimum wage effects on employment from a meta-study of 64 other studies showed insignificant employment effect (both practically and statistically) from minimum-wage raises. The most precise estimates were heavily clustered at or near zero employment effects (elasticity = 0).<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">[56]</a></sup></div></div></div><p>Economists disagree as to the measurable impact of minimum wages in practice. This disagreement usually takes the form of competing <a href="/wiki/Empirical" class="mw-redirect" title="Empirical">empirical</a> tests of the <a href="/wiki/Elasticity_(economics)" title="Elasticity (economics)">elasticities</a> of <a href="/wiki/Supply_and_demand" title="Supply and demand">supply and demand</a> in <a href="/wiki/Labour_economics" title="Labour economics">labor markets</a> and the degree to which <a href="/wiki/Market_(economics)" title="Market (economics)">markets</a> differ from the efficiency that <a href="/wiki/Economic_model" title="Economic model">models</a> of <a href="/wiki/Perfect_competition" title="Perfect competition">perfect competition</a> predict.
</p><p>Economists have done empirical studies on different aspects of the minimum wage, including:<sup id="cite_ref-Neumark_15-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Neumark-15">[15]</a></sup>
</p>
<ul><li>Employment effects, the most frequently studied aspect</li>
<li>Effects on the <a href="/wiki/Income_distribution" title="Income distribution">distribution of wages and earnings</a> among low-paid and higher-paid workers</li>
<li>Effects on the distribution of incomes among low-income and higher-income families</li>
<li>Effects on the skills of workers through job training and the deferring of work to acquire education</li>
<li>Effects on prices and profits</li>
<li>Effects on <a href="/wiki/On-the-job_training" title="On-the-job training">on-the-job training</a></li></ul>
<p>Until the mid-1990s, a general consensus existed among economists, both conservative and liberal, that the minimum wage reduced employment, especially among younger and low-skill workers.<sup id="cite_ref-Card&Krueger_8-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Card&Krueger-8">[8]</a></sup> In addition to the basic supply-demand intuition, there were a number of empirical studies that supported this view. For example, <a href="/wiki/Edward_Gramlich" title="Edward Gramlich">Gramlich</a> (1976) found that many of the benefits went to higher income families, and that teenagers were made worse off by the unemployment associated with the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">[57]</a></sup>
</p><p>
Brown et al. (1983) noted that time series studies to that point had found that for a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage, there was a decrease in teenage employment of 1–3 percent. However, the studies found wider variation, from 0 to over 3 percent, in their estimates for the effect on teenage unemployment (teenagers without a job and looking for one). In contrast to the simple supply and demand diagram, it was commonly found that teenagers withdrew from the labor force in response to the minimum wage, which produced the possibility of equal reductions in the supply as well as the demand for labor at a higher minimum wage and hence no impact on the unemployment rate. Using a variety of specifications of the employment and unemployment equations (using <a href="/wiki/Ordinary_least_squares" title="Ordinary least squares">ordinary least squares</a> vs. <a href="/wiki/Generalized_least_squares" title="Generalized least squares">generalized least squares</a> <a href="/wiki/Regression_analysis" title="Regression analysis">regression procedures</a>, and linear vs. logarithmic specifications), they found that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage caused a 1 percent decrease in teenage employment, and no change in the teenage unemployment rate. The study also found a small, but statistically significant, increase in unemployment for adults aged 20–24.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">[58]</a></sup></p><div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png/220px-CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="148" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png/330px-CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png/440px-CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png 2x" data-file-width="1183" data-file-height="797" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:CBO_Projected_Effects_of_Minimum_Wage_Increases_v1.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>CBO table illustrating projections of the effects of minimum wage increases on employment and income, under two scenarios</div></div></div>
<p>Wellington (1991) updated Brown et al.'s research with data through 1986 to provide new estimates encompassing a period when the real (i.e., inflation-adjusted) value of the minimum wage was declining, because it had not increased since 1981. She found that a 10% increase in the minimum wage decreased the absolute teenage employment by 0.6%, with no effect on the teen or young adult unemployment rates.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">[59]</a></sup>
</p><p>Some research suggests that the unemployment effects of small minimum wage increases are dominated by other factors.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">[60]</a></sup> In Florida, where voters approved an increase in 2004, a follow-up comprehensive study after the increase confirmed a strong economy with increased employment above previous years in Florida and better than in the US as a whole.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">[61]</a></sup> When it comes to on-the-job training, some believe the increase in wages is taken out of training expenses. A 2001 empirical study found that there is "no evidence that minimum wages reduce training, and little evidence that they tend to increase training."<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">[62]</a></sup>
</p><p>Some empirical studies have tried to ascertain the benefits of a minimum wage beyond employment effects. In an analysis of census data, Joseph Sabia and Robert Nielson found no statistically significant evidence that minimum wage increases helped reduce financial, housing, health, or food insecurity.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">[63]</a></sup> This study was undertaken by the <a href="/wiki/Employment_Policies_Institute" title="Employment Policies Institute">Employment Policies Institute</a>, a think tank funded by the food, beverage and hospitality industries. In 2012, <a href="/wiki/Michael_Reich" title="Michael Reich">Michael Reich</a> published an economic analysis that suggested that a proposed minimum wage hike in San Diego might stimulate the city's economy by about $190 million.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64">[64]</a></sup>
</p><p><i><a href="/wiki/The_Economist" title="The Economist">The Economist</a></i> wrote in December 2013: "A minimum wage, providing it is not set too high, could thus boost pay with no ill effects on jobs....America's federal minimum wage, at 38% of median income, is one of the rich world's lowest. Some studies find no harm to employment from federal or state minimum wages, others see a small one, but none finds any serious damage. ... High minimum wages, however, particularly in rigid labour markets, do appear to hit employment. France has the rich world’s highest wage floor, at more than 60% of the median for adults and a far bigger fraction of the typical wage for the young. This helps explain why France also has shockingly high rates of youth unemployment: 26% for 15- to 24-year-olds."<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">[65]</a></sup>
</p><p>The restaurant industry is commonly studied because of its high number of minimum wage workers. A 2018 study from the Center on Wage and Employment Dynamics at the <a href="/wiki/University_of_California,_Berkeley" title="University of California, Berkeley">University of California, Berkeley</a> focusing on food services showed that minimum wage increases in Washington, Chicago, Seattle, San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose gave workers higher pay without hampering job growth.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66">[66]</a></sup> A 2017 study of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area examined the period 2008-2016 and the effect that a minimum wage increase had on the probability of restaurants going out of business, and broke out results based on the restaurant's rating on the review site <a href="/wiki/Yelp" title="Yelp">Yelp</a>. The study found no effect for 5-star (highest rated) restaurants (regardless of the expensiveness of the cuisine) but those with increasingly lower ratings were increasingly likely to go out of business (for example a 14% increase at 3.5 stars for a $1 per hour minimum wage increase).  It also noted that the Yelp star rating was correlated with likelihood of minority ownership and minority customer base.  Importantly, it noted that restaurants below 4 star in rating were proportionally more likely to hire low-skilled workers.  The minimum wage increases during this period did not prevent growth in the industry overall – the number of restaurants in San Francisco went from 3,600 in 2012 to 7,600 in 2016.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">[67]</a></sup> An August 2019 study from <a href="/wiki/The_New_School" title="The New School">The New School</a>'s Center for New York City Affairs and the think tank National Employment Law Project, which advocates for raising the minimum wage,<sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">[68]</a></sup> found that the restaurant industry in New York City has been "thriving" following an increase in the minimum wage to $15 an hour.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">[69]</a></sup>
</p><p>A 2019 study in the <i>Quarterly Journal of Economics</i> found that minimum wage increases did not have an impact on the overall number of low-wage jobs in the five years subsequent to the wage increase. However, it did find disemployment in 'tradeable' sectors, defined as those sectors most reliant on entry level or low skilled labor.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">[70]</a></sup>
</p><p>In another study, which shared authors with the above, published in the <i>American Economic Review</i> found that a large and persistent increase in the minimum wage in Hungary produced some disemployment with the large majority of additional cost being passed on to consumers. The authors also found that firms began substituting capital for labor over time.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">[71]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Card_and_Krueger">Card and Krueger</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=13" title="Edit section: Card and Krueger">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In 1992, the minimum wage in New Jersey increased from $4.25 to $5.05 per hour (an 18.8% increase), while in the adjacent state of Pennsylvania it remained at $4.25. <a href="/wiki/David_Card" title="David Card">David Card</a> and <a href="/wiki/Alan_B._Krueger" class="mw-redirect" title="Alan B. Krueger">Alan Krueger</a> gathered information on fast food restaurants in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania in an attempt to see what effect this increase had on employment within New Jersey. A basic supply and demand model predicts that relative employment should have decreased in New Jersey. Card and Krueger surveyed employers before the April 1992 New Jersey increase, and again in November–December 1992, asking managers for data on the full-time equivalent staff level of their restaurants both times.<sup id="cite_ref-Card_&_Krueger_1994_72-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Card_&_Krueger_1994-72">[72]</a></sup> Based on data from the employers' responses, the authors concluded that the increase in the minimum wage slightly increased employment in the New Jersey restaurants.<sup id="cite_ref-Card_&_Krueger_1994_72-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Card_&_Krueger_1994-72">[72]</a></sup>
</p><p>Card and Krueger expanded on this initial article in their 1995 book <i>Myth and Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">[73]</a></sup> They argued that the negative employment effects of minimum wage laws are minimal if not non-existent. For example, they look at the 1992 increase in New Jersey's minimum wage, the 1988 rise in California's minimum wage, and the 1990–91 increases in the federal minimum wage. In addition to their own findings, they reanalyzed earlier studies with updated data, generally finding that the older results of a negative employment effect did not hold up in the larger datasets.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">[74]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Research_subsequent_to_Card_and_Krueger.27s_work"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Research_subsequent_to_Card_and_Krueger's_work">Research subsequent to Card and Krueger's work</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=14" title="Edit section: Research subsequent to Card and Krueger's work">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders,_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders%2C_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg/220px-Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders%2C_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders%2C_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg/330px-Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders%2C_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders%2C_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg/440px-Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders%2C_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg 2x" data-file-width="678" data-file-height="510" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Minimum_wage_effects_across_state_borders,_estimates_using_contiguous_counties.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A 2010 study published in the <a href="/wiki/Review_of_Economics_and_Statistics" class="mw-redirect" title="Review of Economics and Statistics">Review of Economics and Statistics</a> compared 288 pairs of contiguous U.S. counties with minimum wage differentials from 1990 to 2006 and found no adverse employment effects from a minimum wage increase. Contiguous counties with different minimum wages are in purple. All other counties are in white.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75">[75]</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>In 1996, <a href="/wiki/David_Neumark" title="David Neumark">David Neumark</a> and William Wascher reexamined Card and Krueger's result using administrative <a href="/wiki/Payroll" title="Payroll">payroll records</a> from a sample of large fast food restaurant chains, and reported that minimum wage increases were followed by decreases in employment. An assessment of data collected and analyzed by Neumark and Wascher did not initially contradict the Card and Krueger results,<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">[76]</a></sup> but in a later edited version they found a four percent decrease in employment, and reported that "the estimated disemployment effects in the payroll data are often statistically significant at the 5- or 10-percent level although there are some estimators and subsamples that yield insignificant—although almost always negative" employment effects.<sup id="cite_ref-AER_77-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AER-77">[77]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">[78]</a></sup> Neumark and Wascher's conclusions were subsequently rebutted in a 2000 paper by Card and Krueger.<sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79">[79]</a></sup> A 2011 paper has reconciled the difference between Card and Krueger's survey data and Neumark and Wascher's payroll-based data. The paper shows that both datasets evidence conditional employment effects that are positive for small restaurants, but are negative for large fast-food restaurants.<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">[80]</a></sup> A 2014 analysis based on panel data found that the minimum wage reduces employment among teenagers.<sup id="cite_ref-81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81">[81]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 1996 and 1997, the federal minimum wage was increased from $4.25 to $5.15, thereby increasing the minimum wage by $0.90 in Pennsylvania but by just $0.10 in New Jersey; this allowed for an examination of the effects of minimum wage increases in the same area, subsequent to the 1992 change studied by Card and Krueger. A study by Hoffman and Trace found the result anticipated by traditional theory: a detrimental effect on employment.<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82">[82]</a></sup>
</p><p>Further application of the methodology used by Card and Krueger by other researchers yielded results similar to their original findings, across additional data sets.<sup id="cite_ref-Dube_83-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dube-83">[83]</a></sup> A 2010 study by three economists (<a href="/wiki/Arindrajit_Dube" title="Arindrajit Dube">Arindrajit Dube</a> of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, William Lester of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Michael Reich of the University of California, Berkeley), compared adjacent counties in different states where the minimum wage had been raised in one of the states. They analyzed employment trends for several categories of low-wage workers from 1990 to 2006 and found that increases in minimum wages had no negative effects on low-wage employment and successfully increased the income of workers in food services and retail employment, as well as the narrower category of workers in restaurants.<sup id="cite_ref-Dube_83-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dube-83">[83]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOLBRE_84-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOLBRE-84">[84]</a></sup>
</p><p>However, a 2011 study by Baskaya and Rubinstein of Brown University found that at the federal level, "a rise in minimum wage have [<i>sic</i>] an instantaneous impact on wage rates and a corresponding negative impact on employment", stating, "Minimum wage increases boost teenage wage rates and reduce teenage employment."<sup id="cite_ref-businessinnovation.berkeley.edu_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-businessinnovation.berkeley.edu-85">[85]</a></sup> Another 2011 study by Sen, Rybczynski, and Van De Waal found that "a 10% increase in the minimum wage is significantly correlated with a 3−5% drop in teen employment."<sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86">[86]</a></sup> A 2012 study by Sabia, Hansen, and Burkhauser found that "minimum wage increases can have substantial adverse labor demand effects for low-skilled individuals", with the largest effects on those aged 16 to 24.<sup id="cite_ref-87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">[87]</a></sup>
</p><p>A 2013 study by Meer and West concluded that "the minimum wage reduces net job growth, primarily through its effect on job creation by expanding establishments ... most pronounced for younger workers and in industries with a higher proportion of low-wage workers."<sup id="cite_ref-MeerWest_88-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MeerWest-88">[88]</a></sup>  This study by Meer and West was later critiqued for its trends of assumption in the context of narrowly defined low-wage groups.<sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">[89]</a></sup> The authors replied to the critiques and released additional data which addressed the criticism of their methodology, but did not resolve the issue of whether their data showed a causal relationship.<sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">[90]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">[91]</a></sup> A 2019 paper published in the <i>Quarterly Journal of Economics</i> by Cengiz, Dube, Lindner and Zipperer argues that the job losses found using a Meer and West type methodology "tend to be driven by an unrealistically large drop in the number of jobs at the upper tail of the wage distribution, which is unlikely to be a causal effect of the minimum wage."<sup id="cite_ref-92" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-92">[92]</a></sup>  Another 2013 study by Suzana Laporšek of the University of Primorska, on youth unemployment in Europe claimed there was "a negative, statistically significant impact of minimum wage on youth employment."<sup id="cite_ref-93" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-93">[93]</a></sup>  A 2013 study by labor economists Tony Fang and Carl Lin which studied minimum wages and employment in China, found that "minimum wage changes have significant adverse effects on employment in the Eastern and Central regions of China, and result in disemployment for females, young adults, and low-skilled workers".<sup id="cite_ref-94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94">[94]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-95">[95]</a></sup>
</p><p>A 2017 study found that in Seattle, increasing the minimum wage to $13 per hour lowered income of low-wage workers by $125 per month, due to the resulting reduction in hours worked, as industries made changes to make their businesses less labor intensive.  The authors argue that previous research that found no negative effects on hours worked are flawed because they only look at select industries, or only look at teenagers, instead of entire economies.<sup id="cite_ref-96" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-96">[96]</a></sup>
</p><p>Finally, a study by Overstreet in 2019 examined increases to the minimum wage in Arizona. Utilizing data spanning from 1976 to 2017, Overstreet found that a 1% increase in the minimum wage was significantly correlated with a 1.13% increase in per capita income in Arizona. This study could show that smaller increases in minimum wage may not distort labor market as significantly as larger increases experienced in other cities and states. Thus, the small increases experienced in Arizona may have actually led to a slight increase in economic growth.<sup id="cite_ref-97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97">[97]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2019, economists from Georgia Tech published a study that found a strong correlation between incresases to the minimum wage and detectable harm to the financial conditions of small businesses, including a higher rate of bankruptcy, lower hiring rates, lower credit scores, and higher interest payments.  The researchers noted that these small businesses were also correlated with minority ownership and minority customer bases. <sup id="cite_ref-Financial_Stress_98-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Financial_Stress-98">[98]</a></sup>
</p><p>In July 2019, the Congressional Budget Office published the impact on proposed national $15/hour legislation.  It noted that workers who retained full employment would see a modest improvement in take home pay offset by a small decrease in working conditions and non-pecuniary benefits.  However, this benefit is offset by three primary factors; the reduction in hours worked, the reduction in total employment, and the increased cost of goods and services. Those factors result in a decrease of about $33 Billion in total income and nearly 1.7-3.7 million lost jobs in the first three years (the CBO also noted this figure increases over time). <sup id="cite_ref-2019_Congressional_Budget_Office_99-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2019_Congressional_Budget_Office-99">[99]</a></sup>
</p><p>In response to an April 2016 Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) report advocating the raising of the minimum wage to deter crime, economists used data from the 1998-2016 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), and National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) to assess the impact of the minimum wage on crime. They found that increasing the minimum wage resulted in increased property crime arrests among those ages 16-to-24.  They estimated that an increase of the Federal minimum wage to $15/hour would "generate criminal externality costs of nearly $2.4 billion." <sup id="cite_ref-Minimum_Wage_and_Crime_100-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Minimum_Wage_and_Crime-100">[100]</a></sup>
</p><p>Economists in Denmark, relying on a discontinuity in wage rates when a worker turns 18, found that employment fell by 33% and total hours fell by 45% when the minimum wage law was in effect. <sup id="cite_ref-Denmark_Discontinuity_101-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Denmark_Discontinuity-101">[101]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Statistical_meta-analyses">Statistical meta-analyses</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=15" title="Edit section: Statistical meta-analyses">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Several researchers have conducted statistical <a href="/wiki/Meta-analysis" title="Meta-analysis">meta-analyses</a> of the employment effects of the minimum wage. In 1995, Card and Krueger analyzed 14 earlier <a href="/wiki/Time_series" title="Time series">time-series studies</a> on minimum wages and concluded that there was clear evidence of <a href="/wiki/Publication_bias" title="Publication bias">publication bias</a> (in favor of studies that found a statistically significant negative employment effect). They point out that later studies, which had more data and lower standard errors, did not show the expected increase in <a href="/wiki/T-statistic" title="T-statistic">t-statistic</a> (almost all the studies had a t-statistic of about two, just above the level of <a href="/wiki/Statistical_significance" title="Statistical significance">statistical significance</a> at the .05 level).<sup id="cite_ref-102" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-102">[102]</a></sup> Though a serious methodological indictment, opponents of the minimum wage largely ignored this issue; as Thomas Leonard noted, "The silence is fairly deafening."<sup id="cite_ref-103" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-103">[103]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2005, T.D. Stanley showed that Card and Krueger's results could signify either publication bias or the absence of a minimum wage effect. However, using a different methodology, Stanley concluded that there is evidence of publication bias and that correction of this bias shows no relationship between the minimum wage and unemployment.<sup id="cite_ref-104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104">[104]</a></sup> In 2008, Hristos Doucouliagos and T.D. Stanley conducted a similar meta-analysis of 64 U.S. studies on disemployment effects and concluded that Card and Krueger's initial claim of publication bias is still correct. Moreover, they concluded, "Once this publication selection is corrected, little or no evidence of a negative association between minimum wages and employment remains."<sup id="cite_ref-105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105">[105]</a></sup> In 2013, a meta-analysis of 16 UK studies found no significant effects on employment attributable to the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106">[106]</a></sup> a 2007 meta-analyses by David Neumark of 96 studies found a consistent, but not always statistically significant, negative effect on employment from increases in the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107">[107]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Debate_over_consequences">Debate over consequences</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=16" title="Edit section: Debate over consequences">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Minimum wage laws affect workers in most low-paid fields of employment<sup id="cite_ref-Neumark_15-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Neumark-15">[15]</a></sup> and have usually been judged against the criterion of reducing poverty.<sup id="cite_ref-Palgrave1987_108-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Palgrave1987-108">[108]</a></sup> Minimum wage laws receive less support from economists than from the general public. Despite decades of experience and economic research, debates about the costs and benefits of minimum wages continue today.<sup id="cite_ref-Neumark_15-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Neumark-15">[15]</a></sup>
</p><p>Various groups have great ideological, political, financial, and emotional investments in issues surrounding minimum wage laws. For example, agencies that administer the laws have a vested interest in showing that "their" laws do not create unemployment, as do labor unions whose members' finances are protected by minimum wage laws. On the other side of the issue, low-wage employers such as restaurants finance the Employment Policies Institute, which has released numerous studies opposing the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109">[109]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110">[110]</a></sup> The presence of these powerful groups and factors means that the debate on the issue is not always based on dispassionate analysis. Additionally, it is extraordinarily difficult to separate the effects of minimum wage from all the other variables that affect employment.<sup id="cite_ref-SowellBasic_28-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-SowellBasic-28">[28]</a></sup>
</p><p>The following table summarizes the arguments made by those for and against minimum wage laws:
</p>
<table class="wikitable">
<tbody><tr>
<th scope="col" style="text-align:left;">Arguments in favor of minimum wage laws
</th>
<th scope="col" style="text-align:left;">Arguments against minimum wage laws
</th></tr>
<tr style="vertical-align:top">
<td>
<p>Supporters of the minimum wage claim it has these effects:
</p>
<ul><li>Improves functioning of the low-wage labor market which may be characterized by employer-side market power (monopsony).<sup id="cite_ref-111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111">[111]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112">[112]</a></sup></li>
<li>Raises family incomes at the bottom of the income distribution, and lowers poverty.<sup id="cite_ref-113" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113">[113]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-114" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-114">[114]</a></sup></li>
<li>Positive impact on small business owners and industry.<sup id="cite_ref-115" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-115">[115]</a></sup></li>
<li>Removes financial stress<sup id="cite_ref-116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-116">[116]</a></sup> and encourages education,<sup id="cite_ref-117" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-117">[117]</a></sup> resulting in better paying jobs.</li>
<li>Increases the standard of living for the poorest and most vulnerable class in society and raises average.<sup id="cite_ref-EPI_site_118-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EPI_site-118">[118]</a></sup></li>
<li>Increases incentives to take jobs, as opposed to other methods of transferring income to the poor that are not tied to employment (such as food subsidies for the poor or welfare payments for the unemployed).<sup id="cite_ref-freeman_paper_119-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-freeman_paper-119">[119]</a></sup></li>
<li>Stimulates consumption, by putting more money in the hands of low-income people who spend their entire paychecks. Hence increases circulation of money through the economy.<sup id="cite_ref-EPI_site_118-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EPI_site-118">[118]</a></sup></li>
<li>Increased job growth and creation.<sup id="cite_ref-cepr.net_120-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cepr.net-120">[120]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bloomberg1_121-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bloomberg1-121">[121]</a></sup></li>
<li>Encourages efficiency and <a href="/wiki/Automation" title="Automation">automation</a> of industry.<sup id="cite_ref-122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122">[122]</a></sup></li>
<li>Removes low paying jobs, forcing workers to train for, and move to, higher paying jobs.<sup id="cite_ref-123" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-123">[123]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124">[124]</a></sup></li>
<li>Increases technological development. Costly technology that increases business efficiency is more appealing as the price of labor increases.<sup id="cite_ref-125" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-125">[125]</a></sup></li>
<li>Increases the <a href="/wiki/Work_ethic" title="Work ethic">work ethic</a> of those who earn very little, as employers demand more return from the higher cost of hiring these employees.<sup id="cite_ref-EPI_site_118-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EPI_site-118">[118]</a></sup></li>
<li>Decreases the cost of government social welfare programs by increasing incomes for the lowest-paid.<sup id="cite_ref-EPI_site_118-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EPI_site-118">[118]</a></sup></li>
<li>Encourages people to join the workforce rather than pursuing money through illegal means, e.g., selling illegal drugs<sup id="cite_ref-126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126">[126]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-127" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-127">[127]</a></sup></li></ul>
</td>
<td>
<p>Opponents of the minimum wage claim it has these effects:
</p>
<ul><li>Minimum wage alone is not effective at alleviating poverty, and in fact produces a net increase in poverty due to disemployment effects.<sup id="cite_ref-128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128">[128]</a></sup></li>
<li>As a labor market analogue of political-economic protectionism, it excludes low cost competitors from labor markets and hampers firms in reducing wage costs during trade downturns. This generates various industrial-economic inefficiencies.<sup id="cite_ref-129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129">[129]</a></sup></li>
<li>Hurts small business more than large business.<sup id="cite_ref-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr_130-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr-130">[130]</a></sup></li>
<li>Reduces quantity demanded of workers, either through a reduction in the number of hours worked by individuals, or through a reduction in the number of jobs.<sup id="cite_ref-131" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-131">[131]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-The_Wages_of_Politics_132-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-The_Wages_of_Politics-132">[132]</a></sup></li>
<li>May cause price inflation as businesses try to compensate by raising the prices of the goods being sold.<sup id="cite_ref-133" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-133">[133]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134">[134]</a></sup></li>
<li>Benefits some workers at the expense of the poorest and least productive.<sup id="cite_ref-cato.org_135-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cato.org-135">[135]</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wage/price_spiral" class="mw-redirect" title="Wage/price spiral">Wage/price spiral</a></li>
<li>Encourages employers to replace low-skilled workers with <a href="/wiki/Automation" title="Automation">computers</a>, such as <a href="/wiki/Self-checkout" title="Self-checkout">self-checkout</a> machines.<sup id="cite_ref-136" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-136">[136]</a></sup></li>
<li>Increases property crime and misery in poor communities by decreasing legal markets of production and consumption in those communities;<sup id="cite_ref-137" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137">[137]</a></sup></li>
<li>Can result in the exclusion of certain groups (ethnic, gender etc.) from the labor force.<sup id="cite_ref-138" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-138">[138]</a></sup></li>
<li>Small firms with limited payroll budgets cannot offer their most valuable employees fair and attractive wages above unskilled workers paid the artificially high minimum, and see a rising hurdle-cost of adding workers.<sup id="cite_ref-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr_130-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr-130">[130]</a></sup></li>
<li>Is less effective than other methods (e.g. the <a href="/wiki/Earned_Income_Tax_Credit" class="mw-redirect" title="Earned Income Tax Credit">Earned Income Tax Credit</a>) at reducing poverty, and is more damaging to businesses than those other methods.<sup id="cite_ref-economist2006_139-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-economist2006-139">[139]</a></sup></li>
<li>Discourages further education among the poor by enticing people to enter the job market.<sup id="cite_ref-economist2006_139-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-economist2006-139">[139]</a></sup></li>
<li>Discriminates against, through pricing out, less qualified workers (including newcomers to the labor market, e.g. young workers) by keeping them from accumulating work experience and qualifications, hence potentially graduating to higher wages later.<sup id="cite_ref-WSJ100309_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WSJ100309-6">[6]</a></sup></li>
<li>Slows growth in the creation of low-skilled jobs<sup id="cite_ref-MeerWest_88-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MeerWest-88">[88]</a></sup></li>
<li>Results in jobs moving to other areas or countries which allow lower-cost labor.<sup id="cite_ref-140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-140">[140]</a></sup></li>
<li>Results in higher long-term unemployment.<sup id="cite_ref-141" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-141">[141]</a></sup></li>
<li>Results in higher prices for consumers, where products and services are produced by minimum-wage workers<sup id="cite_ref-142" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-142">[142]</a></sup> (though non-labor costs represent a greater proportion of costs to consumers in industries like fast food and discount retail)<sup id="cite_ref-143" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-143">[143]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-144" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-144">[144]</a></sup></li></ul>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>A widely circulated argument that the minimum wage was ineffective at reducing poverty was provided by <a href="/wiki/George_Stigler" title="George Stigler">George Stigler</a> in 1949:
</p>
<ul><li>Employment may fall more than in proportion to the wage increase, thereby reducing overall earnings;</li>
<li>As uncovered sectors of the economy absorb workers released from the covered sectors, the decrease in wages in the uncovered sectors may exceed the increase in wages in the covered ones;</li>
<li>The impact of the minimum wage on family income distribution may be negative unless the fewer but better jobs are allocated to members of needy families rather than to, for example, teenagers from families not in poverty;</li>
<li>Forbidding employers to pay less than a legal minimum is equivalent to forbidding workers to sell their labor for less than the minimum wage. The legal restriction that employers cannot pay less than a legislated wage is equivalent to the legal restriction that workers cannot work at all in the protected sector unless they can find employers willing to hire them at that wage.<sup id="cite_ref-Palgrave1987_108-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Palgrave1987-108">[108]</a></sup></li></ul>
<p>In 2006, the <a href="/wiki/International_Labour_Organization" title="International Labour Organization">International Labour Organization</a> (ILO) argued that the minimum wage could not be directly linked to unemployment in countries that have suffered job losses.<sup id="cite_ref-ILO_2006_1-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ILO_2006-1">[1]</a></sup> In April 2010, the <a href="/wiki/Organisation_for_Economic_Co-operation_and_Development" class="mw-redirect" title="Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development">Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development</a> (OECD) released a report arguing that countries could alleviate teen unemployment by "lowering the cost of employing low-skilled youth" through a sub-minimum training wage.<sup id="cite_ref-145" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-145">[145]</a></sup>  A study of U.S. states showed that businesses' annual and average payrolls grow faster and employment grew at a faster rate in states with a minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-146" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-146">[146]</a></sup> The study showed a correlation, but did not claim to prove causation.
</p><p>Although strongly opposed by both the business community and the <a href="/wiki/Conservative_Party_(UK)" title="Conservative Party (UK)">Conservative Party</a> when introduced in the UK in 1999, the Conservatives reversed their opposition in 2000.<sup id="cite_ref-147" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-147">[147]</a></sup> Accounts differ as to the effects of the minimum wage. The Centre for Economic Performance found no discernible impact on employment levels from the wage increases,<sup id="cite_ref-148" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-148">[148]</a></sup> while the <a href="/wiki/Low_Pay_Commission" title="Low Pay Commission">Low Pay Commission</a> found that employers had reduced their rate of hiring and employee hours employed, and found ways to cause current workers to be more productive (especially service companies).<sup id="cite_ref-LPC_2005_149-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-LPC_2005-149">[149]</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Institute_for_the_Study_of_Labor" class="mw-redirect" title="Institute for the Study of Labor">Institute for the Study of Labor</a> found prices in the minimum wage sector rose significantly faster than prices in non-minimum wage sectors, in the four years following the implementation of the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-150" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-150">[150]</a></sup> Neither trade unions nor employer organizations contest the minimum wage, although the latter had especially done so heavily until 1999.
</p><p>In 2014, supporters of minimum wage cited a study that found that job creation within the United States is faster in states that raised their minimum wages.<sup id="cite_ref-cepr.net_120-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cepr.net-120">[120]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-151" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-151">[151]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-152" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-152">[152]</a></sup>  In 2014, supporters of minimum wage cited news organizations who reported the state with the highest minimum-wage garnered more job creation than the rest of the United States.<sup id="cite_ref-cepr.net_120-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cepr.net-120">[120]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bloomberg2_153-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bloomberg2-153">[153]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-154" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-154">[154]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-155" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-155">[155]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-156" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-156">[156]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-157" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-157">[157]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-158" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-158">[158]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2014, in Seattle, Washington, liberal and progressive business owners who had supported the city's new $15 minimum wage said they might hold off on expanding their businesses and thus creating new jobs, due to the uncertain timescale of the wage increase implementation.<sup id="cite_ref-159" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-159">[159]</a></sup> However, subsequently at least two of the business owners quoted did expand.<sup id="cite_ref-160" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-160">[160]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-161" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-161">[161]</a></sup>
</p><p>The dollar value of the minimum wage loses purchasing power over time due to inflation. Minimum wage laws, for instance proposals to index the minimum wage to average wages, have the potential to keep the dollar value of the minimum wage relevant and predictable.<sup id="cite_ref-162" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-162">[162]</a></sup>
</p><p>With regard to the economic effects of introducing minimum wage legislation in Germany in January 2015, recent developments have shown that the feared increase in unemployment has not materialized, however, in some economic sectors and regions of the country, it came to a decline in job opportunities particularly for temporary and part-time workers, and some low-wage jobs have disappeared entirely.<sup id="cite_ref-163" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-163">[163]</a></sup> Because of this overall positive development, the <a href="/wiki/Deutsche_Bundesbank" title="Deutsche Bundesbank">Deutsche Bundesbank</a> revised its opinion, and ascertained that “the impact of the introduction of the minimum wage on the total volume of work appears to be very limited in the present business cycle”.<sup id="cite_ref-164" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-164">[164]</a></sup>
</p><p>A 2019 study published in the <a href="/wiki/American_Journal_of_Preventive_Medicine" title="American Journal of Preventive Medicine">American Journal of Preventive Medicine</a> showed that in the United States, those states which have implemented a higher minimum wage saw a decline in the growth of <a href="/wiki/Suicide_in_the_United_States" title="Suicide in the United States">suicide</a> rates. The researchers say that for every one dollar increase, the annual suicide growth rate fell by 1.9%. The study covers all 50 states for the years 2006 to 2016.<sup id="cite_ref-165" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-165">[165]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Surveys_of_economists">Surveys of economists</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=17" title="Edit section: Surveys of economists">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>According to a 1978 article in the <i><a href="/wiki/American_Economic_Review" class="mw-redirect" title="American Economic Review">American Economic Review</a></i>, 90% of the economists surveyed agreed that the minimum wage increases unemployment among low-skilled workers.<sup id="cite_ref-166" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-166">[166]</a></sup>  By 1992 the survey found 79% of economists in agreement with that statement,<sup id="cite_ref-167" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-167">[167]</a></sup> and by 2000,  46% were in full agreement with the statement and 28% agreed with provisos (74% total).<sup id="cite_ref-168" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-168">[168]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Hall_169-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hall-169">[169]</a></sup> The authors of the 2000 study also reweighted data from a 1990 sample to show that at that time 62% of academic economists agreed with the statement above, while 20% agreed with provisos and 18% disagreed. They state that the reduction on consensus on this question is "likely" due to the Card and Krueger research and subsequent debate.<sup id="cite_ref-Fuller_170-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fuller-170">[170]</a></sup>
</p><p>A similar survey in 2006 by Robert Whaples polled PhD members of the <a href="/wiki/American_Economic_Association" title="American Economic Association">American Economic Association</a> (AEA). Whaples found that 47% respondents wanted the minimum wage eliminated, 38% supported an increase, 14% wanted it kept at the current level, and 1% wanted it decreased.<sup id="cite_ref-Whaples_2006_171-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Whaples_2006-171">[171]</a></sup> Another survey in 2007 conducted by the University of New Hampshire Survey Center found that 73% of labor economists surveyed in the United States believed 150% of the then-current minimum wage would result in employment losses and 68% believed a mandated minimum wage would cause an increase in hiring of workers with greater skills. 31% felt that no hiring changes would result.<sup id="cite_ref-172" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-172">[172]</a></sup>
</p><p>Surveys of labor economists have found a sharp split on the minimum wage. Fuchs et al. (1998) polled labor economists at the top 40 research universities in the United States on a variety of questions in the summer of 1996. Their 65 respondents were nearly evenly divided when asked if the minimum wage should be increased. They argued that the different policy views were not related to views on whether raising the minimum wage would reduce teen employment (the median economist said there would be a reduction of 1%), but on value differences such as income redistribution.<sup id="cite_ref-173" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-173">[173]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Daniel_B._Klein" title="Daniel B. Klein">Daniel B. Klein</a> and Stewart Dompe conclude, on the basis of previous surveys, "the average level of support for the minimum wage is somewhat higher among labor economists than among AEA members."<sup id="cite_ref-Klein_&_Dompe_2007_174-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Klein_&_Dompe_2007-174">[174]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2007, Klein and Dompe conducted a non-anonymous survey of supporters of the minimum wage who had signed the "Raise the Minimum Wage" statement published by the <a href="/wiki/Economic_Policy_Institute" title="Economic Policy Institute">Economic Policy Institute</a>. 95 of the 605 signatories responded. They found that a majority signed on the grounds that it transferred income from employers to workers, or equalized bargaining power between them in the labor market. In addition, a majority considered disemployment to be a moderate potential drawback to the increase they supported.<sup id="cite_ref-Klein_&_Dompe_2007_174-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Klein_&_Dompe_2007-174">[174]</a></sup>
</p><p>In 2013, a diverse group of 37 economics professors was surveyed on their view of the minimum wage's impact on employment. 34% of respondents agreed with the statement, "Raising the federal minimum wage to $9 per hour would make it noticeably harder for low-skilled workers to find employment." 32% disagreed and the remaining respondents were uncertain or had no opinion on the question. 47% agreed with the statement, "The distortionary costs of raising the federal minimum wage to $9 per hour and indexing it to inflation are sufficiently small compared with the benefits to low-skilled workers who can find employment that this would be a desirable policy", while 11% disagreed.<sup id="cite_ref-175" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-175">[175]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Alternatives">Alternatives</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=18" title="Edit section: Alternatives">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Economists and other political commentators have proposed alternatives to the minimum wage. They argue that these alternatives may address the issue of poverty better than a minimum wage, as it would benefit a broader population of low wage earners, not cause any unemployment, and distribute the costs widely rather than concentrating it on employers of low wage workers.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Basic_income">Basic income</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=19" title="Edit section: Basic income">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Basic_Income" class="mw-redirect" title="Basic Income">Basic Income</a></div>
<p>A <a href="/wiki/Basic_income" title="Basic income">basic income</a> (or <a href="/wiki/Negative_income_tax" title="Negative income tax">negative income tax</a> - NIT) is a system of <a href="/wiki/Social_security" title="Social security">social security</a> that periodically provides each citizen with a sum of money that is sufficient to live on frugally. Supporters of the basic-income idea argue that recipients of the basic income would have considerably more bargaining power when negotiating a wage with an employer, as there would be no risk of destitution for not taking the employment. As a result, jobseekers could spend more time looking for a more appropriate or satisfying job, or they could wait until a higher-paying job appeared. Alternatively, they could spend more time increasing their skills (via education and training), which would make them more suitable for higher-paying jobs, as well as provide numerous other benefits. Experiments on Basic Income and NIT in Canada and the USA show that people spent more time studying while the program<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Avoid_weasel_words" class="mw-redirect" title="Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words"><span title="The material near this tag possibly uses too vague attribution or weasel words. (June 2019)">which?</span></a></i>]</sup> was running.<sup id="cite_ref-176" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-176">[176]</a></sup><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"><span title="Quotation needed from source to verify. (June 2019)">need quotation to verify</span></a></i>]</sup>
</p><p>Proponents argue that a basic income that is based on a broad tax base would be more economically efficient than a minimum wage, as the minimum wage effectively imposes a high marginal tax on employers, causing <a href="/wiki/Deadweight_loss" title="Deadweight loss">losses in efficiency</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2013)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Guaranteed_minimum_income">Guaranteed minimum income</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=20" title="Edit section: Guaranteed minimum income">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>A <a href="/wiki/Guaranteed_minimum_income" title="Guaranteed minimum income">guaranteed minimum income</a> is another proposed system of <a href="/wiki/Social_welfare_provision" class="mw-redirect" title="Social welfare provision">social welfare provision</a>. It is similar to a basic income or negative income tax system, except that it is normally conditional and subject to a means test. Some proposals also stipulate a willingness to participate in the <a href="/wiki/Labor_market" class="mw-redirect" title="Labor market">labor market</a>, or a willingness to perform <a href="/wiki/Community_services" class="mw-redirect" title="Community services">community services</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-177" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-177">[177]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Refundable_tax_credit">Refundable tax credit</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=21" title="Edit section: Refundable tax credit">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>A <a href="/wiki/Refundable_tax_credit" class="mw-redirect" title="Refundable tax credit">refundable tax credit</a> is a mechanism whereby the tax system can reduce the tax owed by a household to below zero, and result in a net payment to the taxpayer beyond their own payments into the tax system. Examples of refundable tax credits include the <a href="/wiki/Earned_income_tax_credit" title="Earned income tax credit">earned income tax credit</a> and the additional <a href="/wiki/Child_tax_credit" title="Child tax credit">child tax credit</a> in the US, and <a href="/wiki/Working_tax_credit" class="mw-redirect" title="Working tax credit">working tax credits</a> and <a href="/wiki/Child_tax_credit" title="Child tax credit">child tax credits</a> in the UK. Such a system is slightly different from a <a href="/wiki/Negative_income_tax" title="Negative income tax">negative income tax</a>, in that the refundable tax credit is usually only paid to households that have earned at least some income.  This policy is more targeted against poverty than the minimum wage, because it avoids subsidizing low-income workers who are supported by high-income households (for example, teenagers still living with their parents).<sup id="cite_ref-wbur_178-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wbur-178">[178]</a></sup>
</p><p>In the United States, earned income tax credit rates, also known as EITC or EIC, vary by state—some are refundable while other states do not allow a refundable tax credit.<sup id="cite_ref-179" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-179">[179]</a></sup> The federal EITC program has been expanded by a number of presidents including Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, and Bill Clinton.<sup id="cite_ref-180" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-180">[180]</a></sup> In 1986, President Reagan described the EITC as "the best anti poverty, the best pro-family, the best job creation measure to come out of Congress."<sup id="cite_ref-181" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-181">[181]</a></sup> The ability of the earned income tax credit to deliver larger monetary benefits to the poor workers than an increase in the minimum wage and at a lower cost to society was documented in a 2007 report by the <a href="/wiki/Congressional_Budget_Office" title="Congressional Budget Office">Congressional Budget Office</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-182" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-182">[182]</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Adam_Smith_Institute" title="Adam Smith Institute">Adam Smith Institute</a> prefers cutting taxes on the poor and middle class instead of raising wages as an alternative to the minimum wage.<sup id="cite_ref-183" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-183">[183]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Collective_bargaining">Collective bargaining</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=22" title="Edit section: Collective bargaining">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Italy, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark are examples of developed nations where there is no minimum wage that is required by legislation.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_20-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:0-20">[20]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-NYT-20141027-LA_22-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NYT-20141027-LA-22">[22]</a></sup> Such nations, particularly the Nordics, have very high union participation rates.<sup id="cite_ref-Olson_184-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Olson-184">[184]</a></sup> Instead, minimum wage standards in different sectors are set by <a href="/wiki/Collective_bargaining" title="Collective bargaining">collective bargaining</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-185" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-185">[185]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Wage_subsidies">Wage subsidies</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=23" title="Edit section: Wage subsidies">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Some economists such as <a href="/wiki/Scott_Sumner" title="Scott Sumner">Scott Sumner</a><sup id="cite_ref-186" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-186">[186]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Edmund_Phelps" title="Edmund Phelps">Edmund Phelps</a><sup id="cite_ref-187" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-187">[187]</a></sup> advocate a wage subsidy program. A wage subsidy is a payment made by a government for work people do. It is based either on an hourly basis or by income earned. Advocates argue that the primary deficiencies of the EITC and the minimum wage are best avoided by a wage subsidy.<sup id="cite_ref-188" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-188">[188]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-189" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-189">[189]</a></sup> However, the wage subsidy in the United States suffers from a lack of political support from either major <a href="/wiki/Political_parties_in_the_United_States" title="Political parties in the United States">political party</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-190" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-190">[190]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-191" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-191">[191]</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Education_and_training">Education and training</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=24" title="Edit section: Education and training">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Providing education or funding apprenticeships or technical training can provide a bridge for low skilled workers to move into wages above a minimum wage.  For example, Germany has adopted a state funded <a href="/wiki/Apprenticeship" title="Apprenticeship">apprenticeship</a> program that combines on-the-job and classroom training.<sup id="cite_ref-192" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-192">[192]</a></sup> Having more skills makes workers more valuable and more productive, but having a high minimum wage for low-skill jobs reduces the incentive to seek education and training.<sup id="cite_ref-193" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-193">[193]</a></sup> Moving some workers to higher-paying jobs will decrease the supply of workers willing to accept low-skill jobs, increasing the market wage for those low skilled jobs (assuming a stable labor market).  However, in that solution the wage will still not increase above the marginal return for the role and will likely promote automation or business closure.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="US_movement">US movement</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=25" title="Edit section: US movement">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Minimum_wage_in_the_United_States" title="Minimum wage in the United States">Minimum wage in the United States</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg/220px-Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg/330px-Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg/440px-Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg 2x" data-file-width="7360" data-file-height="4912" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Minimumwage_demonstration.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Protest calling for raising the Minneapolis minimum wage to $15/hour. 12 September 2016</div></div></div>
<p>In January 2014, seven Nobel economists—<a href="/wiki/Kenneth_Arrow" title="Kenneth Arrow">Kenneth Arrow</a>, <a href="/wiki/Peter_Diamond" title="Peter Diamond">Peter Diamond</a>, <a href="/wiki/Eric_Maskin" title="Eric Maskin">Eric Maskin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Thomas_Schelling" title="Thomas Schelling">Thomas Schelling</a>, <a href="/wiki/Robert_Solow" title="Robert Solow">Robert Solow</a>, <a href="/wiki/Michael_Spence" title="Michael Spence">Michael Spence</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Joseph_Stiglitz" title="Joseph Stiglitz">Joseph Stiglitz</a>—and 600 other economists wrote a <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.epi.org/minimum-wage-statement/">letter</a> to the US Congress and the US President urging that, by 2016, the US government should raise the minimum wage to $10.10. They endorsed the <a href="/wiki/Minimum_Wage_Fairness_Act" title="Minimum Wage Fairness Act">Minimum Wage Fairness Act</a> which was introduced by US Senator <a href="/wiki/Tom_Harkin" title="Tom Harkin">Tom Harkin</a> in 2013.<sup id="cite_ref-cnnmoney2014january14MW_194-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cnnmoney2014january14MW-194">[194]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-EPI600MW_195-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EPI600MW-195">[195]</a></sup>  U.S. Senator <a href="/wiki/Bernie_Sanders" title="Bernie Sanders">Bernie Sanders</a> introduced a bill in 2015 that would raise the minimum wage to $15, and in <a href="/wiki/Bernie_Sanders_presidential_campaign,_2016" class="mw-redirect" title="Bernie Sanders presidential campaign, 2016">his 2016 campaign for president</a> ran on a platform of increasing it.<sup id="cite_ref-196" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-196">[196]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-197" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-197">[197]</a></sup> Although Sanders did not become the nominee, the <a href="/wiki/Democratic_National_Committee" title="Democratic National Committee">Democratic National Committee</a> adopted his $15 minimum wage push in their <a href="/wiki/2016_Democratic_National_Convention#Platform_provisions" title="2016 Democratic National Convention">2016 party platform</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-198" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-198">[198]</a></sup>
</p><p>Reactions from former McDonald's USA Ed Rensi about raising minimum wage to $15 is to completely push humans out of the picture when it comes to labor if they are to pay minimum wage at $15 they would look into replacing humans with machines as that would be the more cost-effective than having employees that are ineffective. During an interview on FOX Business Network’s Mornings with Maria, he stated that he believes an increase to $15 an hour would cause job loss at an extraordinary level. Rensi also believes it does not only affect the fast food industry, franchising he sees as the best business model in the United States, it is dependent on people that have low job skills that have to grow and if you cannot pay them a reasonable wage then they are going to be replaced with machines.<sup id="cite_ref-199" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-199">[199]</a></sup>
</p><p>In late March 2016, Governor of California <a href="/wiki/Jerry_Brown" title="Jerry Brown">Jerry Brown</a> reached a deal to raise the minimum wage to $15 by 2022 for big businesses and 2023 for smaller businesses.<sup id="cite_ref-200" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-200">[200]</a></sup>
</p><p>In contrast, the relatively high minimum wage in <a href="/wiki/Puerto_Rico" title="Puerto Rico">Puerto Rico</a> has been blamed by various politicians and commentators as a highly significant factor in the <a href="/wiki/Puerto_Rican_government-debt_crisis" title="Puerto Rican government-debt crisis">Puerto Rican government-debt crisis</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-NBER_201-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NBER-201">[201]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-WashingtonPost_202-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WashingtonPost-202">[202]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Forbes_203-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Forbes-203">[203]</a></sup> One study concluded that "Employers are disinclined to hire workers because the US federal minimum wage is very high relative to the local average".<sup id="cite_ref-BGPFR_204-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BGPFR-204">[204]</a></sup>
</p><p>As of December 2014<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, unions were exempt from recent minimum wage increases in <a href="/wiki/Chicago,_Illinois" class="mw-redirect" title="Chicago, Illinois">Chicago, Illinois</a>, <a href="/wiki/SeaTac,_Washington" title="SeaTac, Washington">SeaTac, Washington</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Milwaukee_County,_Wisconsin" title="Milwaukee County, Wisconsin">Milwaukee County, Wisconsin</a>, as well as the California cities of <a href="/wiki/Los_Angeles" title="Los Angeles">Los Angeles</a>, <a href="/wiki/San_Francisco" title="San Francisco">San Francisco</a>, <a href="/wiki/Long_Beach,_California" title="Long Beach, California">Long Beach</a>, <a href="/wiki/San_Jose,_California" title="San Jose, California">San Jose</a>, <a href="/wiki/Richmond,_California" title="Richmond, California">Richmond</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Oakland,_California" title="Oakland, California">Oakland</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-205" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-205">[205]</a></sup>
</p><p>Scholars found in 2019 that, in America, "Between 1990 and 2015, raising the minimum wage by $1 in each state might have saved more than 27,000 lives, according to a report published this week in the <i>Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.</i> An increase of $2 in each state's minimum wage could have prevented more than 57,000 suicides."<sup id="cite_ref-206" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-206">[206]</a></sup>  The researchers stated, "The effect of a US$1 increase in the minimum wage ranged from a 3.4% decrease (95% CI 0.4 to 6.4) to a 5.9% decrease (95% CI 1.4 to 10.2) in the suicide rate among adults aged 18–64 years with a high school education or less. We detected significant effect modification by unemployment rate, with the largest effects of minimum wage on reducing suicides observed at higher unemployment levels."<sup id="cite_ref-:2_207-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:2-207">[207]</a></sup> They concluded, "Minimum wage increases appear to reduce the suicide rate among those with a high school education or less, and may reduce disparities between socioeconomic groups. Effects appear greatest during periods of high unemployment."<sup id="cite_ref-:2_207-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:2-207">[207]</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Countries_by_minimum_wage_to_average_wage_ratio">Countries by minimum wage to average wage ratio</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=26" title="Edit section: Countries by minimum wage to average wage ratio">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table class="wikitable sortable">
<caption>Countries by minimum wage to mean wage ratio<sup id="cite_ref-:1_208-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-208">[208]</a></sup>
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th><a href="/wiki/Country" title="Country">Country</a>
</th>
<th>2010
</th>
<th>2011
</th>
<th>2012
</th>
<th>2013
</th>
<th>2014
</th>
<th>2015
</th>
<th>2016
</th>
<th>2017
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.46
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Belgium" title="Belgium">Belgium</a>
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.40
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a>
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.41
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Chile" title="Chile">Chile</a>
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.49
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Czech_Republic" title="Czech Republic">Czech Republic</a>
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.35
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Estonia" title="Estonia">Estonia</a>
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.35
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/France" title="France">France</a>
</td>
<td>0.50
</td>
<td>0.50
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.50
</td>
<td>0.50
</td>
<td>0.50
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Greece" title="Greece">Greece</a>
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.30
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.33
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Hungary" title="Hungary">Hungary</a>
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ireland" title="Ireland">Ireland</a>
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.38
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a>
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.44
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Japan" title="Japan">Japan</a>
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.36
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/South_Korea" title="South Korea">Korea</a>
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.34
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.41
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Luxembourg" title="Luxembourg">Luxembourg</a>
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.43
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Mexico" title="Mexico">Mexico</a>
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.29
</td>
<td>0.29
</td>
<td>0.29
</td>
<td>0.31
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Netherlands" title="Netherlands">Netherlands</a>
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.39
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a>
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.50
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.52
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Poland" title="Poland">Poland</a>
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.44
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Portugal" title="Portugal">Portugal</a>
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.43
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Slovakia" title="Slovakia">Slovakia</a>
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Slovenia" title="Slovenia">Slovenia</a>
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.50
</td>
<td>0.52
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.48
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Spain" title="Spain">Spain</a>
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.31
</td>
<td>0.34
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Turkey" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.42
</td>
<td>0.42
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a>
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.44
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>
</td>
<td>0.28
</td>
<td>0.28
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.27
</td>
<td>0.25
</td>
<td>0.25
</td>
<td>0.24
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Latvia" title="Latvia">Latvia</a>
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.39
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Lithuania" title="Lithuania">Lithuania</a>
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.43
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Romania" title="Romania">Romania</a>
</td>
<td>0.32
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.33
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.40
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.44
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<table class="wikitable sortable">
<caption>Countries by minimum wage to median wage ratio<sup id="cite_ref-:1_208-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:1-208">[208]</a></sup>
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th><a href="/wiki/Country" title="Country">Country</a>
</th>
<th>2010
</th>
<th>2011
</th>
<th>2012
</th>
<th>2013
</th>
<th>2014
</th>
<th>2015
</th>
<th>2016
</th>
<th>2017
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.55
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Belgium" title="Belgium">Belgium</a>
</td>
<td>0.5
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.47
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a>
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.46
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Chile" title="Chile">Chile</a>
</td>
<td>0.71
</td>
<td>0.67
</td>
<td>0.67
</td>
<td>0.67
</td>
<td>0.68
</td>
<td>0.66
</td>
<td>0.69
</td>
<td>0.71
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Czech_Republic" title="Czech Republic">Czech Republic</a>
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.4
</td>
<td>0.41
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Estonia" title="Estonia">Estonia</a>
</td>
<td>0.4
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.4
</td>
<td>0.4
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td>
<td>0.41
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/France" title="France">France</a>
</td>
<td>0.62
</td>
<td>0.62
</td>
<td>0.63
</td>
<td>0.63
</td>
<td>0.63
</td>
<td>0.62
</td>
<td>0.62
</td>
<td>0.62
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Greece" title="Greece">Greece</a>
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.52
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.48
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Hungary" title="Hungary">Hungary</a>
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.53
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ireland" title="Ireland">Ireland</a>
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.46
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a>
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.57
</td>
<td>0.55
</td>
<td>0.57
</td>
<td>0.58
</td>
<td>0.59
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Japan" title="Japan">Japan</a>
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.4
</td>
<td>0.4
</td>
<td>0.42
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/South_Korea" title="South Korea">Korea</a>
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.44
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.5
</td>
<td>0.53
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Luxembourg" title="Luxembourg">Luxembourg</a>
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.55
</td>
<td>0.54
</td>
<td>0.53
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Mexico" title="Mexico">Mexico</a>
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.4
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Netherlands" title="Netherlands">Netherlands</a>
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a>
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.6
</td>
<td>0.6
</td>
<td>0.61
</td>
<td>0.6
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Poland" title="Poland">Poland</a>
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.5
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.54
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Portugal" title="Portugal">Portugal</a>
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.53
</td>
<td>0.52
</td>
<td>0.52
</td>
<td>0.55
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.61
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Slovakia" title="Slovakia">Slovakia</a>
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.48
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Slovenia" title="Slovenia">Slovenia</a>
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.61
</td>
<td>0.62
</td>
<td>0.64
</td>
<td>0.6
</td>
<td>0.6
</td>
<td>0.59
</td>
<td>0.58
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Spain" title="Spain">Spain</a>
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.4
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Turkey" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>
</td>
<td>0.7
</td>
<td>0.71
</td>
<td>0.73
</td>
<td>0.72
</td>
<td>0.69
</td>
<td>0.7
</td>
<td>0.74
</td>
<td>0.74
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a>
</td>
<td>0.46
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.54
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>
</td>
<td>0.39
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.38
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.37
</td>
<td>0.36
</td>
<td>0.35
</td>
<td>0.34
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Latvia" title="Latvia">Latvia</a>
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.47
</td>
<td>0.49
</td>
<td>0.52
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.48
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Lithuania" title="Lithuania">Lithuania</a>
</td>
<td>0.5
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.55
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.5
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.54
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Romania" title="Romania">Romania</a>
</td>
<td>0.43
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.45
</td>
<td>0.48
</td>
<td>0.51
</td>
<td>0.55
</td>
<td>0.56
</td>
<td>0.6
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=27" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r936637989">.mw-parser-output .portal{border:solid #aaa 1px;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .portal.tleft{margin:0.5em 1em 0.5em 0}.mw-parser-output .portal.tright{margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul{display:table;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0.1em;max-width:175px;background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li{display:table-row}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li>span:first-child{display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .portal>ul>li>span:last-child{display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle}</style><div role="navigation" aria-label="Portals" class="noprint portal plainlist tright">
<ul>
<li><span><a href="/wiki/File:Emblem-money.svg" class="image"><img alt="icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Emblem-money.svg/28px-Emblem-money.svg.png" decoding="async" width="28" height="28" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Emblem-money.svg/42px-Emblem-money.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Emblem-money.svg/56px-Emblem-money.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="48" data-file-height="48" /></a></span><span><a href="/wiki/Portal:Business_and_Economics" class="mw-redirect" title="Portal:Business and Economics">Business and Economics portal</a></span></li>
<li><span><a href="/wiki/File:Capitalismlogo.svg" class="image"><img alt="icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Capitalismlogo.svg/29px-Capitalismlogo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="29" height="28" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Capitalismlogo.svg/44px-Capitalismlogo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Capitalismlogo.svg/59px-Capitalismlogo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="959" data-file-height="912" /></a></span><span><a href="/wiki/Portal:Capitalism" title="Portal:Capitalism">Capitalism portal</a></span></li></ul></div>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Average_worker%27s_wage" title="Average worker's wage">Average worker's wage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_inequality" title="Economic inequality">Economic inequality</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employee_benefits" title="Employee benefits">Employee benefits</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Family_wage" title="Family wage">Family wage</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Garcia_v._San_Antonio_Metropolitan_Transit_Authority" title="Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority">Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labor_law" class="mw-redirect" title="Labor law">Labor law</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_minimum_wages_by_country" title="List of minimum wages by country">List of minimum wages by country</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minimum_Wage_Fixing_Convention_1970" title="Minimum Wage Fixing Convention 1970">Minimum Wage Fixing Convention 1970</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Moonlight_clan" title="Moonlight clan">Moonlight clan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Negative_and_positive_rights" title="Negative and positive rights">Negative and positive rights</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Nickel_and_Dimed" title="Nickel and Dimed">Nickel and Dimed</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Price_controls" title="Price controls">Price controls</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salary_cap" title="Salary cap">Salary cap</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Scratch_Beginnings" title="Scratch Beginnings">Scratch Beginnings</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wage_slavery" title="Wage slavery">Wage slavery</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Working_poor" title="Working poor">Working poor</a></li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=28" title="Edit section: Notes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns"><ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-ILO_2006-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ILO_2006_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ILO_2006_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ILO_2006_1-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/infosheets/w-1.pdf">"ILO 2006: Minimum wages policy (PDF)"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Ilo.org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20091229085643/http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/infosheets/w-1.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 29 December 2009<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 March</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=ILO+2006%3A+Minimum+wages+policy+%28PDF%29&rft.pub=Ilo.org&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ilo.org%2Fpublic%2Fenglish%2Fprotection%2Fcondtrav%2Fpdf%2Finfosheets%2Fw-1.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r935243608">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
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<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.igmchicago.org/surveys/15-minimum-wage">"$15 Minimum Wage"</a>. <i>www.igmchicago.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 May</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.igmchicago.org&rft.atitle=%2415+Minimum+Wage&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.igmchicago.org%2Fsurveys%2F15-minimum-wage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Leonard, Thomas C. (2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/towardhistoryofa0000unse">"The Very Idea of Apply Economics: The Modern Minimum-Wage Controversy and Its Antecedents"</a>.  In Backhouse, Roger E.; Biddle, Jeff (eds.). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/towardhistoryofa0000unse/page/117"><i>Toward a History of Applied Economics</i></a>. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/towardhistoryofa0000unse/page/117">117–144</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8223-6485-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8223-6485-6"><bdi>978-0-8223-6485-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=The+Very+Idea+of+Apply+Economics%3A+The+Modern+Minimum-Wage+Controversy+and+Its+Antecedents&rft.btitle=Toward+a+History+of+Applied+Economics&rft.place=Durham&rft.pages=117-144&rft.pub=Duke+University+Press&rft.date=2000&rft.isbn=978-0-8223-6485-6&rft.aulast=Leonard&rft.aufirst=Thomas+C.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Ftowardhistoryofa0000unse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Gwartney-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Gwartney_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Gwartney_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Gwartney, James David; Clark, J. R.; Stroup, Richard L. (1985). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/essentialsofecon00gwar/page/405"><i>Essentials of Economics</i></a>. New York: Harcourt College Pub; 2 edition. p. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/essentialsofecon00gwar/page/405">405</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0123110350" title="Special:BookSources/978-0123110350"><bdi>978-0123110350</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Essentials+of+Economics&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=405&rft.pub=Harcourt+College+Pub%3B+2+edition&rft.date=1985&rft.isbn=978-0123110350&rft.aulast=Gwartney&rft.aufirst=James+David&rft.au=Clark%2C+J.+R.&rft.au=Stroup%2C+Richard+L.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fessentialsofecon00gwar%2Fpage%2F405&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theperspective.com/debates/living/raise-minimum-wage/">"Should We Raise The Minimum Wage?"</a>. The Perspective. 30 August 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 September</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Should+We+Raise+The+Minimum+Wage%3F&rft.pub=The+Perspective&rft.date=2017-08-30&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theperspective.com%2Fdebates%2Fliving%2Fraise-minimum-wage%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-WSJ100309-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-WSJ100309_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-WSJ100309_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140111120719/http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203440104574402820278669840">"The Young and the Jobless"</a>. <i>The Wall Street Journal</i>. 3 October 2009. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203440104574402820278669840">the original</a> on 11 January 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 January</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Wall+Street+Journal&rft.atitle=The+Young+and+the+Jobless&rft.date=2009-10-03&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Fnews%2Farticles%2FSB10001424052970203440104574402820278669840&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Oxford-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Oxford_7-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Black, John (18 September 2003). <i>Oxford Dictionary of Economics</i>. Oxford University Press. p. 300. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-860767-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-860767-0"><bdi>978-0-19-860767-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Oxford+Dictionary+of+Economics&rft.pages=300&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2003-09-18&rft.isbn=978-0-19-860767-0&rft.aulast=Black&rft.aufirst=John&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Card&Krueger-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Card&Krueger_8-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Card&Krueger_8-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Card&Krueger_8-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Card, David; Krueger, Alan B. (1995). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/mythmeasurement00davi"><i>Myth and Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage</i></a></span>. Princeton University Press. pp. 1, 6–7.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Myth+and+Measurement%3A+The+New+Economics+of+the+Minimum+Wage&rft.pages=1%2C+6-7&rft.pub=Princeton+University+Press&rft.date=1995&rft.aulast=Card&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Krueger%2C+Alan+B.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fmythmeasurement00davi&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Burkhauser-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Burkhauser_9-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Burkhauser, Richard (30 September 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2210&context=ilrreview">"Minimum Wages. by David Neumark and William L. Wascher"</a>. <i>ILR Review</i>. <b>64</b> (1). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131009015807/http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2210&context=ilrreview">Archived</a> from the original on 9 October 2013.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=ILR+Review&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages.+by+David+Neumark+and+William+L.+Wascher&rft.volume=64&rft.issue=1&rft.date=2010-09-30&rft.aulast=Burkhauser&rft.aufirst=Richard&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdigitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu%2Fcgi%2Fviewcontent.cgi%3Farticle%3D2210%26context%3Dilrreview&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Mihm-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Mihm_10-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Mihm_10-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Mihm_10-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Mihm_10-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Mihm, Stephen (5 September 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2013-09-05/how-the-black-death-spawned-the-minimum-wage">"How the Black Death Spawned the Minimum Wage"</a>. <i>Bloomberg View</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140418234149/http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2013-09-05/how-the-black-death-spawned-the-minimum-wage">Archived</a> from the original on 18 April 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 April</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Bloomberg+View&rft.atitle=How+the+Black+Death+Spawned+the+Minimum+Wage&rft.date=2013-09-05&rft.aulast=Mihm&rft.aufirst=Stephen&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bloombergview.com%2Farticles%2F2013-09-05%2Fhow-the-black-death-spawned-the-minimum-wage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/6760/405260Minimum0101OFFICIAL0USE0ONLY1.pdf?sequence=1">"Archived copy"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140419012530/https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/6760/405260Minimum0101OFFICIAL0USE0ONLY1.pdf?sequence=1">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 19 April 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 April</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Archived+copy&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fopenknowledge.worldbank.org%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10986%2F6760%2F405260Minimum0101OFFICIAL0USE0ONLY1.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-comment">CS1 maint: archived copy as title (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_archived_copy_as_title" title="Category:CS1 maint: archived copy as title">link</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-guardian-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-guardian_12-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Thorpe, Vanessa (29 March 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/29/black-death-not-spread-rat-fleas-london-plague">"Black death was not spread by rat fleas, say researchers"</a>. <i>The Guardian</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140330010701/http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/29/black-death-not-spread-rat-fleas-london-plague">Archived</a> from the original on 30 March 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 March</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&rft.atitle=Black+death+was+not+spread+by+rat+fleas%2C+say+researchers&rft.date=2014-03-29&rft.aulast=Thorpe&rft.aufirst=Vanessa&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fscience%2F2014%2Fmar%2F29%2Fblack-death-not-spread-rat-fleas-london-plague&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Starr-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Starr_13-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Starr_13-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Starr, Gerald (1993). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/?id=gzurqlZpyfcC&pg=PA1&dq=the+history+of+%22minimum+wage%22+law#v=onepage&q=the%20history%20of%20%22minimum%20wage%22%20law&f=false"><i>Minimum wage fixing : an international review of practices and problems</i></a> (2nd impression (with corrections) ed.). Geneva: International Labour Office. p. 1. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9789221025115" title="Special:BookSources/9789221025115"><bdi>9789221025115</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Minimum+wage+fixing+%3A+an+international+review+of+practices+and+problems&rft.place=Geneva&rft.pages=1&rft.edition=2nd+impression+%28with+corrections%29&rft.pub=International+Labour+Office&rft.date=1993&rft.isbn=9789221025115&rft.aulast=Starr&rft.aufirst=Gerald&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DgzurqlZpyfcC%26pg%3DPA1%26dq%3Dthe%2Bhistory%2Bof%2B%2522minimum%2Bwage%2522%2Blaw%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dthe%2520history%2520of%2520%2522minimum%2520wage%2522%2520law%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Nordlund-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Nordlund_14-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Nordlund, Willis J. (1997). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/?id=iNnsATsBQa4C&pg=PR7&dq=history+of+minimum+wage+laws#v=onepage&q=history%20of%20minimum%20wage%20laws&f=false"><i>The quest for a living wage : the history of the federal minimum wage program</i></a>. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. xv. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780313264122" title="Special:BookSources/9780313264122"><bdi>9780313264122</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+quest+for+a+living+wage+%3A+the+history+of+the+federal+minimum+wage+program&rft.place=Westport%2C+Conn.&rft.pages=xv&rft.pub=Greenwood+Press&rft.date=1997&rft.isbn=9780313264122&rft.aulast=Nordlund&rft.aufirst=Willis+J.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DiNnsATsBQa4C%26pg%3DPR7%26dq%3Dhistory%2Bof%2Bminimum%2Bwage%2Blaws%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Dhistory%2520of%2520minimum%2520wage%2520laws%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Neumark-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Neumark_15-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Neumark_15-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Neumark_15-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Neumark_15-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Neumark, David; William L. Wascher (2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/minimum-wages"><i>Minimum Wages</i></a>. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-262-14102-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-262-14102-4"><bdi>978-0-262-14102-4</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160428001158/https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/minimum-wages">Archived</a> from the original on 28 April 2016.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Minimum+Wages&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+Massachusetts&rft.pub=The+MIT+Press&rft.date=2008&rft.isbn=978-0-262-14102-4&rft.aulast=Neumark&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=William+L.+Wascher&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmitpress.mit.edu%2Fbooks%2Fminimum-wages&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=RHMW#">"OECD Statistics (GDP, unemployment, income, population, labour, education, trade, finance, prices...)"</a>. Stats.oecd.org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130421050224/http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=RHMW">Archived</a> from the original on 21 April 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 March</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=OECD+Statistics+%28GDP%2C+unemployment%2C+income%2C+population%2C+labour%2C+education%2C+trade%2C+finance%2C+prices...%29&rft.pub=Stats.oecd.org&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fstats.oecd.org%2FIndex.aspx%3FDatasetCode%3DRHMW%23&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-DOL-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-DOL_17-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Grossman, Jonathan. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140416113027/http://www.dol.gov/dol/aboutdol/history/flsa1938.htm">"Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938: Maximum Struggle for a Minimum Wage"</a>. Department of Labor. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.dol.gov/dol/aboutdol/history/flsa1938.htm">the original</a> on 16 April 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 April</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Fair+Labor+Standards+Act+of+1938%3A+Maximum+Struggle+for+a+Minimum+Wage&rft.pub=Department+of+Labor&rft.aulast=Grossman&rft.aufirst=Jonathan&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dol.gov%2Fdol%2Faboutdol%2Fhistory%2Fflsa1938.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Stone-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Stone_18-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Stone, Jon (1 October 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140114075901/http://www.totalpolitics.com/blog/28013/history-of-the-uk-s-minimum-wage.thtml">"History of the UK's minimum wage"</a>. <i>Total Politics</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.totalpolitics.com/blog/28013/history-of-the-uk-s-minimum-wage.thtml">the original</a> on 14 January 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 April</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Total+Politics&rft.atitle=History+of+the+UK%27s+minimum+wage&rft.date=2010-10-01&rft.aulast=Stone&rft.aufirst=Jon&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.totalpolitics.com%2Fblog%2F28013%2Fhistory-of-the-uk-s-minimum-wage.thtml&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Williams, Walter E. (June 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+best+anti-poverty+program+we+have%3F-a0203335454">"The Best Anti-Poverty Program We Have?"</a>. <i>Regulation</i>. <b>32</b> (2): 62.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Regulation&rft.atitle=The+Best+Anti-Poverty+Program+We+Have%3F&rft.volume=32&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=62&rft.date=2009-06&rft.aulast=Williams&rft.aufirst=Walter+E.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thefreelibrary.com%2FThe%2Bbest%2Banti-poverty%2Bprogram%2Bwe%2Bhave%253F-a0203335454&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:0-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:0_20-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:0_20-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Minimum_wage_statistics">"Minimum wage statistics – Statistics Explained"</a>. <i>ec.europa.eu</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160207085307/http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Minimum_wage_statistics">Archived</a> from the original on 7 February 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">12 February</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=ec.europa.eu&rft.atitle=Minimum+wage+statistics+%E2%80%93+Statistics+Explained&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fec.europa.eu%2Feurostat%2Fstatistics-explained%2Findex.php%2FMinimum_wage_statistics&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ehrenberg, Ronald G. <i>Labor Markets and Integrating National Economies</i>, Brookings Institution Press (1994), p. 41</span>
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<li id="cite_note-NYT-20141027-LA-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-NYT-20141027-LA_22-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-NYT-20141027-LA_22-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Alderman, Liz; Greenhouse, Steven (27 October 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/28/business/international/living-wages-served-in-denmark-fast-food-restaurants.html">"Fast Food in Denmark Serves Something Atypical: Living Wages"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_New_York_Times" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141028002802/http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/28/business/international/living-wages-served-in-denmark-fast-food-restaurants.html">Archived</a> from the original on 28 October 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">27 October</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft.atitle=Fast+Food+in+Denmark+Serves+Something+Atypical%3A+Living+Wages&rft.date=2014-10-27&rft.aulast=Alderman&rft.aufirst=Liz&rft.au=Greenhouse%2C+Steven&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2014%2F10%2F28%2Fbusiness%2Finternational%2Fliving-wages-served-in-denmark-fast-food-restaurants.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.lni.wa.gov/workplacerights/wages/minimum">"Minimum Wage"</a>. Washington State Dept. of Labor & Industries. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150112020816/http://www.lni.wa.gov/workplacerights/wages/minimum/">Archived</a> from the original on 12 January 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 January</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Minimum+Wage&rft.pub=Washington+State+Dept.+of+Labor+%26+Industries&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lni.wa.gov%2Fworkplacerights%2Fwages%2Fminimum&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.minimum-wage.co.uk/">"Minimum Wage 2020"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 May</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Minimum+Wage+2020&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.minimum-wage.co.uk%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Wage and Hour Division" United States Department of Labor. January 2016. Website. 13 July 2016.<<a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://www.dol/gov/whd/minwage/america.htm">https://www.dol/gov/whd/minwage/america.htm</a><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot" title="Wikipedia:Link rot"><span title=" Dead link since July 2017">permanent dead link</span></a></i>]</span></sup>></span>
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<li id="cite_note-tiss2017-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-tiss2017_26-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190327101203/http://wastemumbai.tiss.edu/interviews/">"Interview with Mr. Milind Ranade (Kachra Vahtuk Shramik Sangh Mumbai)"</a>. <i>TISS Wastelines official website</i>. Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://wastemumbai.tiss.edu/interviews/">the original</a> on 27 March 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">20 March</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=TISS+Wastelines+official+website&rft.atitle=Interview+with+Mr.+Milind+Ranade+%28Kachra+Vahtuk+Shramik+Sangh+Mumbai%29&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwastemumbai.tiss.edu%2Finterviews%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.paycheck.in/main/salary/minimumwages/minfaqfolder">"Most Asked Questions about Minimum Wages in India"</a>. PayCheck.in. 22 February 2013. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130403124424/http://www.paycheck.in/main/salary/minimumwages/minfaqfolder">Archived</a> from the original on 3 April 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 March</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Most+Asked+Questions+about+Minimum+Wages+in+India&rft.pub=PayCheck.in&rft.date=2013-02-22&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.paycheck.in%2Fmain%2Fsalary%2Fminimumwages%2Fminfaqfolder&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-SowellBasic-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-SowellBasic_28-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SowellBasic_28-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-SowellBasic_28-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Thomas_Sowell" title="Thomas Sowell">Sowell, Thomas</a> (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=ax6dsqMdPHQC&pg=PA163">"Minimum Wage Laws"</a>. <i>Basic Economics: A Citizen's Guide to the Economy</i>. New York: Basic Books. pp. 163–69. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-465-08145-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-465-08145-5"><bdi>978-0-465-08145-5</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wage+Laws&rft.btitle=Basic+Economics%3A+A+Citizen%27s+Guide+to+the+Economy&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=163-69&rft.pub=Basic+Books&rft.date=2004&rft.isbn=978-0-465-08145-5&rft.aulast=Sowell&rft.aufirst=Thomas&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dax6dsqMdPHQC%26pg%3DPA163&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Provisional Minimum Wage Commission: Preliminary Views on a Bask of Indicators, Other Relevant Considerations and Impact Assessment,</i> Provisional Minimum Wage Commission, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120119120419/http://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/rbo/Assessment.pdf">"Archived copy"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/rbo/Assessment.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 19 January 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 February</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Archived+copy&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.labour.gov.hk%2Feng%2Frbo%2FAssessment.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-comment">CS1 maint: archived copy as title (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_archived_copy_as_title" title="Category:CS1 maint: archived copy as title">link</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Setting the Initial Statutory Minimum Wage Rate,</i> submission to government by the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Li, Joseph, "Minimum wage legislation for all sectors," China Daily 16 October 2008 <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hkedition/2008-10/16/content_7110239.htm">"Minimum wage legislation for all sectors"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110503235232/http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hkedition/2008-10/16/content_7110239.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 3 May 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 February</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Minimum+wage+legislation+for+all+sectors&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chinadaily.com.cn%2Fhkedition%2F2008-10%2F16%2Fcontent_7110239.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-NYT-20140209-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-NYT-20140209_32-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Editorial Board (9 February 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/09/opinion/sunday/the-case-for-a-higher-minimum-wage.html">"The Case for a Higher Minimum Wage"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_New_York_Times" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140209175346/http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/09/opinion/sunday/the-case-for-a-higher-minimum-wage.html">Archived</a> from the original on 9 February 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">9 February</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft.atitle=The+Case+for+a+Higher+Minimum+Wage&rft.date=2014-02-09&rft.au=Editorial+Board&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2014%2F02%2F09%2Fopinion%2Fsunday%2Fthe-case-for-a-higher-minimum-wage.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-WT-20130318-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-WT-20130318_33-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Chumley, Cheryl K. (18 March 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/mar/18/sen-elizabeth-warren-raise-minimum-wage-22-hour">"Take it to the bank: Sen. Elizabeth Warren wants to raise minimum wage to $22 per hour"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Washington_Times" class="mw-redirect" title="Washington Times">Washington Times</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140223105549/http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/mar/18/sen-elizabeth-warren-raise-minimum-wage-22-hour/">Archived</a> from the original on 23 February 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Washington+Times&rft.atitle=Take+it+to+the+bank%3A+Sen.+Elizabeth+Warren+wants+to+raise+minimum+wage+to+%2422+per+hour&rft.date=2013-03-18&rft.aulast=Chumley&rft.aufirst=Cheryl+K.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.washingtontimes.com%2Fnews%2F2013%2Fmar%2F18%2Fsen-elizabeth-warren-raise-minimum-wage-22-hour&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-HP-20130318-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-HP-20130318_34-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Wing, Nick (18 March 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/18/elizabeth-warren-minimum-wage_n_2900984.html">"Elizabeth Warren: Minimum Wage Would Be $22 An Hour If It Had Kept Up With Productivity"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Huffington_Post" class="mw-redirect" title="Huffington Post">Huffington Post</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140203054615/http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/18/elizabeth-warren-minimum-wage_n_2900984.html">Archived</a> from the original on 3 February 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Huffington+Post&rft.atitle=Elizabeth+Warren%3A+Minimum+Wage+Would+Be+%2422+An+Hour+If+It+Had+Kept+Up+With+Productivity&rft.date=2013-03-18&rft.aulast=Wing&rft.aufirst=Nick&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.huffingtonpost.com%2F2013%2F03%2F18%2Felizabeth-warren-minimum-wage_n_2900984.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-TSP-20131219-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-TSP-20131219_35-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Hart-Landsberg, Ph.D., Martin (19 December 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2013/12/19/22-62hr-the-minimum-wage-if-it-had-risen-like-the-incomes-of-the-1/">"$22.62/HR: The Minimum Wage If It Had Risen Like The Incomes Of The 1%"</a>. <i>thesocietypages.org</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140116214353/http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2013/12/19/22-62hr-the-minimum-wage-if-it-had-risen-like-the-incomes-of-the-1/">Archived</a> from the original on 16 January 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=thesocietypages.org&rft.atitle=%2422.62%2FHR%3A+The+Minimum+Wage+If+It+Had+Risen+Like+The+Incomes+Of+The+1%25&rft.date=2013-12-19&rft.aulast=Hart-Landsberg%2C+Ph.D.&rft.aufirst=Martin&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fthesocietypages.org%2Fsocimages%2F2013%2F12%2F19%2F22-62hr-the-minimum-wage-if-it-had-risen-like-the-incomes-of-the-1%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-POL-20131203-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-POL-20131203_36-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Rmusemore (3 December 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.politicususa.com/2013/12/03/stop-complaining-republicans-minimum-wage-22-62-hour.html">"Stop Complaining Republicans, the Minimum Wage Should be $22.62 an Hour"</a>. <i>policususa.com</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131204111136/http://www.politicususa.com/2013/12/03/stop-complaining-republicans-minimum-wage-22-62-hour.html">Archived</a> from the original on 4 December 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 January</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=policususa.com&rft.atitle=Stop+Complaining+Republicans%2C+the+Minimum+Wage+Should+be+%2422.62+an+Hour&rft.date=2013-12-03&rft.au=Rmusemore&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.politicususa.com%2F2013%2F12%2F03%2Fstop-complaining-republicans-minimum-wage-22-62-hour.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Ehren-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Ehren_37-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Ehren_37-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Ehren_37-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Ehrenberg, R. and Smith, R. "Modern labor economics: theory and public policy", HarperCollins, 1994, 5th ed.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"><span title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears. (December 2013)">page needed</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-MB-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-MB_38-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">McConnell, C. R.; Brue, S. L. (1999). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/microeconomicsst00camp"><i>Economics</i></a></span> (14th ed.). Irwin-McGraw Hill. p. 594.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Economics&rft.pages=594&rft.edition=14th&rft.pub=Irwin-McGraw+Hill&rft.date=1999&rft.aulast=McConnell&rft.aufirst=C.+R.&rft.au=Brue%2C+S.+L.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fmicroeconomicsst00camp&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-GSSM-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-GSSM_39-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Gwartney, J. D.; Stroup, R. L.; Sobel, R. S.; Macpherson, D. A. (2003). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/economics00gwar"><i>Economics: Private and Public Choice</i></a></span> (10th ed.). Thomson South-Western. p. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/economics00gwar/page/97">97</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Economics%3A+Private+and+Public+Choice&rft.pages=97&rft.edition=10th&rft.pub=Thomson+South-Western&rft.date=2003&rft.aulast=Gwartney&rft.aufirst=J.+D.&rft.au=Stroup%2C+R.+L.&rft.au=Sobel%2C+R.+S.&rft.au=Macpherson%2C+D.+A.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Feconomics00gwar&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-M-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-M_40-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Mankiw, N. Gregory (2011). <i>Principles of Macroeconomics</i> (6th ed.). South-Western Pub. p. 311.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Principles+of+Macroeconomics&rft.pages=311&rft.edition=6th&rft.pub=South-Western+Pub&rft.date=2011&rft.aulast=Mankiw&rft.aufirst=N.+Gregory&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Boal, William M.; Ransom, Michael R (March 1997). "Monopsony in the Labor Market". <i>Journal of Economic Literature</i>. <b>35</b> (1): 86–112. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2729694">2729694</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Economic+Literature&rft.atitle=Monopsony+in+the+Labor+Market&rft.volume=35&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=86-112&rft.date=1997-03&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2729694&rft.aulast=Boal&rft.aufirst=William+M.&rft.au=Ransom%2C+Michael+R&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">e.g. DE Card and AB Krueger, <i>Myth and Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage</i> (1995) and S Machin and A Manning, ‘Minimum wages and economic outcomes in Europe’ (1997) 41 European Economic Review 733</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Rittenberg-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Rittenberg_43-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Rittenberg, Timothy Tregarthen, Libby (1999). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/?id=HveHgrID5GYC&pg=PA290&dq=monopsony+minimum+wage#v=onepage&q&f=false"><i>Economics</i></a> (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. p. 290. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781572594180" title="Special:BookSources/9781572594180"><bdi>9781572594180</bdi></a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 June</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Economics&rft.place=New+York&rft.pages=290&rft.edition=2nd&rft.pub=Worth+Publishers&rft.date=1999&rft.isbn=9781572594180&rft.aulast=Rittenberg&rft.aufirst=Timothy+Tregarthen%2C+Libby&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DHveHgrID5GYC%26pg%3DPA290%26dq%3Dmonopsony%2Bminimum%2Bwage%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Garegnani, P. (July 1970). "Heterogeneous Capital, the Production Function and the Theory of Distribution". <i>The Review of Economic Studies</i>. <b>37</b> (3): 407–36. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F2296729">10.2307/2296729</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2296729">2296729</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Review+of+Economic+Studies&rft.atitle=Heterogeneous+Capital%2C+the+Production+Function+and+the+Theory+of+Distribution&rft.volume=37&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=407-36&rft.date=1970-07&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F2296729&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2296729&rft.aulast=Garegnani&rft.aufirst=P.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Vienneau, Robert L. (2005). "On Labour Demand and Equilibria of the Firm". <i>The Manchester School</i>. <b>73</b> (5): 612–19. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-9957.2005.00467.x">10.1111/j.1467-9957.2005.00467.x</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Manchester+School&rft.atitle=On+Labour+Demand+and+Equilibria+of+the+Firm&rft.volume=73&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=612-19&rft.date=2005&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-9957.2005.00467.x&rft.aulast=Vienneau&rft.aufirst=Robert+L.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Opocher, A.; Steedman, I. (2009). "Input price-input quantity relations and the numeraire". <i>Cambridge Journal of Economics</i>. <b>33</b> (5): 937–48. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fcje%2Fbep005">10.1093/cje/bep005</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Cambridge+Journal+of+Economics&rft.atitle=Input+price-input+quantity+relations+and+the+numeraire&rft.volume=33&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=937-48&rft.date=2009&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fcje%2Fbep005&rft.aulast=Opocher&rft.aufirst=A.&rft.au=Steedman%2C+I.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Anyadike-Danes, Michael; Godley, Wynne (1989). "Real Wages and Employment: A Sceptical View of Some Recent Empirical Work". <i>The Manchester School</i>. <b>57</b> (2): 172–87. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-9957.1989.tb00809.x">10.1111/j.1467-9957.1989.tb00809.x</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Manchester+School&rft.atitle=Real+Wages+and+Employment%3A+A+Sceptical+View+of+Some+Recent+Empirical+Work&rft.volume=57&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=172-87&rft.date=1989&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-9957.1989.tb00809.x&rft.aulast=Anyadike-Danes&rft.aufirst=Michael&rft.au=Godley%2C+Wynne&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">White, Graham (November 2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.australianreview.net/journal/v2/n2/white.html">"The Poverty of Conventional Economic Wisdom and the Search for Alternative Economic and Social Policies"</a>. <i>The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs</i>. <b>2</b> (2): 67–87. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130524091537/http://www.australianreview.net/journal/v2/n2/white.html">Archived</a> from the original on 24 May 2013.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Drawing+Board%3A+An+Australian+Review+of+Public+Affairs&rft.atitle=The+Poverty+of+Conventional+Economic+Wisdom+and+the+Search+for+Alternative+Economic+and+Social+Policies&rft.volume=2&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=67-87&rft.date=2001-11&rft.aulast=White&rft.aufirst=Graham&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.australianreview.net%2Fjournal%2Fv2%2Fn2%2Fwhite.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">OECD. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=MIN2AVE">"Minimum relative to average wages of full-time workers"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140502184031/http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=MIN2AVE">Archived</a> from the original on 2 May 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Minimum+relative+to+average+wages+of+full-time+workers&rft.au=OECD&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fstats.oecd.org%2FIndex.aspx%3FDataSetCode%3DMIN2AVE&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Fields, Gary S. (1994). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/articles/1118">"The Unemployment Effects of Minimum Wages"</a>. <i>International Journal of Manpower</i>. <b>15</b> (2): 74–81. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1108%2F01437729410059323">10.1108/01437729410059323</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Manpower&rft.atitle=The+Unemployment+Effects+of+Minimum+Wages&rft.volume=15&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=74-81&rft.date=1994&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1108%2F01437729410059323&rft.aulast=Fields&rft.aufirst=Gary+S.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fdigitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu%2Farticles%2F1118&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Manning2003-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Manning2003_51-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Manning, Alan (2003). <i>Monopsony in motion: Imperfect Competition in Labor Markets</i>. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-691-11312-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-691-11312-8"><bdi>978-0-691-11312-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Monopsony+in+motion%3A+Imperfect+Competition+in+Labor+Markets&rft.place=Princeton%2C+NJ&rft.pub=Princeton+University+Press&rft.date=2003&rft.isbn=978-0-691-11312-8&rft.aulast=Manning&rft.aufirst=Alan&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"><span title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears. (December 2013)">page needed</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Gillespie, Andrew (2007). <i>Foundations of Economics</i>. Oxford University Press. p. 240.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Foundations+of+Economics&rft.pages=240&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.date=2007&rft.au=Gillespie%2C+Andrew&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Krugman, Paul (2013). <i>Economics</i>. Worth Publishers. p. 385.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Economics&rft.pages=385&rft.pub=Worth+Publishers&rft.date=2013&rft.aulast=Krugman&rft.aufirst=Paul&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Blinder, Alan S. (23 May 1996). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/23/opinion/the-5.15-question.html">"The $5.15 Question"</a>. <i>The New York Times</i>. p. A29. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170701015950/http://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/23/opinion/the-5.15-question.html">Archived</a> from the original on 1 July 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&rft.atitle=The+%245.15+Question&rft.pages=A29&rft.date=1996-05-23&rft.aulast=Blinder&rft.aufirst=Alan+S.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F1996%2F05%2F23%2Fopinion%2Fthe-5.15-question.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Cahuc, Pierre; Carcillo, Stéphane; Zylberberg, André (2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/labor-economics-second-edition"><i>Labor Economics</i></a> (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. pp. 796–799. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780262027700" title="Special:BookSources/9780262027700"><bdi>9780262027700</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Labor+Economics&rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&rft.pages=796-799&rft.edition=2nd&rft.pub=The+MIT+Press&rft.date=2014&rft.isbn=9780262027700&rft.aulast=Cahuc&rft.aufirst=Pierre&rft.au=Carcillo%2C+St%C3%A9phane&rft.au=Zylberberg%2C+Andr%C3%A9&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmitpress.mit.edu%2Fbooks%2Flabor-economics-second-edition&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Schmitt, John (February 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/min-wage-2013-02.pdf">"Why Does the Minimum Wage Have No Discernible Effect on Employment?"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Center for Economic and Policy Research. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131203232557/http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/min-wage-2013-02.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 3 December 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 December</span> 2013</span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/02/14/why-economists-are-so-puzzled-by-the-minimum-wage/">Lay summary</a> – <i>The Washington Post</i> (14 February 2013).</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Why+Does+the+Minimum+Wage+Have+No+Discernible+Effect+on+Employment%3F&rft.pub=Center+for+Economic+and+Policy+Research&rft.date=2013-02&rft.aulast=Schmitt&rft.aufirst=John&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cepr.net%2Fdocuments%2Fpublications%2Fmin-wage-2013-02.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Acemoglu, Daron; Pischke, Jörn-Steffen (November 2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://ftp.iza.org/dp384.pdf">"Minimum Wages and On-the-Job Training"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <a href="/wiki/Institute_for_the_Study_of_Labor" class="mw-redirect" title="Institute for the Study of Labor">Institute for the Study of Labor</a>. <a href="/wiki/Social_Science_Research_Network" title="Social Science Research Network">SSRN</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//ssrn.com/abstract=288292">288292</a></span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170525162850/http://ftp.iza.org/dp384.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 25 May 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 December</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+On-the-Job+Training&rft.date=2001-11&rft_id=%2F%2Fssrn.com%2Fabstract%3D288292&rft.aulast=Acemoglu&rft.aufirst=Daron&rft.au=Pischke%2C+J%C3%B6rn-Steffen&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fftp.iza.org%2Fdp384.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/> Also published as <cite class="citation book">Acemoglu, Daron; Pischke, Jörn-Steffen (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/DP0527.pdf">"Minimum Wages and On-the-job Training"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.  In Polachek, Solomon W. (ed.). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nber.org/papers/w7184.pdf"><i>Worker Well-Being and Public Policy</i></a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Research in Labor Economics. <b>22</b>. pp. 159–202. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0147-9121%2803%2922005-7">10.1016/S0147-9121(03)22005-7</a>. <a href="/wiki/Handle_System" title="Handle System">hdl</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//hdl.handle.net/1721.1%2F63851">1721.1/63851</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-76231-026-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-76231-026-5"><bdi>978-0-76231-026-5</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+On-the-job+Training&rft.btitle=Worker+Well-Being+and+Public+Policy&rft.series=Research+in+Labor+Economics&rft.pages=159-202&rft.date=2003&rft_id=info%3Ahdl%2F1721.1%2F63851&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2FS0147-9121%2803%2922005-7&rft.isbn=978-0-76231-026-5&rft.aulast=Acemoglu&rft.aufirst=Daron&rft.au=Pischke%2C+J%C3%B6rn-Steffen&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcep.lse.ac.uk%2Fpubs%2Fdownload%2FDP0527.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Card_&_Krueger_1994-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Card_&_Krueger_1994_72-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Card_&_Krueger_1994_72-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Card, David; Krueger, Alan B. (September 1994). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp017d278t020">"Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania"</a>. <i>The American Economic Review</i>. <b>84</b> (4): 772–93. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2118030">2118030</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+American+Economic+Review&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+Employment%3A+A+Case+Study+of+the+Fast-Food+Industry+in+New+Jersey+and+Pennsylvania&rft.volume=84&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=772-93&rft.date=1994-09&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2118030&rft.aulast=Card&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Krueger%2C+Alan+B.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farks.princeton.edu%2Fark%3A%2F88435%2Fdsp017d278t020&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-74"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-74">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Card; Krueger (2000). "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: Reply". <i>American Economic Review</i>. <b>90</b> (5): 1397–420. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1257%2Faer.90.5.1397">10.1257/aer.90.5.1397</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=American+Economic+Review&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+Employment%3A+A+Case+Study+of+the+Fast-Food+Industry+in+New+Jersey+and+Pennsylvania%3A+Reply&rft.volume=90&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=1397-420&rft.date=2000&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1257%2Faer.90.5.1397&rft.au=Card&rft.au=Krueger&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-AER-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-AER_77-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Neumark, David; Wascher, William (December 2000). "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: Comment". <i>The American Economic Review</i>. <b>90</b> (5): 1362–96. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1257%2Faer.90.5.1362">10.1257/aer.90.5.1362</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2677855">2677855</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+American+Economic+Review&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+Employment%3A+A+Case+Study+of+the+Fast-Food+Industry+in+New+Jersey+and+Pennsylvania%3A+Comment&rft.volume=90&rft.issue=5&rft.pages=1362-96&rft.date=2000-12&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1257%2Faer.90.5.1362&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2677855&rft.aulast=Neumark&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Wascher%2C+William&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-78"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-78">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.davidson.edu/academic/economics/foley/eco324_s06/Neumark_Wascher%20AER%20(2000).pdf">http://www.davidson.edu/academic/economics/foley/eco324_s06/Neumark_Wascher%20AER%20(2000).pdf</a><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#What_information_to_include" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"><span title="A complete citation is needed (December 2013)">full citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot" title="Wikipedia:Link rot"><span title=" Dead link since June 2016">dead link</span></a></i>]</span></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Card and Krueger (2000) "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: Reply" American Economic Review, Volume 90 No. 5. pg 1397-1420</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOLBRE-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOLBRE_84-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Folbre, Nancy (1 November 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/01/along-the-minimum-wage-battle-front/">"Along the Minimum-Wage Battle Front"</a>. <i>New York Times</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131204000907/http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/01/along-the-minimum-wage-battle-front/">Archived</a> from the original on 4 December 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 December</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=New+York+Times&rft.atitle=Along+the+Minimum-Wage+Battle+Front&rft.date=2010-11-01&rft.aulast=Folbre&rft.aufirst=Nancy&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Feconomix.blogs.nytimes.com%2F2010%2F11%2F01%2Falong-the-minimum-wage-battle-front%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-businessinnovation.berkeley.edu-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-businessinnovation.berkeley.edu_85-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://innovation-archives.berkeley.edu/businessinnovation/WilliamsonSeminar/rubinstein110311.pdf">"Using Federal Minimum Wages to Identify the Impact of Minimum Wages on Employment and Earnings Across the U.S. States"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. 1 October 2011.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Using+Federal+Minimum+Wages+to+Identify+the+Impact+of+Minimum+Wages+on+Employment+and+Earnings+Across+the+U.S.+States&rft.date=2011-10-01&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Finnovation-archives.berkeley.edu%2Fbusinessinnovation%2FWilliamsonSeminar%2Frubinstein110311.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-86"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-86">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/labeco/v18y2011i1p36-47.html">"Teen employment, poverty, and the minimum wage: Evidence from Canada"</a>. 1 January 2011. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150916172425/https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/labeco/v18y2011i1p36-47.html">Archived</a> from the original on 16 September 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Teen+employment%2C+poverty%2C+and+the+minimum+wage%3A+Evidence+from+Canada&rft.date=2011-01-01&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fideas.repec.org%2Fa%2Feee%2Flabeco%2Fv18y2011i1p36-47.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-MeerWest-88"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-MeerWest_88-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MeerWest_88-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Meer, Jonathan; West, Jeremy (2016). "Effects of the Minimum Wage on Employment Dynamics". <i><a href="/wiki/Journal_of_Human_Resources" class="mw-redirect" title="Journal of Human Resources">Journal of Human Resources</a></i>. <b>51</b> (2): 500–522. <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX" title="CiteSeerX">CiteSeerX</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.705.3838">10.1.1.705.3838</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.3368%2Fjhr.51.2.0414-6298R1">10.3368/jhr.51.2.0414-6298R1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Human+Resources&rft.atitle=Effects+of+the+Minimum+Wage+on+Employment+Dynamics&rft.volume=51&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=500-522&rft.date=2016&rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.705.3838&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.3368%2Fjhr.51.2.0414-6298R1&rft.aulast=Meer&rft.aufirst=Jonathan&rft.au=West%2C+Jeremy&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-89"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Dube, Arindrajit (26 October 2013). "Minimum Wages and Aggregate Job Growth: Causal Effect or Statistical Artifact?". Rochester, NY. <a href="/wiki/Social_Science_Research_Network" title="Social Science Research Network">SSRN</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//ssrn.com/abstract=2345591">2345591</a></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+Aggregate+Job+Growth%3A+Causal+Effect+or+Statistical+Artifact%3F&rft.date=2013-10-26&rft_id=%2F%2Fssrn.com%2Fabstract%3D2345591&rft.aulast=Dube&rft.aufirst=Arindrajit&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-90"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-90">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Schmitt, John. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cepr.net/index.php/blogs/cepr-blog/more-on-meer-and-wests-minimum-wage-study">"More on Meer and West's Minimum Wage Study"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141026214006/http://www.cepr.net/index.php/blogs/cepr-blog/more-on-meer-and-wests-minimum-wage-study">Archived</a> from the original on 26 October 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=More+on+Meer+and+West%27s+Minimum+Wage+Study&rft.aulast=Schmitt&rft.aufirst=John&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cepr.net%2Findex.php%2Fblogs%2Fcepr-blog%2Fmore-on-meer-and-wests-minimum-wage-study&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-91"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-91">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://repec.iza.org/dp7674.pdf">"Archived copy"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150402182812/http://repec.iza.org/dp7674.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 2 April 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 October</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Archived+copy&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Frepec.iza.org%2Fdp7674.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-comment">CS1 maint: archived copy as title (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_archived_copy_as_title" title="Category:CS1 maint: archived copy as title">link</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-92"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-92">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Zipperer, Ben; Lindner, Attila; Dube, Arindrajit; Cengiz, Doruk (1 August 2019). "The Effect of Minimum Wages on Low-Wage Jobs". <i>The Quarterly Journal of Economics</i>. <b>134</b> (3): 1405–1454. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fqje%2Fqjz014">10.1093/qje/qjz014</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0033-5533">0033-5533</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Quarterly+Journal+of+Economics&rft.atitle=The+Effect+of+Minimum+Wages+on+Low-Wage+Jobs&rft.volume=134&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=1405-1454&rft.date=2019-08-01&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fqje%2Fqjz014&rft.issn=0033-5533&rft.aulast=Zipperer&rft.aufirst=Ben&rft.au=Lindner%2C+Attila&rft.au=Dube%2C+Arindrajit&rft.au=Cengiz%2C+Doruk&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-93"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-93">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/apeclt/v20y2013i14p1288-1292.html">"Minimum wage effects on youth employment in the European Union"</a>. 14 September 2013. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20151016005750/https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/apeclt/v20y2013i14p1288-1292.html">Archived</a> from the original on 16 October 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Minimum+wage+effects+on+youth+employment+in+the+European+Union&rft.date=2013-09-14&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fideas.repec.org%2Fa%2Ftaf%2Fapeclt%2Fv20y2013i14p1288-1292.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-94"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-94">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp7813.html">"Minimum Wages and Employment in China"</a>. 14 December 2013. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150918215325/https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp7813.html">Archived</a> from the original on 18 September 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+Employment+in+China&rft.date=2013-12-14&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fideas.repec.org%2Fp%2Fiza%2Fizadps%2Fdp7813.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-95"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-95">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Fang, Tony; Lin, Carl (27 November 2015). "Minimum wages and employment in China". <i>IZA Journal of Labor Policy</i>. <b>4</b> (1): 22. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1186%2Fs40173-015-0050-9">10.1186/s40173-015-0050-9</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/2193-9004">2193-9004</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=IZA+Journal+of+Labor+Policy&rft.atitle=Minimum+wages+and+employment+in+China&rft.volume=4&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=22&rft.date=2015-11-27&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1186%2Fs40173-015-0050-9&rft.issn=2193-9004&rft.aulast=Fang&rft.aufirst=Tony&rft.au=Lin%2C+Carl&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-96"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-96">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ekaterina Jardim Mark C. Long Robert Plotnick Emma van Inwegen Jacob Vigdor Hilary Wething. "Minimum Wage Increases, wages, and low-wage employment: Evidence from Seattle." National Bureau of Economic Research. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://evans.uw.edu/sites/default/files/NBER%20Working%20Paper.pdf">https://evans.uw.edu/sites/default/files/NBER%20Working%20Paper.pdf</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-97"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-97">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Overstreet, Dallin. "The Effect of Minimum Wage on Per Capita Income in Arizona: Empirical Analysis." Poverty & Public Policy 11.1-2 (2019): 156-168.<a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/pop4.249">https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/pop4.249</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Financial_Stress-98"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Financial_Stress_98-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Chava, Sudheer (December 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nber.org/papers/w26523">"Does a One-Size-Fits-All Minimum Wage Cause Financial Stress for Small Businesses?"</a>. <i>National Bureau of Economic Research</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=National+Bureau+of+Economic+Research&rft.atitle=Does+a+One-Size-Fits-All+Minimum+Wage+Cause+Financial+Stress+for+Small+Businesses%3F&rft.date=2019-12&rft.aulast=Chava&rft.aufirst=Sudheer&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nber.org%2Fpapers%2Fw26523&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-2019_Congressional_Budget_Office-99"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2019_Congressional_Budget_Office_99-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/2019-07/CBO-55410-MinimumWage2019.pdf">"The Effects on Employment and Family Income of Increasing the Federal Minimum Wage"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. July 2019.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=The+Effects+on+Employment+and+Family+Income+of+Increasing+the+Federal+Minimum+Wage&rft.date=2019-07&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cbo.gov%2Fsystem%2Ffiles%2F2019-07%2FCBO-55410-MinimumWage2019.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Minimum_Wage_and_Crime-100"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Minimum_Wage_and_Crime_100-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Fone, Zachary (March 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nber.org/papers/w25647#fromrss">"Do Minimum Wage Increases Reduce Crime?"</a>. <i>National Bureau of Economic Research</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=National+Bureau+of+Economic+Research&rft.atitle=Do+Minimum+Wage+Increases+Reduce+Crime%3F&rft.date=2019-03&rft.aulast=Fone&rft.aufirst=Zachary&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nber.org%2Fpapers%2Fw25647%23fromrss&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Denmark_Discontinuity-101"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Denmark_Discontinuity_101-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Kreiner, Claus (March 2019). <i>The Review of Economics and Statistics</i> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/rest_a_00825?download=true&journalCode=rest&">https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/rest_a_00825?download=true&journalCode=rest&</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Review+of+Economics+and+Statistics&rft.date=2019-03&rft.aulast=Kreiner&rft.aufirst=Claus&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mitpressjournals.org%2Fdoi%2Fabs%2F10.1162%2Frest_a_00825%3Fdownload%3Dtrue%26journalCode%3Drest%26&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-visible-error error citation-comment">Text "titleDo Lower Minimum Wages for Young Workers Raise Their Employment? Evidence From a Danish Discontinuity " ignored (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#text_ignored" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>); </span><span class="cs1-visible-error error citation-comment">Missing or empty <code class="cs1-code">|title=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#citation_missing_title" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-102"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-102">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Card, David; Krueger, Alan B. (May 1995). "Time-Series Minimum-Wage Studies: A Meta-analysis". <i>The American Economic Review</i>. <b>85</b> (2): 238–43. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2117925">2117925</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+American+Economic+Review&rft.atitle=Time-Series+Minimum-Wage+Studies%3A+A+Meta-analysis&rft.volume=85&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=238-43&rft.date=1995-05&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2117925&rft.aulast=Card&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Krueger%2C+Alan+B.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-103"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-103">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Leonard, T. C. (2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.princeton.edu/~tleonard/papers/minimum_wage.pdf">"The Very Idea of Applying Economics: The Modern Minimum-Wage Controversy and Its Antecedents"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>History of Political Economy</i>. <b>32</b>: 117. <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX" title="CiteSeerX">CiteSeerX</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.422.8197">10.1.1.422.8197</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1215%2F00182702-32-Suppl_1-117">10.1215/00182702-32-Suppl_1-117</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171117094251/https://www.princeton.edu/~tleonard/papers/minimum_wage.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 17 November 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=History+of+Political+Economy&rft.atitle=The+Very+Idea+of+Applying+Economics%3A+The+Modern+Minimum-Wage+Controversy+and+Its+Antecedents&rft.volume=32&rft.pages=117&rft.date=2000&rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.422.8197&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1215%2F00182702-32-Suppl_1-117&rft.aulast=Leonard&rft.aufirst=T.+C.&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.princeton.edu%2F~tleonard%2Fpapers%2Fminimum_wage.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-104"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-104">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Stanley, T. D. (2005). "Beyond Publication Bias". <i>Journal of Economic Surveys</i>. <b>19</b> (3): 309. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.0950-0804.2005.00250.x">10.1111/j.0950-0804.2005.00250.x</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Economic+Surveys&rft.atitle=Beyond+Publication+Bias&rft.volume=19&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=309&rft.date=2005&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.0950-0804.2005.00250.x&rft.aulast=Stanley&rft.aufirst=T.+D.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-105"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-105">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T. D. (2009). "Publication Selection Bias in Minimum-Wage Research? A Meta-Regression Analysis". <i>British Journal of Industrial Relations</i>. <b>47</b> (2): 406–28. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-8543.2009.00723.x">10.1111/j.1467-8543.2009.00723.x</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=British+Journal+of+Industrial+Relations&rft.atitle=Publication+Selection+Bias+in+Minimum-Wage+Research%3F+A+Meta-Regression+Analysis&rft.volume=47&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=406-28&rft.date=2009&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-8543.2009.00723.x&rft.aulast=Doucouliagos&rft.aufirst=Hristos&rft.au=Stanley%2C+T.+D.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-106"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-106">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjir.12031/full">"Does the UK Minimum Wage Reduce Employment? A Meta-Regression Analysis"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170802122927/http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjir.12031/full">Archived</a> 2 August 2017 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>.y Megan de Linde Leonard, T. D. Stanley, and Hristos Doucouliagos. <i>BJIR</i>. vol. 52, iss. 3, September 2014, pp. 499–520. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fbjir.12031">10.1111/bjir.12031</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-107"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-107">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">D. Neumark and W.L. Wascher, Minimum Wages and Employment, Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics, vol. 3, no. 1+2, pp 1-182, 2007. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.nber.org/papers/w12663.pdf">http://www.nber.org/papers/w12663.pdf</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Palgrave1987-108"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Palgrave1987_108-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Palgrave1987_108-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Eatwell, John, Ed.; Murray Milgate; Peter Newman (1987). <i>The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics</i>. London: The Macmillan Press Limited. pp. 476–78. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-333-37235-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-333-37235-7"><bdi>978-0-333-37235-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+New+Palgrave%3A+A+Dictionary+of+Economics&rft.place=London&rft.pages=476-78&rft.pub=The+Macmillan+Press+Limited&rft.date=1987&rft.isbn=978-0-333-37235-7&rft.aulast=Eatwell&rft.aufirst=John%2C+Ed.&rft.au=Murray+Milgate&rft.au=Peter+Newman&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-109"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-109">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Bernstein, Harry (15 September 1992). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://articles.latimes.com/1992-09-15/business/fi-836_1_part-time-jobs">"Troubling Facts on Employment"</a>. <i>Los Angeles Times</i>. p. D3. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131217204239/http://articles.latimes.com/1992-09-15/business/fi-836_1_part-time-jobs">Archived</a> from the original on 17 December 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 December</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Los+Angeles+Times&rft.atitle=Troubling+Facts+on+Employment&rft.pages=D3&rft.date=1992-09-15&rft.aulast=Bernstein&rft.aufirst=Harry&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farticles.latimes.com%2F1992-09-15%2Fbusiness%2Ffi-836_1_part-time-jobs&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-110"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-110">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Engquist, Erik (May 2006). "Health bill fight nears showdown". <i>Crain's New York Business</i>. <b>22</b> (20): 1.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Crain%27s+New+York+Business&rft.atitle=Health+bill+fight+nears+showdown&rft.volume=22&rft.issue=20&rft.pages=1&rft.date=2006-05&rft.aulast=Engquist&rft.aufirst=Erik&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-111"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-111">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Von Wachter, Till; Taska, Bledi; Marinescu, Ioana Elena; Huet-Vaughn, Emiliano; Azar, José (5 July 2019). "Minimum Wage Employment Effects and Labor Market Concentration". Rochester, NY. <a href="/wiki/Social_Science_Research_Network" title="Social Science Research Network">SSRN</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//ssrn.com/abstract=3416016">3416016</a></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wage+Employment+Effects+and+Labor+Market+Concentration&rft.date=2019-07-05&rft_id=%2F%2Fssrn.com%2Fabstract%3D3416016&rft.aulast=Von+Wachter&rft.aufirst=Till&rft.au=Taska%2C+Bledi&rft.au=Marinescu%2C+Ioana+Elena&rft.au=Huet-Vaughn%2C+Emiliano&rft.au=Azar%2C+Jos%C3%A9&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-112"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-112">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Dube, Arindrajit; Lester, T. William; Reich, Michael (21 December 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://escholarship.org/uc/item/27z0006g">"Minimum Wage Shocks, Employment Flows, and Labor Market Frictions"</a>. <i>Journal of Labor Economics</i>. <b>34</b> (3): 663–704. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1086%2F685449">10.1086/685449</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0734-306X">0734-306X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Labor+Economics&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wage+Shocks%2C+Employment+Flows%2C+and+Labor+Market+Frictions&rft.volume=34&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=663-704&rft.date=2015-12-21&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1086%2F685449&rft.issn=0734-306X&rft.aulast=Dube&rft.aufirst=Arindrajit&rft.au=Lester%2C+T.+William&rft.au=Reich%2C+Michael&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fescholarship.org%2Fuc%2Fitem%2F27z0006g&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-113"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-113">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Rinz, Kevin; Voorheis, John (March 2018). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ideas.repec.org/p/cen/cpaper/2018-02.html">"The Distributional Effects of Minimum Wages: Evidence from Linked Survey and Administrative Data"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=The+Distributional+Effects+of+Minimum+Wages%3A+Evidence+from+Linked+Survey+and+Administrative+Data&rft.date=2018-03&rft.aulast=Rinz&rft.aufirst=Kevin&rft.au=Voorheis%2C+John&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fideas.repec.org%2Fp%2Fcen%2Fcpaper%2F2018-02.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-114"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-114">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Dube, Arindrajit (2019). "Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes". <i>American Economic Journal: Applied Economics</i>. <b>11</b> (4): 268–304. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1257%2Fapp.20170085">10.1257/app.20170085</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/1945-7782">1945-7782</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=American+Economic+Journal%3A+Applied+Economics&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+and+the+Distribution+of+Family+Incomes&rft.volume=11&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=268-304&rft.date=2019&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1257%2Fapp.20170085&rft.issn=1945-7782&rft.aulast=Dube&rft.aufirst=Arindrajit&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-115"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-115">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.businessforafairminimumwage.org/news/00598/st-louis-post-dispatch-holly-sklar-small-businesses-want-minimum-wage-increase">"Holly Sklar, Small Businesses Want Minimum Wage Increase – Business For a Fair Minimum Wage"</a>. St. Louis Post Dispatch. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150117160937/http://www.businessforafairminimumwage.org/news/00598/st-louis-post-dispatch-holly-sklar-small-businesses-want-minimum-wage-increase">Archived</a> from the original on 17 January 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Holly+Sklar%2C+Small+Businesses+Want+Minimum+Wage+Increase+%E2%80%93+Business+For+a+Fair+Minimum+Wage&rft.pub=St.+Louis+Post+Dispatch&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.businessforafairminimumwage.org%2Fnews%2F00598%2Fst-louis-post-dispatch-holly-sklar-small-businesses-want-minimum-wage-increase&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-freeman_paper-119"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-freeman_paper_119-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Freeman, Richard B. (1994). "Minimum Wages – Again!". <i>International Journal of Manpower</i>. <b>15</b> (2): 8–25. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1108%2F01437729410059305">10.1108/01437729410059305</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Manpower&rft.atitle=Minimum+Wages+%E2%80%93+Again%21&rft.volume=15&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=8-25&rft.date=1994&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1108%2F01437729410059305&rft.aulast=Freeman&rft.aufirst=Richard+B.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-cepr.net-120"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-cepr.net_120-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-cepr.net_120-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-cepr.net_120-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Wolcott, Ben. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cepr.net/index.php/blogs/cepr-blog/2014-job-creation-in-states-that-raised-the-minimum-wage">"2014 Job Creation Faster in States that Raised the Minimum Wage"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141020223951/http://www.cepr.net/index.php/blogs/cepr-blog/2014-job-creation-in-states-that-raised-the-minimum-wage">Archived</a> from the original on 20 October 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=2014+Job+Creation+Faster+in+States+that+Raised+the+Minimum+Wage&rft.aulast=Wolcott&rft.aufirst=Ben&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cepr.net%2Findex.php%2Fblogs%2Fcepr-blog%2F2014-job-creation-in-states-that-raised-the-minimum-wage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Bloomberg1-121"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Bloomberg1_121-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Stilwell, Victoria (8 March 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-05/washington-shows-highest-minimum-wage-state-beats-u-s-with-jobs.html">"Highest Minimum-Wage State Washington Beats U.S. in Job Creation"</a>. <i>Bloomberg</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150110111227/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-05/washington-shows-highest-minimum-wage-state-beats-u-s-with-jobs.html">Archived</a> from the original on 10 January 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Bloomberg&rft.atitle=Highest+Minimum-Wage+State+Washington+Beats+U.S.+in+Job+Creation&rft.date=2014-03-08&rft.aulast=Stilwell&rft.aufirst=Victoria&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bloomberg.com%2Fnews%2F2014-03-05%2Fwashington-shows-highest-minimum-wage-state-beats-u-s-with-jobs.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/>; <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/12/would-increasing-the-minimum-wage-create-jobs/282577/">"Would Increasing the Minimum Wage Create Jobs?"</a>, <i><a href="/wiki/The_Atlantic" title="The Atlantic">The Atlantic</a></i>, Jordan Weissmann, 20 December 2013; <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/may/10/the-guardian-view-on-raising-the-minimum-wage-slowly-does-it">"The Guardian view on raising the minimum wage: slowly does it"</a>, Editorial, <i><a href="/wiki/The_Guardian" title="The Guardian">The Guardian</a></i>, 10 May 2017</span>
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<li id="cite_note-122"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-122">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Bernard_Semmel" title="Bernard Semmel">Bernard Semmel</a>, <i>Imperialism and Social Reform: English Social-Imperial Thought 1895–1914</i> (London: Allen and Unwin, 1960), p. 63.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-123"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-123">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.itif.org/pressrelease/itif-report-shows-self-service-technology-new-force-economic-life">"ITIF Report Shows Self-service Technology a New Force in Economic Life"</a>. The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. 14 April 2010. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120119020955/http://www.itif.org/pressrelease/itif-report-shows-self-service-technology-new-force-economic-life">Archived</a> from the original on 19 January 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=ITIF+Report+Shows+Self-service+Technology+a+New+Force+in+Economic+Life&rft.date=2010-04-14&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.itif.org%2Fpressrelease%2Fitif-report-shows-self-service-technology-new-force-economic-life&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-124"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-124">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Alesina, Alberto F.; Zeira, Joseph (2006). "Technology and Labor Regulations". <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX" title="CiteSeerX">CiteSeerX</a> <span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.710.9997">10.1.1.710.9997</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2139%2Fssrn.936346">10.2139/ssrn.936346</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Technology+and+Labor+Regulations&rft.date=2006&rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.710.9997&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2139%2Fssrn.936346&rft.aulast=Alesina&rft.aufirst=Alberto+F.&rft.au=Zeira%2C+Joseph&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-125"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-125">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/labour/employment_standards/fls/research/research11/page03.shtml">"Minimum Wages in canada : theory, evidence and policy"</a>. Hrsdc.gc.ca. 7 March 2008. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120402010131/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/labour/employment_standards/fls/research/research11/page03.shtml">Archived</a> from the original on 2 April 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Minimum+Wages+in+canada+%3A+theory%2C+evidence+and+policy&rft.pub=Hrsdc.gc.ca&rft.date=2008-03-07&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hrsdc.gc.ca%2Feng%2Flabour%2Femployment_standards%2Ffls%2Fresearch%2Fresearch11%2Fpage03.shtml&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-126"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-126">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Kallem, Andrew (2004). "Youth Crime and the Minimum Wage". <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2139%2Fssrn.545382">10.2139/ssrn.545382</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Youth+Crime+and+the+Minimum+Wage&rft.date=2004&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2139%2Fssrn.545382&rft.aulast=Kallem&rft.aufirst=Andrew&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-127"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-127">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/books_crimeandwork/">"Crime and work: What we can learn from the low-wage labor market | Economic Policy Institute"</a>. Epi.org. 1 July 2000. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110701232959/http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/books_crimeandwork/">Archived</a> from the original on 1 July 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Crime+and+work%3A+What+we+can+learn+from+the+low-wage+labor+market+%26%23124%3B+Economic+Policy+Institute&rft.pub=Epi.org&rft.date=2000-07-01&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.epi.org%2Fpublications%2Fentry%2Fbooks_crimeandwork%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-128"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-128">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kosteas, Vasilios D. "Minimum Wage." Encyclopedia of World Poverty. Ed. M. Odekon.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2006. 719-21. SAGE knowledge. Web.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-129"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-129">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Abbott, Lewis F. <i>Statutory Minimum Wage Controls: A Critical Review of their Effects on Labour Markets, Employment, and Incomes</i>. ISR Publications, Manchester UK, 2nd. edn. 2000. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-906321-22-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-906321-22-5">978-0-906321-22-5</a>. <cite class="citation book">Abbott, Lewis F (2012). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=EZXStcdlFG8C&dq=ISBN0906321220"><i>Statutory Minimum Wage Controls: A Critical Review of Their Effects on Labour Markets, Employment & Incomes</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780906321225" title="Special:BookSources/9780906321225"><bdi>9780906321225</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180130150510/https://books.google.com/books?id=EZXStcdlFG8C&dq=ISBN0906321220">Archived</a> from the original on 30 January 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 November</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Statutory+Minimum+Wage+Controls%3A+A+Critical+Review+of+Their+Effects+on+Labour+Markets%2C+Employment+%26+Incomes&rft.date=2012&rft.isbn=9780906321225&rft.aulast=Abbott&rft.aufirst=Lewis+F&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DEZXStcdlFG8C%26dq%3DISBN0906321220&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"><span title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears. (December 2013)">page needed</span></a></i>]</sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr-130"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr_130-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Llewellyn_H._Rockwell_Jr_130-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Llewellyn H. Rockwell Jr. (28 October 2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.mises.org/story/1950">"Wal-Mart Warms to the State"</a>. <i>Mises.org</i>. Mises Institute. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090508122635/http://www.mises.org/story/1950">Archived</a> from the original on 8 May 2009<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Mises.org&rft.atitle=Wal-Mart+Warms+to+the+State&rft.date=2005-10-28&rft.au=Llewellyn+H.+Rockwell+Jr.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mises.org%2Fstory%2F1950&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-133"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-133">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Messmore, Ryan. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.heritage.org/Research/Labor/BG1162.cfm">"Increasing the Mandated Minimum Wage: Who Pays the Price?"</a>. Heritage.org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20091128052437/http://www.heritage.org/Research/Labor/BG1162.cfm">Archived</a> from the original on 28 November 2009<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Increasing+the+Mandated+Minimum+Wage%3A+Who+Pays+the+Price%3F&rft.pub=Heritage.org&rft.aulast=Messmore&rft.aufirst=Ryan&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.heritage.org%2FResearch%2FLabor%2FBG1162.cfm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-134"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-134">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Art Carden (4 November 2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.mises.org/story/2377">"Why Wal-Mart Matters"</a>. <i>Mises.org</i>. Mises Institute. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090411032001/http://www.mises.org/story/2377">Archived</a> from the original on 11 April 2009<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Mises.org&rft.atitle=Why+Wal-Mart+Matters&rft.date=2006-11-04&rft.au=Art+Carden&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mises.org%2Fstory%2F2377&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-cato.org-135"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-cato.org_135-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Will have only negative effects on the distribution of <a href="/wiki/Economic_justice" title="Economic justice">economic justice</a>. Minimum-wage legislation, by its very nature, benefits some at the expense of the least experienced, least productive, and poorest workers." <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa106.html">(Cato)</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070212111311/http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa106.html">Archived</a> 12 February 2007 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-136"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-136">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Belvedere, Matthew (20 May 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.cnbc.com/2016/05/20/worker-pay-vs-automation-tipping-point-may-be-coming-says-this-fast-food-ceo.html">"Worker pay vs automation tipping point may be coming, says this fast-food CEO"</a>. <i>CNBC</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161223062840/http://www.cnbc.com/2016/05/20/worker-pay-vs-automation-tipping-point-may-be-coming-says-this-fast-food-ceo.html">Archived</a> from the original on 23 December 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">22 December</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=CNBC&rft.atitle=Worker+pay+vs+automation+tipping+point+may+be+coming%2C+says+this+fast-food+CEO&rft.date=2016-05-20&rft.aulast=Belvedere&rft.aufirst=Matthew&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnbc.com%2F2016%2F05%2F20%2Fworker-pay-vs-automation-tipping-point-may-be-coming-says-this-fast-food-ceo.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-137"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-137">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Hashimoto, Masanori (1987). "The Minimum Wage Law and Youth Crimes: Time-Series Evidence". <i>The Journal of Law & Economics</i>. <b>30</b> (2): 443–464. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1086%2F467144">10.1086/467144</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/725504">725504</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Journal+of+Law+%26+Economics&rft.atitle=The+Minimum+Wage+Law+and+Youth+Crimes%3A+Time-Series+Evidence&rft.volume=30&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=443-464&rft.date=1987&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1086%2F467144&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F725504&rft.aulast=Hashimoto&rft.aufirst=Masanori&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-138"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-138">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Williams, Walter (1989). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/southafricaswara00will"><i>South Africa's War Against Capitalism</i></a>. New York: Praeger. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-275-93179-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-275-93179-7"><bdi>978-0-275-93179-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=South+Africa%27s+War+Against+Capitalism&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Praeger&rft.date=1989&rft.isbn=978-0-275-93179-7&rft.aulast=Williams&rft.aufirst=Walter&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fsouthafricaswara00will&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-economist2006-139"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-economist2006_139-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-economist2006_139-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.economist.com/world/na/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8090466">A blunt instrument</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080520133933/http://www.economist.com/world/na/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8090466">Archived</a> 20 May 2008 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, <i><a href="/wiki/The_Economist" title="The Economist">The Economist</a></i>, 26 October 2006</span>
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<li id="cite_note-140"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-140">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://smallbusiness.chron.com/pros-amp-cons-outsourcing-manufacturing-jobs-40320.html">"Pros & Cons of Outsourcing Manufacturing Jobs"</a>. <i>smallbusiness.chron.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 April</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=smallbusiness.chron.com&rft.atitle=Pros+%26+Cons+of+Outsourcing+Manufacturing+Jobs&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fsmallbusiness.chron.com%2Fpros-amp-cons-outsourcing-manufacturing-jobs-40320.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-141"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-141">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Partridge, M. D.; Partridge, J. S. (1999). "Do minimum wage hikes reduce employment? State-level evidence from the low-wage retail sector". <i>Journal of Labor Research</i>. <b>20</b> (3): 393. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs12122-999-1007-9">10.1007/s12122-999-1007-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Labor+Research&rft.atitle=Do+minimum+wage+hikes+reduce+employment%3F+State-level+evidence+from+the+low-wage+retail+sector&rft.volume=20&rft.issue=3&rft.pages=393&rft.date=1999&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1007%2Fs12122-999-1007-9&rft.aulast=Partridge&rft.aufirst=M.+D.&rft.au=Partridge%2C+J.+S.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-142"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-142">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cbo.gov/publication/44995">"The Effects of a Minimum-Wage Increase on Employment and Family Income"</a>. 18 February 2014. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140725153738/http://cbo.gov/publication/44995">Archived</a> from the original on 25 July 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 July</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=The+Effects+of+a+Minimum-Wage+Increase+on+Employment+and+Family+Income&rft.date=2014-02-18&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cbo.gov%2Fpublication%2F44995&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-143"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-143">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Covert, Bryce (21 February 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/02/21/3317901/walmart-minimum-wage-prices/">"A $10.10 Minimum Wage Would Make A DVD At Walmart Cost One Cent More"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140729075549/http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/02/21/3317901/walmart-minimum-wage-prices/">Archived</a> from the original on 29 July 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=A+%2410.10+Minimum+Wage+Would+Make+A+DVD+At+Walmart+Cost+One+Cent+More&rft.date=2014-02-21&rft.aulast=Covert&rft.aufirst=Bryce&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fthinkprogress.org%2Feconomy%2F2014%2F02%2F21%2F3317901%2Fwalmart-minimum-wage-prices%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-144"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-144">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Hoium, Travis (19 October 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/06/08/what-will-a-higher-minimum-wage-cost-you-at-mcdona.aspx">"What Will a Minimum Wage Increase Cost You at McDonald's?"</a>. <i>The Motley Fool</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140723072611/http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/06/08/what-will-a-higher-minimum-wage-cost-you-at-mcdona.aspx">Archived</a> from the original on 23 July 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=The+Motley+Fool&rft.atitle=What+Will+a+Minimum+Wage+Increase+Cost+You+at+McDonald%27s%3F&rft.date=2016-10-19&rft.aulast=Hoium&rft.aufirst=Travis&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fool.com%2Finvesting%2Fgeneral%2F2014%2F06%2F08%2Fwhat-will-a-higher-minimum-wage-cost-you-at-mcdona.aspx&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-145"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-145">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Scarpetta, Stephano, Anne Sonnet and Thomas Manfredi,<i>Rising Youth Unemployment During The Crisis: How To Prevent Negative Long-Term Consequences on a Generation?</i>, 14 April 2010 <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2010doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT000028DE/$FILE/JT03281808.PDF">(read-only PDF)</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20101105115117/http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2010doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT000028DE/$FILE/JT03281808.PDF">Archived</a> 5 November 2010 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-146"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-146">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Fiscal Policy Institute, "States with Minimum Wages Above the Federal Level have had Faster Small Business and Retail Job Growth," 30 March 2006.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-147"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-147">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20071201162434/http://www.politics.co.uk/issue-briefs/economy/employment/national-minimum-wage/national-minimum-wage-%24366581.htm">"National Minimum Wage"</a>. politics.co.uk. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.politics.co.uk/issue-briefs/economy/employment/national-minimum-wage/national-minimum-wage-$366581.htm">the original</a> on 1 December 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 December</span> 2007</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=National+Minimum+Wage&rft.pub=politics.co.uk&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.politics.co.uk%2Fissue-briefs%2Feconomy%2Femployment%2Fnational-minimum-wage%2Fnational-minimum-wage-%24366581.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-148"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-148">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Metcalf, David (April 2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://ideas.repec.org/p/cep/cepdps/dp0781.html">"Why Has the British National Minimum Wage Had Little or No Impact on Employment?"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150921184859/https://ideas.repec.org/p/cep/cepdps/dp0781.html">Archived</a> from the original on 21 September 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Why+Has+the+British+National+Minimum+Wage+Had+Little+or+No+Impact+on+Employment%3F&rft.date=2007-04&rft.au=Metcalf%2C+David&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fideas.repec.org%2Fp%2Fcep%2Fcepdps%2Fdp0781.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">|journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-LPC_2005-149"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-LPC_2005_149-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Low Pay Commission (2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.lowpay.gov.uk/lowpay/report/pdf/DTi-Min_Wage.pdf"><i>National Minimum Wage – Low Pay Commission Report 2005</i></a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130116084704/http://www.lowpay.gov.uk/lowpay/report/pdf/DTi-Min_Wage.pdf">Archived</a> 16 January 2013 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-150"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-150">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Wadsworth, Jonathan (September 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp4433.pdf">"Did the National Minimum Wage Affect UK Prices"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Did+the+National+Minimum+Wage+Affect+UK+Prices&rft.date=2009-09&rft.au=Wadsworth%2C+Jonathan&rft_id=ftp%3A%2F%2Frepec.iza.org%2FRePEc%2FDiscussionpaper%2Fdp4433.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-151"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-151">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/07/19/332879409/states-that-raised-minimum-wage-see-faster-job-growth-report-says">"States That Raised Minimum Wage See Faster Job Growth, Report Says"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141025021348/http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/07/19/332879409/states-that-raised-minimum-wage-see-faster-job-growth-report-says">Archived</a> from the original on 25 October 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=States+That+Raised+Minimum+Wage+See+Faster+Job+Growth%2C+Report+Says&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.npr.org%2Fblogs%2Fthetwo-way%2F2014%2F07%2F19%2F332879409%2Fstates-that-raised-minimum-wage-see-faster-job-growth-report-says&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-152"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-152">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Rugaber, Christopher S. (19 July 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/07/19/us-states-with-higher-minimum-wages-gain-more-jobs/12879113/">"States with higher minimum wage gain more jobs"</a>. <i>USA Today</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170711172711/https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/07/19/us-states-with-higher-minimum-wages-gain-more-jobs/12879113/">Archived</a> from the original on 11 July 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=USA+Today&rft.atitle=States+with+higher+minimum+wage+gain+more+jobs&rft.date=2014-07-19&rft.aulast=Rugaber&rft.aufirst=Christopher+S.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.usatoday.com%2Fstory%2Fmoney%2Fbusiness%2F2014%2F07%2F19%2Fus-states-with-higher-minimum-wages-gain-more-jobs%2F12879113%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Bloomberg2-153"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Bloomberg2_153-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Stilwell, Victoria (8 March 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-05/washington-shows-highest-minimum-wage-state-beats-u-s-with-jobs.html">"Highest Minimum-Wage State Washington Beats U.S. in Job Creation"</a>. <i>Bloomberg</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150110111227/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-05/washington-shows-highest-minimum-wage-state-beats-u-s-with-jobs.html">Archived</a> from the original on 10 January 2015.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Bloomberg&rft.atitle=Highest+Minimum-Wage+State+Washington+Beats+U.S.+in+Job+Creation&rft.date=2014-03-08&rft.aulast=Stilwell&rft.aufirst=Victoria&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bloomberg.com%2Fnews%2F2014-03-05%2Fwashington-shows-highest-minimum-wage-state-beats-u-s-with-jobs.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-154"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-154">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Lobosco, Katie (14 May 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://money.cnn.com/2014/05/14/smallbusiness/minimum-wage-washington-jobs/">"Washington state defies minimum wage logic"</a>. <i>CNN</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141025013846/http://money.cnn.com/2014/05/14/smallbusiness/minimum-wage-washington-jobs/">Archived</a> from the original on 25 October 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=CNN&rft.atitle=Washington+state+defies+minimum+wage+logic&rft.date=2014-05-14&rft.aulast=Lobosco&rft.aufirst=Katie&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmoney.cnn.com%2F2014%2F05%2F14%2Fsmallbusiness%2Fminimum-wage-washington-jobs%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-155"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-155">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ibtimes.com/minimum-wage-washington-after-16-years-state-highest-minimum-wage-maintains-lower-unemployment">"Did Washington State's Minimum Wage Bet Pay Off?"</a>. 5 March 2014. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141120115641/http://www.ibtimes.com/minimum-wage-washington-after-16-years-state-highest-minimum-wage-maintains-lower-unemployment">Archived</a> from the original on 20 November 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Did+Washington+State%27s+Minimum+Wage+Bet+Pay+Off%3F&rft.date=2014-03-05&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibtimes.com%2Fminimum-wage-washington-after-16-years-state-highest-minimum-wage-maintains-lower-unemployment&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-156"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-156">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Meyerson, Harold (21 May 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/harold-meyerson-a-higher-minimum-wage-may-actually-boost-job-creation/2014/05/21/463bd80e-e112-11e3-9743-bb9b59cde7b9_story.html">"Harold Meyerson: A higher minimum wage may actually boost job creation"</a>. <i>The Washington Post</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170718224448/https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/harold-meyerson-a-higher-minimum-wage-may-actually-boost-job-creation/2014/05/21/463bd80e-e112-11e3-9743-bb9b59cde7b9_story.html">Archived</a> from the original on 18 July 2017.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Washington+Post&rft.atitle=Harold+Meyerson%3A+A+higher+minimum+wage+may+actually+boost+job+creation&rft.date=2014-05-21&rft.aulast=Meyerson&rft.aufirst=Harold&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.washingtonpost.com%2Fopinions%2Fharold-meyerson-a-higher-minimum-wage-may-actually-boost-job-creation%2F2014%2F05%2F21%2F463bd80e-e112-11e3-9743-bb9b59cde7b9_story.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-157"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-157">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Covert, Bryce (3 July 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/07/03/3456393/minimum-wage-state-increase-employment/">"States That Raised Their Minimum Wages Are Experiencing Faster Job Growth"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141025022719/http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/07/03/3456393/minimum-wage-state-increase-employment/">Archived</a> from the original on 25 October 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=States+That+Raised+Their+Minimum+Wages+Are+Experiencing+Faster+Job+Growth&rft.date=2014-07-03&rft.aulast=Covert&rft.aufirst=Bryce&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fthinkprogress.org%2Feconomy%2F2014%2F07%2F03%2F3456393%2Fminimum-wage-state-increase-employment%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-158"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-158">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Nellis, Mike. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141025024423/http://www.raisetheminimumwage.com/pages/qanda">"Minimum Wage Question and Answer"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.raisetheminimumwage.com/pages/qanda">the original</a> on 25 October 2014.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Minimum+Wage+Question+and+Answer&rft.aulast=Nellis&rft.aufirst=Mike&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.raisetheminimumwage.com%2Fpages%2Fqanda&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-159"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-159">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://kuow.org/post/minimum-wage-limbo-keeps-small-business-owners-night">Minimum Wage Limbo Keeps Small Business Owners Up At Night</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150209165923/http://kuow.org/post/minimum-wage-limbo-keeps-small-business-owners-night">Archived</a> 9 February 2015 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, kuow.org, 22 May 2014</span>
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<li id="cite_note-160"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-160">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">
<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.seattlemag.com/article/cupcake-royale-owner-and-pastry-chef-launch-3-new-ventures">Seattle Magazine, March 23, 2015</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-161"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-161">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">
<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://komonews.com/archive/15-minimum-wage-a-surprising-success-for-seattle-restaurant-11-21-2015">$15 minimum wage a surprising success for Seattle restaurant</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160726215335/http://komonews.com/archive/15-minimum-wage-a-surprising-success-for-seattle-restaurant-11-21-2015">Archived</a> 26 July 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, KOMO News, 31 July 2015</span>
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<li id="cite_note-162"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-162">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.epi.org/files/page/-/pdf/bp251.pdf">http://www.epi.org/files/page/-/pdf/bp251.pdf</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-163"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-163">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">C. Eisenring (Dec 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nzz.ch/wirtschaft/wirtschaftspolitik/gefaehrliche-mindestlohn-euphorie-1.18669322?extcid=Newsletter_29122015_Top-News_am_Morgen">Gefährliche Mindestlohn-Euphorie</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160101063214/http://www.nzz.ch/wirtschaft/wirtschaftspolitik/gefaehrliche-mindestlohn-euphorie-1.18669322?extcid=Newsletter_29122015_Top-News_am_Morgen">Archived</a> 1 January 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> (in German). <i>Neue Zürcher Zeitung</i>. Retrieved 30 December 2015.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-164"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-164">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">R. Janssen (Sept 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.socialeurope.eu/2015/09/the-german-minimum-wage-is-not-a-job-killer/">The German Minimum Wage Is Not A Job Killer</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20151109094251/http://www.socialeurope.eu/2015/09/the-german-minimum-wage-is-not-a-job-killer/">Archived</a> 9 November 2015 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>. <i>Social Europe</i>. Retrieved 30 December 2015.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-165"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-165">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Rapaport, Lisa (19 April 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-suicide-wages/higher-state-minimum-wage-tied-to-lower-suicide-rates-idUSKCN1RV17R">"Higher state minimum wage tied to lower suicide rates"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Reuters" title="Reuters">Reuters</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">27 April</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Reuters&rft.atitle=Higher+state+minimum+wage+tied+to+lower+suicide+rates&rft.date=2019-04-19&rft.aulast=Rapaport&rft.aufirst=Lisa&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.reuters.com%2Farticle%2Fus-health-suicide-wages%2Fhigher-state-minimum-wage-tied-to-lower-suicide-rates-idUSKCN1RV17R&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-166"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-166">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Kearl, J. R.; Pope, Clayne L.; Whiting, Gordon C.; Wimmer, Larry T. (May 1979). "A Confusion of Economists?". <i>The American Economic Review</i>. <b>69</b> (2): 28–37. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/1801612">1801612</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+American+Economic+Review&rft.atitle=A+Confusion+of+Economists%3F&rft.volume=69&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=28-37&rft.date=1979-05&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F1801612&rft.aulast=Kearl&rft.aufirst=J.+R.&rft.au=Pope%2C+Clayne+L.&rft.au=Whiting%2C+Gordon+C.&rft.au=Wimmer%2C+Larry+T.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-167"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-167">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Alston, Richard M.; Kearl, J. R.; Vaughan, Michael B. (May 1992). "Is There a Consensus Among Economists in 1990s?". <i>The American Economic Review</i>. <b>82</b> (2): 203–09. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2117401">2117401</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+American+Economic+Review&rft.atitle=Is+There+a+Consensus+Among+Economists+in+1990s%3F&rft.volume=82&rft.issue=2&rft.pages=203-09&rft.date=1992-05&rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F2117401&rft.aulast=Alston&rft.aufirst=Richard+M.&rft.au=Kearl%2C+J.+R.&rft.au=Vaughan%2C+Michael+B.&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-168"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-168">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">survey by Dan Fuller and Doris Geide-Stevenson using a sample of 308 economists surveyed by the <a href="/wiki/American_Economic_Association" title="American Economic Association">American Economic Association</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Hall-169"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Hall_169-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Hall, Robert Ernest (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/?id=RdkFAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA384&lpg=PA384&dq=2000+survey+members+of+the+American+Economic+Association+agreed+that+minimum+wages+increase+unemployment+among+young+and+unskilled+workers#v=onepage&q=2000%20survey%20members%20of%20the%20American%20Economic%20Association%20agreed%20that%20minimum%20wages%20increase%20unemployment%20among%20young%20and%20unskilled%20workers&f=false"><i>Economics: Principles and Applications</i></a>. Centage Learning. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1111798208" title="Special:BookSources/978-1111798208"><bdi>978-1111798208</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Economics%3A+Principles+and+Applications&rft.pub=Centage+Learning&rft.date=2007&rft.isbn=978-1111798208&rft.aulast=Hall&rft.aufirst=Robert+Ernest&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DRdkFAAAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA384%26lpg%3DPA384%26dq%3D2000%2Bsurvey%2Bmembers%2Bof%2Bthe%2BAmerican%2BEconomic%2BAssociation%2Bagreed%2Bthat%2Bminimum%2Bwages%2Bincrease%2Bunemployment%2Bamong%2Byoung%2Band%2Bunskilled%2Bworkers%23v%3Donepage%26q%3D2000%2520survey%2520members%2520of%2520the%2520American%2520Economic%2520Association%2520agreed%2520that%2520minimum%2520wages%2520increase%2520unemployment%2520among%2520young%2520and%2520unskilled%2520workers%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Fuller-170"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Fuller_170-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris (2003). "Consensus Among Economists: Revisited". <i>Journal of Economic Education</i>. <b>34</b> (4): 369–87. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1080%2F00220480309595230">10.1080/00220480309595230</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Economic+Education&rft.atitle=Consensus+Among+Economists%3A+Revisited&rft.volume=34&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=369-87&rft.date=2003&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1080%2F00220480309595230&rft.aulast=Fuller&rft.aufirst=Dan&rft.au=Geide-Stevenson%2C+Doris&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Whaples_2006-171"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Whaples_2006_171-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Whaples, Robert (2006). "Do Economists Agree on Anything? Yes!". <i>The Economists' Voice</i>. <b>3</b> (9): 1–6. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.2202%2F1553-3832.1156">10.2202/1553-3832.1156</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=The+Economists%27+Voice&rft.atitle=Do+Economists+Agree+on+Anything%3F+Yes%21&rft.volume=3&rft.issue=9&rft.pages=1-6&rft.date=2006&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2202%2F1553-3832.1156&rft.aulast=Whaples&rft.aufirst=Robert&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-189"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-189">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Cass, Oren (19 August 2015). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150820110346/http://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/2015/08/19/wage-subsidies-are-better-than-raising-the-minimum-wage">"A Better Wage Hike"</a>. <i>US NEWS</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/2015/08/19/wage-subsidies-are-better-than-raising-the-minimum-wage">the original</a> on 20 August 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 August</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=US+NEWS&rft.atitle=A+Better+Wage+Hike&rft.date=2015-08-19&rft.aulast=Cass&rft.aufirst=Oren&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.usnews.com%2Fopinion%2Feconomic-intelligence%2F2015%2F08%2F19%2Fwage-subsidies-are-better-than-raising-the-minimum-wage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-190"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-190">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Smith, Noah (7 December 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://noahpinionblog.blogspot.com/2013/12/wage-subsidies.html">"Noahpinion: Wage subsidies"</a>. <i>Noahpinion</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170811224635/http://noahpinionblog.blogspot.com/2013/12/wage-subsidies.html">Archived</a> from the original on 11 August 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 August</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Noahpinion&rft.atitle=Noahpinion%3A+Wage+subsidies&rft.date=2013-12-07&rft.aulast=Smith&rft.aufirst=Noah&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnoahpinionblog.blogspot.com%2F2013%2F12%2Fwage-subsidies.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-191"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-191">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Drum, Kevin (3 December 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/12/wage-subsidies-might-be-good-idea-republicans-will-never-support-it/">"Wage subsidies might be a good idea, but Republicans will never support it"</a>. <i>Mother Jones</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170811224733/https://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/12/wage-subsidies-might-be-good-idea-republicans-will-never-support-it/">Archived</a> from the original on 11 August 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 August</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Mother+Jones&rft.atitle=Wage+subsidies+might+be+a+good+idea%2C+but+Republicans+will+never+support+it&rft.date=2013-12-03&rft.aulast=Drum&rft.aufirst=Kevin&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.motherjones.com%2Fkevin-drum%2F2013%2F12%2Fwage-subsidies-might-be-good-idea-republicans-will-never-support-it%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-192"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-192">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/10/why-germany-is-so-much-better-at-training-its-workers/381550/">Why Germany Is So Much Better at Training Its Workers</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-193"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-193">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://work.chron.com/alternatives-raising-minimum-wage-18704.html">Alternatives to Raising Minimum Wage</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-cnnmoney2014january14MW-194"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-cnnmoney2014january14MW_194-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://money.cnn.com/2014/01/14/news/economy/raising-minimum-wage/">75 economists back minimum wage hike</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150301002359/http://money.cnn.com/2014/01/14/news/economy/raising-minimum-wage/">Archived</a> 1 March 2015 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> CNN Money, 14 January 2014</span>
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<li id="cite_note-EPI600MW-195"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-EPI600MW_195-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.epi.org/minimum-wage-statement/">Over 600 Economists Sign Letter In Support of $10.10 Minimum Wage</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171009121909/http://www.epi.org/minimum-wage-statement/">Archived</a> 9 October 2017 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> Economist Statement on the Federal Minimum Wage, Economic Policy Institute</span>
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<li id="cite_note-196"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-196">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sanders.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/sanders-introduces-bill-for-15-an-hour-minimum-wage">"Sanders Introduces Bill for $15-an-Hour Minimum Wage"</a>. <i>Sen. Bernie Sanders</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150906010136/http://www.sanders.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/sanders-introduces-bill-for-15-an-hour-minimum-wage">Archived</a> from the original on 6 September 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 September</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=Sen.+Bernie+Sanders&rft.atitle=Sanders+Introduces+Bill+for+%2415-an-Hour+Minimum+Wage&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sanders.senate.gov%2Fnewsroom%2Fpress-releases%2Fsanders-introduces-bill-for-15-an-hour-minimum-wage&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-197"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-197">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jul/24/rapid-success-15-dollars-minimum-wage-new-york">The rapid success of Fight for $15: 'This is a trend that cannot be stopped'</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161201225220/https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jul/24/rapid-success-15-dollars-minimum-wage-new-york">Archived</a> 1 December 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> S. Greenhouse, The Guardian, US-News, 24 July 2015</span>
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<li id="cite_note-198"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-198">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Alex Seitz-Wald, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/democrats-advance-most-progressive-platform-party-history-n606646">Democrats Advance Most Progressive Platform in Party History</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160801171543/http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/democrats-advance-most-progressive-platform-party-history-n606646">Archived</a> 1 August 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, NBC News (10 July 2016).</span>
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<li id="cite_note-199"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-199">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Limitone, Julia (24 May 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.foxbusiness.com/features/2016/05/24/fmr-mcdonalds-usa-ceo-35k-robots-cheaper-than-hiring-at-15-per-hour.html">"Fmr. Mcdonald's Usa Ceo: $35k Robots Cheaper Than Hiring At $15 Per Hour"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160713090754/http://www.foxbusiness.com/features/2016/05/24/fmr-mcdonalds-usa-ceo-35k-robots-cheaper-than-hiring-at-15-per-hour.html">Archived</a> from the original on 13 July 2016.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Fmr.+Mcdonald%27s+Usa+Ceo%3A+%2435k+Robots+Cheaper+Than+Hiring+At+%2415+Per+Hour&rft.date=2016-05-24&rft.aulast=Limitone&rft.aufirst=Julia&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foxbusiness.com%2Ffeatures%2F2016%2F05%2F24%2Ffmr-mcdonalds-usa-ceo-35k-robots-cheaper-than-hiring-at-15-per-hour.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-200"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-200">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/california-deal-minimum-wage_us_56f9971be4b0a372181aae55">California Reaches Deal For $15 Minimum Wage</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160331204221/http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/california-deal-minimum-wage_us_56f9971be4b0a372181aae55">Archived</a> 31 March 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> S. Bernstein, The Huffington Post, 28 March 2016</span>
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<li id="cite_note-NBER-201"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-NBER_201-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nber.org/chapters/c6909.pdf">When the Minimum Wage Really Bites: The Effect of the U.S.-Level Minimum on Puerto Rico</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160607034457/https://www.nber.org/chapters/c6909.pdf">Archived</a> 7 June 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> Alida Castillo-Freeman, Richard B. Freeman (1992) in Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas</span>
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<li id="cite_note-WashingtonPost-202"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-WashingtonPost_202-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/puerto-ricos-lesson-for-the-mainland/2015/07/08/24e63970-25ad-11e5-b77f-eb13a215f593_story.html">Puerto Rico’s crisis illustrates the risks of minimum wage hikes</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160318203321/https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/puerto-ricos-lesson-for-the-mainland/2015/07/08/24e63970-25ad-11e5-b77f-eb13a215f593_story.html">Archived</a> 18 March 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> C. Lane, <i><a href="/wiki/The_Washington_Post" title="The Washington Post">The Washington Post</a></i>, 8 July 2015</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Forbes-203"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Forbes_203-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2015/07/03/memo-to-the-fight-for-15-puerto-rico-happens-with-a-too-high-minimum-wage/#2f4e1cb412da">Memo to the Fight for $15: Puerto Rico Happens with a Too High Minimum Wage</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171107225245/https://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2015/07/03/memo-to-the-fight-for-15-puerto-rico-happens-with-a-too-high-minimum-wage/">Archived</a> 7 November 2017 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> Tim Worstall, Forbes.com, 3 July 2015.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-BGPFR-204"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-BGPFR_204-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bgfpr.com/documents/PuertoRicoAWayForward.pdf">Puerto Rico – A Way Forward</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160405191811/http://www.bgfpr.com/documents/puertoricoawayforward.pdf">Archived</a> 5 April 2016 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> by A. Krueger, R. Teja and A. Wolfe, 29 June 2015</span>
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<li id="cite_note-205"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-205">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/minimum-wage-loophole-written-to-help-unions/article/2557806">"Minimum wage loophole written to help labor unions"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150906080902/http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/minimum-wage-loophole-written-to-help-unions/article/2557806">Archived</a> 6 September 2015 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, <i>Washington Examiner</i>, 24 December 2014</span>
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<li id="cite_note-206"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-206">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/01/08/794568118/raising-the-minimum-wage-by-1-may-prevent-thousands-of-suicides-study-shows">"Raising The Minimum Wage By $1 May Prevent Thousands Of Suicides, Study Shows"</a>. <i>NPR.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">10 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=NPR.org&rft.atitle=Raising+The+Minimum+Wage+By+%241+May+Prevent+Thousands+Of+Suicides%2C+Study+Shows&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.npr.org%2Fsections%2Fhealth-shots%2F2020%2F01%2F08%2F794568118%2Fraising-the-minimum-wage-by-1-may-prevent-thousands-of-suicides-study-shows&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:2-207"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:2_207-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:2_207-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Kaufman, John A.; Salas-Hernández, Leslie K.; Komro, Kelli A.; Livingston, Melvin D. (3 January 2020). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2020/01/03/jech-2019-212981">"Effects of increased minimum wages by unemployment rate on suicide in the USA"</a>. <i>J Epidemiol Community Health</i>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://doi.org/10.1136%2Fjech-2019-212981">10.1136/jech-2019-212981</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0143-005X">0143-005X</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31911542">31911542</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=J+Epidemiol+Community+Health&rft.atitle=Effects+of+increased+minimum+wages+by+unemployment+rate+on+suicide+in+the+USA&rft.date=2020-01-03&rft.issn=0143-005X&rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F31911542&rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1136%2Fjech-2019-212981&rft.aulast=Kaufman&rft.aufirst=John+A.&rft.au=Salas-Hern%C3%A1ndez%2C+Leslie+K.&rft.au=Komro%2C+Kelli+A.&rft.au=Livingston%2C+Melvin+D.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fjech.bmj.com%2Fcontent%2Fearly%2F2020%2F01%2F03%2Fjech-2019-212981&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-:1-208"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-:1_208-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-:1_208-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/employment/data/earnings/minimum-wages-relative-to-median-wages_data-00313-en">"Minimum wages relative to median wages"</a>. <i>www.oecd-ilibrary.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 March</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=www.oecd-ilibrary.org&rft.atitle=Minimum+wages+relative+to+median+wages&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oecd-ilibrary.org%2Femployment%2Fdata%2Fearnings%2Fminimum-wages-relative-to-median-wages_data-00313-en&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AMinimum+wage" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r935243608"/></span>
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</ol></div></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=29" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li>Burkhauser, R. V. (2014). <i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/104981">Why minimum wage increases are a poor way to help the working poor</a></i> (No. 86). IZA Policy Paper, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Minimum_wage&action=edit&section=30" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist">Wikimedia Commons has media related to <i><b><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Minimum_wage" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Minimum wage"><span style="">Minimum wage</span></a></b></i>.</td></tr>
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<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:auto;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;text-align:left;"><tbody><tr><td style="padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:The_Wikipedia_Library" title="Wikipedia:The Wikipedia Library">Library resources</a> about <br /> <b>Minimum wage</b> <hr /></td></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=wp&su=Minimum+wage">Resources in your library</a></li>
<li><a class="external text" href="//tools.wmflabs.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=wp&su=Minimum+wage&library=0CHOOSE0">Resources in other libraries</a></li></ul></td>
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<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://curlie.org/Society/Issues/Labor/Minimum_Wage">Minimum wage</a> at <a href="/wiki/Curlie" class="mw-redirect" title="Curlie">Curlie</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ilo.org/public/english/support/lib/resource/subject/salary.htm">Resource Guide on Minimum Wages</a> from the <a href="/wiki/International_Labour_Organization" title="International Labour Organization">International Labour Organization</a> (a UN agency)</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bis.gov.uk/policies/employment-matters/rights/nmw">The National Minimum Wage (U.K.)</a> from official UK government website</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/wages/minimumwage.htm">Find It! By Topic: Wages: Minimum Wage</a> U.S. Department of Labor</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bls.gov/cps/minwage2009.htm">Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2009</a> U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/coverage.htm">History of Changes to the Minimum Wage Law</a> U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo46157">The Effects of a Minimum-wage Increase on Employment and Family Income</a> <a href="/wiki/Congressional_Budget_Office" title="Congressional Budget Office">Congressional Budget Office</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42973.pdf">Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet</a> <a href="/wiki/Congressional_Research_Service" title="Congressional Research Service">Congressional Research Service</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.databasece.com/en/statutory-minimum-wages">Minimum Wages in Central and Eastern Europe</a> Database Central Europe</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://libraryguides.missouri.edu/pricesandwages">Prices and Wages</a> – research guide at the University of Missouri libraries</li></ul>
<dl><dt>Support</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20100717034550/http://www.aflcio.org/issues/jobseconomy/livingwages/americaneedsaraise.cfm">Issues about Minimum Wage</a> from the <a href="/wiki/AFL-CIO" class="mw-redirect" title="AFL-CIO">AFL-CIO</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/issue_guide_on_minimum_wage/">Issue Guide on the Minimum Wage</a> from the <a href="/wiki/Economic_Policy_Institute" title="Economic Policy Institute">Economic Policy Institute</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/working_papers/working_papers_351-400/WP373.pdf">A $15 U.S. Minimum Wage: How the Fast-Food Industry Could Adjust Without Shedding Jobs</a> from the <a href="/wiki/Political_Economy_Research_Institute" title="Political Economy Research Institute">Political Economy Research Institute</a>, January 2015.</li></ul>
<dl><dt>Opposed</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20100626042415/http://www.cato-at-liberty.org/2009/07/24/reporting-the-minimum-wage/">Reporting the Minimum Wage</a> from <a href="/wiki/The_Cato_Institute" class="mw-redirect" title="The Cato Institute">The Cato Institute</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090707030847/http://showmeinstitute.org/docLib/20070411_smi_study_2.pdf">The Economic Effects of Minimum Wages</a> from <a href="/wiki/Show-Me_Institute" title="Show-Me Institute">Show-Me Institute</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20181018112729/http://steshaw.org/economics-in-one-lesson/chap19p1.html">Economics in One Lesson: The Lesson Applied, Chapter 19: Minimum Wage Laws</a> by <a href="/wiki/Henry_Hazlitt" title="Henry Hazlitt">Henry Hazlitt</a></li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Employment" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible mw-collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Employment" title="Template:Employment"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Employment" title="Template talk:Employment"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Employment&action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Employment" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Employment" title="Employment">Employment</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Classifications</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Casual_employment_(contract)" title="Casual employment (contract)">Casual</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Contingent_work" title="Contingent work">Contingent</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Full-time_job" title="Full-time job">Full-time</a></li>
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<li><a href="/wiki/Part-time_job" title="Part-time job">Part-time</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Self-employment" title="Self-employment">Self-employed</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Side_job" title="Side job">Side</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Skilled_worker" title="Skilled worker">Skilled</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Independent_contractor" title="Independent contractor">Independent contractor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Temporary_work" title="Temporary work">Temporary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tenure" class="mw-redirect" title="Tenure">Tenure</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Laborer" title="Laborer">Unskilled</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wage_labour" title="Wage labour">Wage labour</a></li></ul>
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<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Application_for_employment" title="Application for employment">Application</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Background_check" title="Background check">Background check</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Business_networking" title="Business networking">Business networking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employment_contract" title="Employment contract">Contract</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cover_letter" title="Cover letter">Cover letter</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Curriculum_vitae" title="Curriculum vitae">Curriculum Vitae (CV)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Drug_test" title="Drug test">Drug testing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/E-recruitment" class="mw-redirect" title="E-recruitment">e-recruitment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employment_counsellor" title="Employment counsellor">Employment counsellor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Executive_search" title="Executive search">Executive search</a> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_executive_search_firms" title="List of executive search firms">list</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Induction_programme" title="Induction programme">Induction programme</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_fair" title="Job fair">Job fair</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_fraud" title="Job fraud">Job fraud</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_hunting" title="Job hunting">Job hunting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_interview" title="Job interview">Job interview</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_brokering" title="Labour brokering">Labour brokering</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overqualification" title="Overqualification">Overqualification</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Onboarding" title="Onboarding">Onboarding</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Personality-job_fit_theory" class="mw-redirect" title="Personality-job fit theory">Personality-job fit theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Person-environment_fit" class="mw-redirect" title="Person-environment fit">Person-environment fit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Probation_(workplace)" title="Probation (workplace)">Probation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recommendation_letter" class="mw-redirect" title="Recommendation letter">Reference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/R%C3%A9sum%C3%A9" title="Résumé">Résumé</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Simultaneous_recruiting_of_new_graduates" title="Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates">Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Underemployment" title="Underemployment">Underemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Work-at-home_scheme" title="Work-at-home scheme">Work-at-home scheme</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Roles</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Mentorship" title="Mentorship">Mentorship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cooperative" title="Cooperative">Co-op</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employee" class="mw-redirect" title="Employee">Employee</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employer" class="mw-redirect" title="Employer">Employer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Internship" title="Internship">Internship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_(role)" class="mw-redirect" title="Job (role)">Job</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Permanent_employment" title="Permanent employment">Permanent</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Permatemp" title="Permatemp">Permatemp</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Supervisor" title="Supervisor">Supervisor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Volunteering" title="Volunteering">Volunteer</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Social_class" title="Social class">Worker class</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Blue-collar_worker" title="Blue-collar worker">Blue-collar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Green-collar_worker" title="Green-collar worker">Green-collar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Grey-collar" title="Grey-collar">Grey-collar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pink-collar_worker" title="Pink-collar worker">Pink-collar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/White-collar_worker" title="White-collar worker">White-collar</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Career" title="Career">Career</a> and <a href="/wiki/Training" title="Training">training</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Apprenticeship" title="Apprenticeship">Apprenticeship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Avocation" title="Avocation">Avocation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Career_assessment" title="Career assessment">Career assessment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Career_counseling" title="Career counseling">Career counseling</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Career_development" title="Career development">Career development</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Coaching" title="Coaching">Coaching</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Creative_class" title="Creative class">Creative class</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Education" title="Education">Education</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Continuing_education" title="Continuing education">Continuing education</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Continuing_professional_development" class="mw-redirect" title="Continuing professional development">Continuing professional development</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/E-learning" class="mw-redirect" title="E-learning">E-learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employability" title="Employability">Employability</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Further_education" title="Further education">Further education</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Graduate_school" title="Graduate school">Graduate school</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Induction_training" title="Induction training">Induction training</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Initial_Professional_Development" class="mw-redirect" title="Initial Professional Development">Initial Professional Development</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Knowledge_worker" title="Knowledge worker">Knowledge worker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Licensure" title="Licensure">Licensure</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lifelong_learning" title="Lifelong learning">Lifelong learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Practice-based_professional_learning" title="Practice-based professional learning">Practice-based professional learning</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Professional_association" title="Professional association">Professional association</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Professional_certification" title="Professional certification">Professional certification</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Professional_development" title="Professional development">Professional development</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Professional_school" class="mw-redirect" title="Professional school">Professional school</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reflective_practice" title="Reflective practice">Reflective practice</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Retraining" title="Retraining">Retraining</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vocational_education" title="Vocational education">Vocational education</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vocational_school" title="Vocational school">Vocational school</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vocational_university" title="Vocational university">Vocational university</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mentorship" title="Mentorship">Mentorship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_Outlook_Handbook" title="Occupational Outlook Handbook">Occupational Outlook Handbook</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Practice_firm" title="Practice firm">Practice firm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Profession" title="Profession">Profession</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tradesman" title="Tradesman">Tradesman</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vocation" title="Vocation">Vocation</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Attendance</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Break_(work)" title="Break (work)">Break</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Career_break" title="Career break">Career break</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Furlough" title="Furlough">Furlough</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gap_year" title="Gap year">Gap year</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Leave_of_absence" title="Leave of absence">Leave of absence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Long_service_leave" title="Long service leave">Long service leave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/No_call,_no_show" title="No call, no show">No call, no show</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sabbatical" title="Sabbatical">Sabbatical</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sick_leave" title="Sick leave">Sick leave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Time_clock" title="Time clock">Time clock</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Schedule_(workplace)" title="Schedule (workplace)">Schedules</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Four-day_week" title="Four-day week">Four-day week</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eight-hour_day" title="Eight-hour day">Eight-hour day</a> (<a href="/wiki/Six-hour_day" title="Six-hour day">Six-hour day</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/996_working_hour_system" title="996 working hour system">996</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flextime" title="Flextime">Flextime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/On-call" title="On-call">On-call</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overtime" title="Overtime">Overtime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Retroactive_overtime" title="Retroactive overtime">Retroactive overtime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shift_work" title="Shift work">Shift work</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Telecommuting" title="Telecommuting">Telecommuting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Working_time" title="Working time">Working time</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workweek_and_weekend" title="Workweek and weekend">Workweek and weekend</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Wage" title="Wage">Wages and salaries</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Income_bracket" title="Income bracket">Income bracket</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Income_tax" title="Income tax">Income tax</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Living_wage" title="Living wage">Living wage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maximum_wage" title="Maximum wage">Maximum wage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/National_average_salary" title="National average salary">National average salary</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_average_wage" title="List of countries by average wage">World</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_in_Europe_by_monthly_average_wage" class="mw-redirect" title="List of countries in Europe by monthly average wage">Europe</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">Minimum wage</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_minimum_wages_in_Canada" class="mw-redirect" title="List of minimum wages in Canada">Canada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minimum_Wage_Ordinance" title="Minimum Wage Ordinance">Hong Kong</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_in_Europe_by_minimum_wage" class="mw-redirect" title="List of sovereign states in Europe by minimum wage">Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_U.S._minimum_wages" class="mw-redirect" title="List of U.S. minimum wages">United States</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Progressive_wage" title="Progressive wage">Progressive wage</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Progressive_wage" title="Progressive wage">Singapore</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Overtime_rate" title="Overtime rate">Overtime rate</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Paid_time_off" title="Paid time off">Paid time off</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Performance-related_pay" title="Performance-related pay">Performance-related pay</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salary" title="Salary">Salary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salary_cap" title="Salary cap">Salary cap</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Working_poor" title="Working poor">Working poor</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Employee_benefits" title="Employee benefits">Benefits</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Annual_leave" title="Annual leave">Annual leave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Casual_Friday" title="Casual Friday">Casual Friday</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Day_care" class="mw-redirect" title="Day care">Day care</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disability_insurance" title="Disability insurance">Disability insurance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Health_insurance" title="Health insurance">Health insurance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Life_insurance" title="Life insurance">Life insurance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Marriage_leave" title="Marriage leave">Marriage leave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Parental_leave" title="Parental leave">Parental leave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pension" title="Pension">Pension</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sick_leave" title="Sick leave">Sick leave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Take-home_vehicle" title="Take-home vehicle">Take-home vehicle</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health" title="Occupational safety and health">Safety and health</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Epilepsy_and_employment" title="Epilepsy and employment">Epilepsy and employment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Human_factors_and_ergonomics" title="Human factors and ergonomics">Human factors and ergonomics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_noise" class="mw-redirect" title="Industrial noise">Industrial noise</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kar%C5%8Dshi" class="mw-redirect" title="Karōshi">Karōshi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Protective_clothing" class="mw-redirect" title="Protective clothing">Protective clothing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_burnout" title="Occupational burnout">Occupational burnout</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_disease" title="Occupational disease">Occupational disease</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_exposure_limit" title="Occupational exposure limit">Occupational exposure limit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_health_psychology" title="Occupational health psychology">Occupational health psychology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_injury" title="Occupational injury">Occupational injury</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health" title="Occupational safety and health">Occupational safety and health</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_stress" title="Occupational stress">Occupational stress</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Repetitive_strain_injury" title="Repetitive strain injury">Repetitive strain injury</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sick_building_syndrome" title="Sick building syndrome">Sick building syndrome</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Work_accident" title="Work accident">Work accident</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Occupational_fatality" title="Occupational fatality">Occupational fatality</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workers%27_compensation" title="Workers' compensation">Workers' compensation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workplace_phobia" class="mw-redirect" title="Workplace phobia">Workplace phobia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workplace_wellness" title="Workplace wellness">Workplace wellness</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Equal_opportunity" title="Equal opportunity">Equality</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Affirmative_action" title="Affirmative action">Affirmative action</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equal_pay_for_women" class="mw-redirect" title="Equal pay for women">Equal pay for women</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gender_pay_gap" title="Gender pay gap">Gender pay gap</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Glass_ceiling" title="Glass ceiling">Glass ceiling</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Infractions</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Corporate_abuse" class="mw-redirect" title="Corporate abuse">Corporate abuse</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Accounting_scandals" title="Accounting scandals">Accounting scandals</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Corporate_behaviour" title="Corporate behaviour">Corporate behaviour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Corporate_crime" title="Corporate crime">Corporate crime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Control_fraud" title="Control fraud">Control fraud</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_corporate_scandals" class="mw-redirect" title="List of corporate scandals">Corporate scandals</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employment_discrimination" title="Employment discrimination">Discrimination</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dress_code" title="Dress code">Dress code</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employee_handbook" title="Employee handbook">Employee handbook</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employee_monitoring" title="Employee monitoring">Employee monitoring</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Evaluation_(workplace)" title="Evaluation (workplace)">Evaluation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labour_law" title="Labour law">Labour law</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sexual_harassment" title="Sexual harassment">Sexual harassment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sleeping_while_on_duty" title="Sleeping while on duty">Sleeping while on duty</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wage_theft" title="Wage theft">Wage theft</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Whistleblower" title="Whistleblower">Whistleblower</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workplace_bullying" title="Workplace bullying">Workplace bullying</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workplace_harassment" title="Workplace harassment">Workplace harassment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workplace_incivility" title="Workplace incivility">Workplace incivility</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Willingness</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Boreout" title="Boreout">Boreout</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Civil_conscription" title="Civil conscription">Civil conscription</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Conscription" title="Conscription">Conscription</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dead-end_job" title="Dead-end job">Dead-end job</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Extreme_careerism" title="Extreme careerism">Extreme careerism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_satisfaction" title="Job satisfaction">Job satisfaction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Organizational_commitment" title="Organizational commitment">Organizational commitment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/McJob" title="McJob">McJob</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Refusal_of_work" title="Refusal of work">Refusal of work</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slavery" title="Slavery">Slavery</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Debt_bondage" title="Debt bondage">Bonded labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Human_trafficking" title="Human trafficking">Human trafficking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Labor_camp" title="Labor camp">Labour camp</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Penal_labour" title="Penal labour">Penal labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peon" title="Peon">Peonage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Truck_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Truck system">Truck system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unfree_labour" title="Unfree labour">Unfree labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wage_slavery" title="Wage slavery">Wage slavery</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Workaholic" title="Workaholic">Workaholic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Work_aversion" class="mw-redirect" title="Work aversion">Work aversion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Work_ethic" title="Work ethic">Work ethic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Work%E2%80%93life_balance" title="Work–life balance">Work–life balance</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Downshifting_(lifestyle)" title="Downshifting (lifestyle)">Downshifting (lifestyle)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slow_living" title="Slow living">Slow living</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Termination_of_employment" title="Termination of employment">Termination</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/At-will_employment" title="At-will employment">At-will employment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dismissal_(employment)" title="Dismissal (employment)">Dismissal</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Banishment_room" title="Banishment room">Banishment room</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Constructive_dismissal" title="Constructive dismissal">Constructive dismissal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wrongful_dismissal" title="Wrongful dismissal">Wrongful dismissal</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employee_exit_management" class="mw-redirect" title="Employee exit management">Employee exit management</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Exit_interview" title="Exit interview">Exit interview</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Layoff" title="Layoff">Layoff</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Notice_period" title="Notice period">Notice period</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pink_slip_(employment)" class="mw-redirect" title="Pink slip (employment)">Pink slip</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Resignation" title="Resignation">Resignation</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Letter_of_resignation" title="Letter of resignation">Letter of resignation</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Restructuring" title="Restructuring">Restructuring</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Retirement" title="Retirement">Retirement</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Mandatory_retirement" title="Mandatory retirement">Mandatory retirement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Retirement_age" title="Retirement age">Retirement age</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Severance_package" title="Severance package">Severance package</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Golden_handshake" title="Golden handshake">Golden handshake</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Golden_parachute" title="Golden parachute">Golden parachute</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turnover_(employment)" title="Turnover (employment)">Turnover</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Unemployment" title="Unemployment">Unemployment</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Barriers_to_entry#Barriers_to_entry_for_individuals_into_the_job_market" title="Barriers to entry">Barriers to Employment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Depression_(economics)" title="Depression (economics)">Depression</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Great_Depression" title="Great Depression">Great Depression</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Long_Depression" title="Long Depression">Long Depression</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Discouraged_worker" title="Discouraged worker">Discouraged worker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Frictional_unemployment" title="Frictional unemployment">Frictional unemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Full_employment" title="Full employment">Full employment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Graduate_unemployment" title="Graduate unemployment">Graduate unemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Involuntary_unemployment" title="Involuntary unemployment">Involuntary unemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jobless_recovery" title="Jobless recovery">Jobless recovery</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Phillips_curve" title="Phillips curve">Phillips curve</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recession" title="Recession">Recession</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Great_Recession" title="Great Recession">Great Recession</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Job_losses_caused_by_the_Great_Recession" title="Job losses caused by the Great Recession">Great Recession job losses</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_recessions" class="mw-redirect" title="List of recessions">List of recessions</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recession-proof_job" title="Recession-proof job">Recession-proof job</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reserve_army_of_labour" title="Reserve army of labour">Reserve army of labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Types_of_unemployment" class="mw-redirect" title="Types of unemployment">Types of unemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unemployment_Convention" class="mw-redirect" title="Unemployment Convention">Unemployment Convention</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unemployment_benefits" title="Unemployment benefits">Unemployment benefits</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unemployment_extension" title="Unemployment extension">Unemployment extension</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unemployment_insurance" class="mw-redirect" title="Unemployment insurance">Unemployment insurance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_unemployment_rate" title="List of countries by unemployment rate">Unemployment rates</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_employment_rate" title="List of countries by employment rate">Employment rates</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Employment-to-population_ratio" title="Employment-to-population ratio">Employment-to-population ratio</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Structural_unemployment" title="Structural unemployment">Structural unemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Technological_unemployment" title="Technological unemployment">Technological unemployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wage_curve" title="Wage curve">Wage curve</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Youth_unemployment" title="Youth unemployment">Youth unemployment</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div>
<dl><dt><img alt="Template" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5c/Symbol_template_class.svg/16px-Symbol_template_class.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Template" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5c/Symbol_template_class.svg/23px-Symbol_template_class.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5c/Symbol_template_class.svg/31px-Symbol_template_class.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="180" data-file-height="185" /> See also templates</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Template:Aspects_of_corporations" title="Template:Aspects of corporations">Aspects of corporations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Template:Aspects_of_jobs" title="Template:Aspects of jobs">Aspects of jobs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Template:Aspects_of_occupations" title="Template:Aspects of occupations">Aspects of occupations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Template:Aspects_of_organizations" title="Template:Aspects of organizations">Aspects of organizations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Template:Aspects_of_workplaces" title="Template:Aspects of workplaces">Aspects of workplaces</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Template:Corporate_titles" title="Template:Corporate titles">Corporate titles</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Template:Organized_labor_navbox" class="mw-redirect" title="Template:Organized labor navbox">Organized labor</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
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<ul><li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Biblioth%C3%A8que_nationale_de_France" title="Bibliothèque nationale de France">BNF</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb11967391r">cb11967391r</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb11967391r">(data)</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Integrated_Authority_File" title="Integrated Authority File">GND</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://d-nb.info/gnd/4170008-9">4170008-9</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/National_Archives_and_Records_Administration" title="National Archives and Records Administration">NARA</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://catalog.archives.gov/id/10642215">10642215</a></span></span></li>
<li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/National_Diet_Library" title="National Diet Library">NDL</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlna/00570035">00570035</a></span></span></li></ul>
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– Bulgarian" lang="bg" hreflang="bg" class="interlanguage-link-target">Български</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bs"><a href="https://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalna_pla%C4%87a" title="Minimalna plaća – Bosnian" lang="bs" hreflang="bs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bosanski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ca"><a href="https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salari_m%C3%ADnim" title="Salari mínim – Catalan" lang="ca" hreflang="ca" class="interlanguage-link-target">Català</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cs"><a href="https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minim%C3%A1ln%C3%AD_mzda" title="Minimální mzda – Czech" lang="cs" hreflang="cs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Čeština</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-da"><a href="https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimumsl%C3%B8n" title="Minimumsløn – Danish" lang="da" hreflang="da" class="interlanguage-link-target">Dansk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mindestlohn" title="Mindestlohn – German" lang="de" hreflang="de" class="interlanguage-link-target">Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alampalk" title="Alampalk – Estonian" lang="et" hreflang="et" class="interlanguage-link-target">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-el"><a href="https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9A%CE%B1%CF%84%CF%8E%CF%84%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82_%CE%BC%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%B8%CF%8C%CF%82" title="Κατώτατος μισθός – Greek" lang="el" hreflang="el" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ελληνικά</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salario_m%C3%ADnimo" title="Salario mínimo – Spanish" lang="es" hreflang="es" class="interlanguage-link-target">Español</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eo"><a href="https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimuma_salajro" title="Minimuma salajro – Esperanto" lang="eo" hreflang="eo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Esperanto</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fa"><a href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%82%D9%84_%D8%AF%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%B2%D8%AF" title="حداقل دستمزد – Persian" lang="fa" hreflang="fa" class="interlanguage-link-target">فارسی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a href="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salaire_minimum" title="Salaire minimum – French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Français</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fy"><a href="https://fy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimumlean" title="Minimumlean – Western Frisian" lang="fy" hreflang="fy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Frysk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ko"><a href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%B5%9C%EC%A0%80%EC%9E%84%EA%B8%88" title="최저임금 – Korean" lang="ko" hreflang="ko" class="interlanguage-link-target">한국어</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-id"><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upah_minimum" title="Upah minimum – Indonesian" lang="id" hreflang="id" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a href="https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salario_minimo" title="Salario minimo – Italian" lang="it" hreflang="it" class="interlanguage-link-target">Italiano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-he"><a href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A8_%D7%9E%D7%99%D7%A0%D7%99%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%9D" title="שכר מינימום – Hebrew" lang="he" hreflang="he" class="interlanguage-link-target">עברית</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-kk"><a href="https://kk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%95%D2%A3_%D1%82%D3%A9%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD_%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B0%D2%9B%D1%8B" title="Ең төмен жалақы – Kazakh" lang="kk" hreflang="kk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Қазақша</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-la"><a href="https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salarium_minimum" title="Salarium minimum – Latin" lang="la" hreflang="la" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lv"><a href="https://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minim%C4%81l%C4%81_alga" title="Minimālā alga – Latvian" lang="lv" hreflang="lv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latviešu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lb"><a href="https://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soziale_Mindestloun" title="Soziale Mindestloun – Luxembourgish" lang="lb" hreflang="lb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lëtzebuergesch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalus_darbo_u%C5%BEmokestis" title="Minimalus darbo užmokestis – Lithuanian" lang="lt" hreflang="lt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lietuvių</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lmo"><a href="https://lmo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salari_minim" title="Salari minim – Lombard" lang="lmo" hreflang="lmo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lumbaart</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minim%C3%A1lb%C3%A9r" title="Minimálbér – Hungarian" lang="hu" hreflang="hu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Magyar</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mr"><a href="https://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A8_%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%A8" title="किमान वेतन – Marathi" lang="mr" hreflang="mr" class="interlanguage-link-target">मराठी</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ms"><a href="https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaji_minimum" title="Gaji minimum – Malay" lang="ms" hreflang="ms" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Melayu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nl"><a href="https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimumloon" title="Minimumloon – Dutch" lang="nl" hreflang="nl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nederlands</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ja"><a href="https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%9C%80%E4%BD%8E%E8%B3%83%E9%87%91" title="最低賃金 – Japanese" lang="ja" hreflang="ja" class="interlanguage-link-target">日本語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-no"><a href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minstel%C3%B8nn" title="Minstelønn – Norwegian Bokmål" lang="nb" hreflang="nb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk bokmål</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uz"><a href="https://uz.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bazaviy_hisoblash_miqdori" title="Bazaviy hisoblash miqdori – Uzbek" lang="uz" hreflang="uz" class="interlanguage-link-target">Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pa"><a href="https://pa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A8%98%E0%A9%B1%E0%A8%9F%E0%A9%8B-%E0%A8%98%E0%A9%B1%E0%A8%9F_%E0%A8%89%E0%A8%9C%E0%A8%B0%E0%A8%A4" title="ਘੱਟੋ-ਘੱਟ ਉਜਰਤ – Punjabi" lang="pa" hreflang="pa" class="interlanguage-link-target">ਪੰਜਾਬੀ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pl"><a href="https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C5%82aca_minimalna" title="Płaca minimalna – Polish" lang="pl" hreflang="pl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a href="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sal%C3%A1rio_m%C3%ADnimo" title="Salário mínimo – Portuguese" lang="pt" hreflang="pt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Português</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ro"><a href="https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salariu_minim_pe_economie" title="Salariu minim pe economie – Romanian" lang="ro" hreflang="ro" class="interlanguage-link-target">Română</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ru"><a href="https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80_%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8B_%D1%82%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B0" title="Минимальный размер оплаты труда – Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" class="interlanguage-link-target">Русский</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sco"><a href="https://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meenimum_wage" title="Meenimum wage – Scots" lang="sco" hreflang="sco" class="interlanguage-link-target">Scots</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sq"><a href="https://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paga_minimale" title="Paga minimale – Albanian" lang="sq" hreflang="sq" class="interlanguage-link-target">Shqip</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-simple"><a href="https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum_wage" title="Minimum wage – Simple English" lang="en-simple" hreflang="en-simple" class="interlanguage-link-target">Simple English</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a href="https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minim%C3%A1lna_mzda" title="Minimálna mzda – Slovak" lang="sk" hreflang="sk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenčina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sl"><a href="https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalna_pla%C4%8Da" title="Minimalna plača – Slovenian" lang="sl" hreflang="sl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenščina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"><a href="https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BD%D0%B8_%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%85%D0%BE%D0%B4" title="Минимални приход – Serbian" lang="sr" hreflang="sr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Српски / srpski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sh"><a href="https://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalna_plata" title="Minimalna plata – Serbo-Croatian" lang="sh" hreflang="sh" class="interlanguage-link-target">Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fi"><a href="https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%A4himm%C3%A4ispalkka" title="Vähimmäispalkka – Finnish" lang="fi" hreflang="fi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Suomi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sv"><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimil%C3%B6n" title="Minimilön – Swedish" lang="sv" hreflang="sv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Svenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-th"><a href="https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%84%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%88%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%82%E0%B8%B1%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%95%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B3" title="ค่าจ้างขั้นต่ำ – Thai" lang="th" hreflang="th" class="interlanguage-link-target">ไทย</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tr"><a href="https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asgari_%C3%BCcret" title="Asgari ücret – Turkish" lang="tr" hreflang="tr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Türkçe</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a href="https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D1%96%D0%BD%D1%96%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%96%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B0" title="Мінімальна заробітна плата – Ukrainian" lang="uk" hreflang="uk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Українська</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vi"><a href="https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C6%B0%C6%A1ng_t%E1%BB%91i_thi%E1%BB%83u" title="Lương tối thiểu – Vietnamese" lang="vi" hreflang="vi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Tiếng Việt</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh"><a href="https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%9C%80%E4%BD%8E%E5%B7%A5%E8%B3%87" title="最低工資 – Chinese" lang="zh" hreflang="zh" class="interlanguage-link-target">中文</a></li></ul>
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